Population (demo_pop)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, The Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, The Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F2: Population

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission, 2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 16/11/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 16/11/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 16/11/2016


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The annual Eurostat's collections on population are structured as follows:

Data Collection Info&Legislation
UNIDEMO
Unified Demographic

The most extended annual collection on demography and migration, collecting data at national and regional level for population, births, deaths, immigrants, emigrants, marriages and divorces by a large number of breakdowns. (Art. 3 of Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 and Regulation (EU) No 862/2007)

URESPOP
Usually Residence Population

Usually resident population for the purpose of the Qualified Majority Voting.
See more specific metadata in here: URESESMS (Art. 4 of Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013)

Data referring to population on 31st December of the reference year are transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat under the Regulation 1260/2013 on European demographic statistics. The data are conventionally published by Eurostat as 1 January of the following year (reference year + 1).

The annual demography data collections aim at collecting from the National Statistical Institutes both mandatory data and voluntary data. The mandatory data are those defined by the legislation listed on "6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements".

The demographic data collected on voluntary basis depend on the availability and on the completeness of information reported by the National Statistical Institutes.

For more specific information on mandatory/voluntary data collection see 6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements.

The following population statistics are available:

Population on 1 January split by:

- broad age group, sex and NUTS3

- 5 year age group, sex and: citizenship, country of  birth, NUTS2 (under regional data), NUTS3 (under regional data)

- single age, sex and: educational attainment, marital status, broad group of citizenship, broad group of country of birth

- sex and: citizenship and broad group of country of birth, country of birth and broad group of citizenship, NUTS2 (under regional data)

Population structure statistics: median age of population, proportion of population by various age groups, old age dependency ratio.

3.2. Classification system

Following classification systems are used:

- International standard classification on education (ISCED)

- Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (Nuts-2013)

- Human development index classification (http://hdr.undp.org/en)

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Population on 1 January

Eurostat aims at collecting from the EU-28's Member States data on population on 1 January. The recommended definition is the 'usually resident population' and represents the number of inhabitants of a given area on 1 January of the year in question (or, in some cases, on 31st December of the previous year). However, the population transmitted by the countries can also be either based on data from the most recent census adjusted by the components of population change produced since the last census, either based on population registers.

Usual residence means the place where a person normally spends the daily period of rest, regardless of temporary absences for purposes of recreation, holidays, visits to friends and relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage. The following persons alone are considered to be usually residents of the geographical area in question:

  • those who have lived in their place of usual residence for a continuous period of at least 12 months before the reference time; or
  • those who arrived in their place of usual residence during the 12 months before the reference time with the intention of staying there for at least one year.

Citizenship denotes the particular legal bond between an individual and his/her State, acquired by birth or naturalization, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation.

Country of birth is the country of residence (in its current borders, if the information is available) of the mother at the time of the birth or, in default, the country (in its current borders, if the information is available) in which the birth took place.

Young age dependency ratio is the ratio of the persons aged 0-14 years old (1st variant) or 0-19 years old (2nd variant) divided by the number of persons conventionally considered of working age (respectively aged 15-64 (1st variant) or 20-59 years old (2nd variant)).

Old age dependency ratio is the number of persons of an age when they are conventionally considered economically inactive (aged 65 years and over (1st variant) or 60 years and older (2nd variant) to the number of persons conventionally considered of working age (respectively aged 15-64 (1st variant) or 20-59 years old (2nd variant)).

The total age dependency ratio is the sum of the young and old age dependency ratios. 

Median age of population

The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups, meaning half the people are younger than median age and half are older.

Open-ended age class concept (Y_OPEN code) is a solution for presenting different open-ended age classes for data on population that are reported by the countries.

The open-ended age classes for data on population are the following: 85 and over (+), 90+, 95+, 99+, 100+ with the exceptions:

  • Bulgaria: 80+ for the years 1994, 1995 and 1996
  • Cyprus: 80+ for the years 1990, 1991 and 1992
  • Turkey: 75+ for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011

Open-ended age class contains all the people aged more than the last single age for which a country can report. For example, if a country can provide data on its population by single year of age up to 94 years old, the ''open ended age class'' contains population 95 years old and over.

3.5. Statistical unit

Statistical unit used is ''person'' as indicated in the online database or deductible from the title of tables.

3.6. Statistical population

Statistical population is total population as defined in 3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions.

3.7. Reference area

The population statistics are disseminated by single country, by region and by aggregates of countries, as follows:

a) The Member States of the European Union and their regional structure as defined in the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics

b) The EU candidate countries and their agreed Statistical Regions following the same rules as the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics

c) The EFTA countries and their agreed Statistical Regions following the same rules as the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics

d) Other countries: Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Russian Federation, San Marino, Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244) and Ukraine.

e) The geographical aggregates European Union and Euro Area, on which the dissemination covers at least the current and the previous version of their composition, the European Economic Area (EEA) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

For details on geographical changes over time see the notes by country under 15.2 Comparability over time.

National refers to the territory of a Member State within the meaning of Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 applicable at the reference time.

Regional refers to NUTS level 1, NUTS level 2 or NUTS level 3 as defined in the Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 and available according to the classification in force at the reference time; where this term is used in connection with countries that are not members of the European Union, "regional" means the Statistical Regions at level 1, 2 or 3, as agreed between those countries and the Commission (Eurostat), at the reference time.

3.8. Coverage - Time

The available time series collected and published in Eurostat database varies with the population breakdowns, with the longest time series starting in 1960 for national data and 1990 for regional data, and continuing to the latest available reference year.

The completeness of the time series of the demography and migration statistics collected on voluntary basis before the entering into force of the regulations listed in "6.1 Institutional mandate – legal acts and other agreements" and of the statistics which continue to be supplied to Eurostat on voluntary basis today depends on the availability of data transmitted by the national statistical institutes.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Population figures are disseminated in integer numbers and also as shares of various age groups in total population (see dataset on population structure indicators).


5. Reference Period Top

Data referring to population on 31 December of the reference year are transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat under the Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 on European demographic statistics. The data are conventionally published by Eurostat as 1 January of the following year (reference year + 1).


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Documents

Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 of the European Parliament  and of the Council of 11 July 2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 311/76 on the compilation of statistics on foreign workers.

Commission Regulation (EU) No 351/2010 of implementing Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection as regards the definitions of the categories of the groups of country of birth, groups of country of previous usual residence, groups of country of next usual residence and groups of citizenship.

Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European demographic statistics.

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 205/2014 of Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013

Commission Regulation (EU) No 31/2011 of 17 January 2011 amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) (legislation reflects NUTS-2010 classification currently available).

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1046/2012 on implementing Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS), as regards the transmission of the time series for the new regional breakdown. (legislation refers to HTS NUTS-2010 classification currently available).

Commission Regulation (EU) No 868/2014 amending the annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). (legislation reflects NUTS-2013 classification currently in force; to be applied March 2016).

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1319/2013 of 9 December 2013 amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). (legislation reflects NUTS-2013 classification currently in force; to be applied March 2016)

Data collected on voluntary basis are:

  • population by age and sex at national and regional level before the reference year 2013
  • population by citizenship and country of birthbefore the reference year 2008
  • annual data on various breakdowns of population which are not foreseen in the legislation above but are part of the Eurostat data collections

Summary of mandatory and voluntary population data collected by Eurostat:

Population by: < 2008 2008-2013 > 2014
age, sex, region voluntary voluntary mandatory
5 year age group, sex, country group of CTZ/group of COB voluntary mandatory mandatory
5 year age group, sex, single CTZ/ single COB voluntary voluntary voluntary
age, sex, group of CTZ/group of COB voluntary mandatory mandatory
5 year age group, sex, single CTZ/single COB voluntary voluntary voluntary
group of CTZ, group of COB voluntary voluntary voluntary
age, sex, legal marital status, education voluntary voluntary voluntary

Where:

- group of CTZ= group of citizenship: nationals/non-nationals/unknown

- country group of CTZ= country group of citizenship: reporting, EFTA, candidate countries, stateless, etc.

- group of COB= group of country of birth: native born/foreign born/unknown

- ''mandatory'' refers only to the Member States and EFTA countries.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar
Calendar Data Collection
October Usually Residence Population
February
March
Population by
1 January population by age and sex
1 January population by detailed breakdown

Notes:

  • The most updated data on total population on 1 January may be found in the table ''Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)'' of the online database. This table includes the latest updates (or revised data) on total population, births and deaths reported by the countries, while the detailed breakdowns by various characteristics included in the rest of the tables of the domain may be transmitted to Eurostat at a subsequent date.
  • A few situations may lead to different figures on population on 1January displayed in different population tables at a given moment in time:

- The timing of the transmission / retransmission in case of revision to Eurostat of the population data for various breakdown
- The succession of the annual demography data collections described above, which collect and update the total population and the breakdowns of population figures by various characteristics at different moment during the calendar year.
- The calendar of the national statistical offices for producing and releasing population broken down by characteristics which fall under the voluntary data collection, respectively the timings when data are transmitted to Eurostat.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Population statistics are revised on a continuous base according to the most recent data released and transmitted to Eurostat by the National Statistical Institutes. The geographical aggregates and the demographic indicators are accordingly revised.

Dissemination is made in line with the 8.1 Release calendar and with 17.1 Data revision-policy.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained articles on Eurostat website

Eurostat Yearbook

Regional Yearbook

Domain specific publications 

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurostat’s Data Navigation Tree.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

"Demographic statistics: A review of definitions and methods of collection in 44 European countries", Eurostat, 2015 edition

More information regarding methodology by country is in Annexes.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Quality assurance is part of data processing. Statistical products and processes are systematically reviewed in compliance with Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

According to Art. 12 of the Regulation (EC) No 862/2007, "starting August 2012 and every three years thereafter, the Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the statistics compiled pursuant to this Regulation and on their quality".

Therefore, information about overall assessment of data quality procedures carried out by Eurostat on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 on Community Statistics on Migration and International Protection is comprised in the Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, from 30.7.2015. This report documents the degree of progress that has been made by Member States, together with the Commission (Eurostat), in the implementation of the Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 since the first report.

In addition, Art. 11 of Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 states that the Commission shall also submit reports on its implementation, to the European Parliament and the Council as follows:

- first report by 31 December 2018

- second report by 31 December 2023

These reports are to evaluate quality of data transmitted by Member States and EFTA countries and data collection methods used and, if appropriate, should be accompanied by proposals designed for future improvement of legal framework for population and vital events statistics under this Regulation.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Population statistics are widely used for planning actions, monitoring and evaluating programmes in a number of policy areas in the social and economic fields, such as:

  • Analysis of population ageing and its effects on sustainability and welfare
  • Evaluation of fertility as a background for family policies
  • Evaluation of the economic impact of demographic change
  • Calculation of 'per capita' indicators
  • Key input for the EU decision-making process, as population defines the weight of each Member State in the Qualified Majority Voting of the Council of the EU
12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user' satisfaction surveys are carried out.

12.3. Completeness

Statistical data completeness depends on the availability of raw data transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not available.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

For timeliness of data release see 8.1 Release calendar.

14.2. Punctuality

Not applicable.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The recommended definition of the 'population' for the statistics on population reported under Article 3 of the Regulation 1260/2013 and under Article 3 of the Regulation 862/2007 is the 'usually resident population' meaning all the persons having their usual residence in a Member State at the reference time. Where the circumstances described above cannot be established, 'usual residence' can be taken to mean the place of legal or registered residence.

Definition of Population
Usual Residence Legal Residence Registered Residence
BG, CZ*, CY, DE, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, HU, IT, IE, IT, LV, LT, LU, MT NO, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK**, UK,
*   for non-nationals
** permanent residence
CH, LI, FI
AT, BE, CZ, DK, DE, IS, ES, NL, SE

Note: The table above is based on statistics and metadata on population reported by the countries for 1 January 2015.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time could be disturbed by breaks in data series. The breaks in population series due to methodological, data processing changes or revisions in population counts reported by the countries are documented in Eurostat’s database with the flag b (break in series).

The population data for the year 2011 and after take into account the results of the latest population census (held in 2011). The time series of populations between the previous census and 2011 was revised by end 2013 by some of the countries, taking into account Eurostat’s recommendation (for more information about data revision per country, see also 17. Data revision).

Over time there have been geographical changes for certain countries, as seen in notes by country:

  • FX stands for Metropolitan France, including Corsica, excluding the overseas departments (DOM).
  • FR stands for the whole France, including the overseas departments (DOM). Data on Saint Barthelemey are excluded starting with 1.1.2012. Data on Mayotte are included starting with the statistics on vital events for the reference year 2014 and with the statistics on population on 1.1.2015.
  • The European geographical aggregates (EU, EA and EEA) include FX until 1997 and FR from 1998 on. This change is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the EU statistics for 1998.
  • The time series for Germany (DE_TOT) refer to the Federal Republic within its frontiers after 3 October 1990.
  • Starting with 1.1.1975, data for Cyprus (CY) refer to the government-controlled area.
  • Up to 1.1.2000, population data for Malta (MT) refer to the Maltese population only while, starting with 2001, figures include also foreign residents. This is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 2001.
  • Starting with 1.1.2010, the statistics on the permanent resident population of Switzerland (CH) includes all persons in the asylum process who have been residing in Switzerland since 12 months or more. The change appears in Eurostat population figures starting with population reported for 1.1.2011.
  • Starting with 1.1.2011, Belgium (BE) population figures at national level refer to all registered persons including asylum seekers.
  • Starting with 1.1.2010, Poland (PL) revised the methodology used to estimate the usually resident population. This is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 2010.
  • Starting with 1.1.2012, the reported Estonian (EE) population includes the migration component, whereas this was not included before.
  • Starting with 2010, Poland (PL) revised the methodology used to estimate the usual resident population. This is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 2010.
15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The population figures transmitted by the national statistical offices to Eurostat in the framework of Demography domain may differ from those available in other domains such us National Accounts, Labour Force Survey or in the survey on Income and Living Conditions. The difference is given by the population coverage (see metadata specific to each domain).

15.4. Coherence - internal

See 8.1. Release calendar.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not applicable.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy
  • The policy of ESTAT is to make updates as soon as data is received and at any time during the year.
  • In conformity with Regulation (EC) No 205/2014 Member States shall inform the Commission (Eurostat) of any planned revision of the data supplied no later than one week before the release of the revised data in the Member State concerned.
  • For Urespop collection see specific metadata: URESESMS
17.2. Data revision - practice

Population statistics are revised on a continuous base according to the most recent data released and transmitted to Eurostat by the National Statistical Institutes. The geographical aggregates and the demographic indicators are accordingly revised.

The status of the data is indicated by using flags (flag p = provisional data; flag e = estimated; flag b = break in time series; flag f = forecast).


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Population data are collected by Eurostat from National Statistical Institutes.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Data are collected annualy.

18.3. Data collection

The annual population data collections are carried out by Eurostat from the National Statistical Institutes in order to collect updated data. The demographic data collections contain both mandatory and voluntary data (see 3.1. Data description).

18.4. Data validation

Controls are carried out on raw data transmitted by the NSIs to check if the total of a variable is consistent with the breakdown by different variables. Consistencies between different breakdowns of the same variable are verified by cross validations.

Based on the detailed collected data, Eurostat is computing a series of demographic statistics. The regular calculated demographic indicators are further submitted to several validations concerning the most updated annual value but also the available time series. These validations include checking on the plausibility of the most updated annual value and on two consecutive annual values. Mathematical verifications using standard deviation and weighted average are applied, for example for breakdowns of the life expectancy by educational attainment.

For more information on data validation see: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/data-validation .

18.5. Data compilation

Based on the national detailed figures on population and other demographic events transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes, Eurostat derives/calculates demographic variables and geographical aggregates by applying common calculation method.

Geographical aggregation

For population data expressed in number, the geographical aggregation is done by arithmetical sum, when there are no missing values among the components of the respective geographical aggregate. Otherwise, they are not calculated.

For population structure statistics the geographical aggregates are calculated by applying the same method applied to an individual country. The input for calculation is the aggregated data described above. Therefore, for statistics like ''median age'' of EU is not the average of median age for individual countries. Instead, it is computed as median age across all Member States, meaning that 50% of the total EU population are younger and 50% of the total EU population are older than the median age.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


19. Comment Top

Not applicable.


Related metadata Top
demo_fer_esms - Fertility
demo_mor_esms - Mortality
demo_nup_esms - Marriages and divorces
tsdde230_esmsip - Crude rate of net migration plus adjustment
tsdde510_esmsip - Old age dependency ratio


Annexes Top
Statistics Explained articles on Eurostat website
Eurostat Yearbook
Regional Yearbook
Methodology by country