Managed migration - Migration and Asylum

Background information: Managed migration

Icon Demography

What information can I find in this section?

This section provides detailed information on third-country nationals (non-EU citizens, including stateless persons) entering and residing in an EU country, or who are subject to immigration law enforcement.  

Which statistics on managed migration are available in the Eurostat database?

Residence permits and immigration law enforcement data are provided to Eurostat with a quarterly or annual frequency.

Residence permits

Residence permit statistics provide annual information on non-EU nationals who have been granted an authorisation to stay for at least 3 months in an EU country. They cover:

  • First permits granted to non-EU citizens
  • Grants of permits for change of immigration status or reason to stay permits
  • All valid residence permits at the end of the reference year
  • Long-term residence permits at the end of the reference year
  • First residence permits by age and sex (voluntary data collection, first reference year: 2010)
  • Al valid permits by age and sex (voluntary data collection, first reference year: 2010)
  • Long-term permits issued during the year (voluntary data collection, first reference year: 2016)
  • Permits issued for family reunification with a beneficiary of protection status (voluntary data collection, first reference year: 2016)

These data are generally broken down by citizenship, reason for permit issuance and the length of permit validity.

In addition to residence permits tables listed above, Eurostat has developed new data collections in order to obtain additional statistical information. This information focuses on some specific types of authorisations to stay directly connected with EU Directives in the field of the European Union migration policy:

  • EU Blue Card (first reference year: 2012)
  • Single permit (first reference year: 2013)
  • Seasonal workers (first reference year: 2017)
  • Intra-corporate transfers (first reference year: 2017)
  • Students and researchers (first reference year: 2019)

Enforcement of immigration legislation

Statistics on the enforcement of immigration legislation provide annual and quarterly information on the number of third-country nationals:

  • refused entry at the external borders
  • found to be illegally present in the territory of the Member State
  • who have been issued an order to leave an EU country
  • who have been returned from an EU country following an order to leave

These data are broken down by citizenship. In addition data on entry refusals is broken down by grounds for refusal and type of border; data on apprehensions are broken down by sex and age groups.

In addition to this general data collection on enforcement of immigration legislation described above, since 2011 Eurostat has developed new data collections in order to obtain additional statistical information focusing on more information on returns:

  • Type of return
  • Type of assistance
  • Type of agreement
  • Destination country

Where does Eurostat data come from?

These statistics are based on administrative sources and are supplied to Eurostat by statistical authorities, interior ministries or related immigration agencies in the EU Member States in line with the requirements of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007. The amendment of this Regulation in June 2020 introduced additional new statistics or additional breakdowns (e.g. by unaccompanied minors) in this area as well as an increased frequency for some data.

A significant part of these statistics are closely related to the EU Directives in the field of managed migration, in particular those on return of illegally staying third-country nationals, on the access to work and on the guarantee of a common set of rights for third-country nationals residing in the European Union. For more information, see our page 'Legislation'.

When is data released?

Enforcement of immigration legislation 

Frequency Deadline Release

Quarterly data

(not later than) 2 months after the end of the reference period within 3 months after the reference quarter

Annual data

(not later than) 3 months after the end of the reference period within 4 months after the reference year

Residence permits  

Frequency Deadline Release

Annual data

(not later than) 6 months after the end of the reference period within 7 months after the reference year

How is data quality ensured?

In line with the European statistics Code of Practice and the ESS quality assurance framework, Eurostat carries out controls and validations on raw data transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes to check if the total of a variable is consistent with the breakdown by different variables. 

The validation rules consist of a basic set of rules checking the internal consistency of the transmitted files and of a further set of rules for analysing the trends, the changes and the potential presence of outliers in the data.

Eurostat may apply further validations procedures to assess the quality of the transmitted data. 

What is the data revision policy?

The enforcement of immigration legislation and residence permits data are revised on a continuous basis according to the most recently updated data provided by the countries.