Background information: Migrant integration

Icon Migrant integration

What information can I find in this section?

This section provides information on the integration of migrants in their host country for the following areas:

  • employment
  • education
  • health
  • social inclusion
  • active citizenship

Which indicators are used to monitor migrant integration and inclusion?

The set of indicators to measure migrant integration is originally based on the Zaragoza declaration, adopted in 2010 by the European Ministerial Conference on Integration. This declaration identified a number of policy areas relevant for migrant integration and a set of common indicators for monitoring the situation of immigrants was agreed. For more information on the Zaragoza indicators, please see our page on methodology.

In addition, further indicators were identified and established as outlined in the report  Using EU indicators of immigrant integration, published in 2013. Following this guidance, Eurostat progressively worked on identifying and publishing additional indicators in these areas based on available statistics. 

Which statistics on migrant integration are available from Eurostat?


To assess the employment of migrants the following indicators are used:

  • activity rate
  • unemployment rate, youth unemployment rate, long-term unemployment 
  • employment rate, youth employment rate
  • self-employment
  • temporary employment
  • part-time employment
  • over-qualification rate

Data sources: 

  • EU Labour Force Survey (LFS), available at national and regional level by NUTS level 2 and degree of urbanization
  • statistics on descendants of migrants (second-generation migrants): LFS ad-hoc modules carried in 2008 and 2014 on migrants with a specific focus on the obstacles in participating in the labour market


To assess the education of migrants the following indicators are used:

  • highest educational attainment
  • share of 30–34-year-olds with tertiary educational attainment
  • share of early leavers from education and training
  • young people neither in employment nor in education and training (NEET)
  • participation in lifelong learning

Data source is the EU Labour Force Survey.


The health situation of migrants is assessed via the self-perceived health status, together with a range of additional indicators that allow for a better evaluation of the situation. The following indicators are used:

  • self-reported unmet needs for medical examination
  • self-reported unmet needs for dental examination
  • people having a long-standing illness or health problem
  • self-perceived long-standing limitations in usual activities due to health problem
  • current depressive symptoms
  • severity of bodily pain
  • persons reporting a chronic disease
  • body mass index (BMI)
  • performing health-enhancing physical activity
  • daily consumption of fruit and vegetables
  • frequency of fruit and vegetables consumption
  • smoking of tobacco products
  • frequency of alcohol consumption
  • overall perceived social support

Data sources: 

  • EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)
  • European Health Interview Survey (EHIS)

Social inclusion

To assess the social inclusion of migrants the following indicators are used:

  • median net income
  • people at risk of poverty or social exclusion
  • at-risk-of-poverty rate
  • property ownership
  • child poverty
  • housing cost overburden
  • overcrowding; in-work poverty risk
  • persistent poverty risk
  • severe material deprivation rate
  • people living in households with very low work intensity

Data source is the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) survey.

Active citizenship

To assess the social inclusion of migrants the following two Zaragoza indicators are used: 

  • naturalisation rate
  • share of long-term residence

Data sources are two main datasets on the acquisition and loss of citizenship and residence permits. From 2008, both datasets are based on EU regulation 862/2007.

Where does Eurostat data come from?

Eurostat's statistics on migrant integration come from the following data collections: 

When is data released and revised?

The release calendars and the revision policies specific to each data collection used for migrant integration statistics are described in the metadata files under points 8 and 17:

Why are these statistics important?

The continued development and integration of the European migration policy remains a key priority of the European Commission to meet the challenges and harness the opportunities which migration represents globally.

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The integration of third-country nationals legally living in the EU countries has gained increasing importance on the European agenda in recent years. As emphasised in the new pact on migration and asylum, a successful integration and inclusion policy is an essential part of a well-managed and effective migration and asylum policy. It is also essential for social cohesion and for a dynamic economy that works for all.

The  action plan on integration and inclusion 2021-2027 promotes inclusion for all. It recognises the important contribution of migrants to the EU and addresses the barriers that can hinder participation and inclusion of people with a migrant background, from newcomers to citizens, in European society. It is built on the principle that inclusive integration requires efforts from both the person and the host community and includes new actions that build on the achievements of the previous action plan from 2016.