Job vacancy statistics (jvs)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
National metadata



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F3: Labour market

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 24/11/2020
2.2. Metadata last posted 24/11/2020
2.3. Metadata last update 24/11/2020


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Job vacancy statistics (JVS) provide information on the level and structure of labour demand. Eurostat publishes quarterly data on the number of job vacancies and the number of occupied posts which are collected under the JVS framework regulation and the two implementing regulations: the implementing regulation on the definition of a job vacancy, the reference dates for data collection, data transmission specifications and feasibility studies, as well as the implementing regulation on seasonal adjustment procedures and quality reports. Eurostat disseminates also the job vacancy rate which is calculated on the basis of the data provided by the countries.

Eurostat publishes also the annual data which are calculated on the basis of the quarterly data.

3.2. Classification system

The quarterly data are broken down by economic activity (at section level), in accordance with NACE Rev. 2 (Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community).

In addition, Eurostat publishes for some countries the quarterly data broken down by:

  • occupation, in accordance with ISCO (International standard classification of occupations)
  • region, in accordance with NUTS (Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics)

which are delivered by the countries on a voluntary basis.

The above mentioned classifications are available in RAMON.

3.3. Coverage - sector

The data cover all economic activities defined by NACE Rev. 2 the common classification system for economic activities, except for the activities of households as employers and the activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies. Covering agriculture, forestry and fishing activities is optional. Denmark provides data only for NACE sections B-N.  In France and Italy, in the case of public administration, education and human health (NACE Rev. 2 sections O, P and Q), public institutions are not fully covered. More information can be found in the quality reports of the countries.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

A 'job vacancy' is defined as a paid post that is newly created, unoccupied, or about to become vacant:

(a) for which the employer is taking active steps and is prepared to take further steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise concerned; and

(b) which the employer intends to fill either immediately or within a specific period of time.

‘Active steps to find a suitable candidate’ include:

- notifying the job vacancy to the public employment services,

- contacting a private employment agency/head hunters,

- advertising the vacancy in the media (for example internet, newspapers, magazines),

- advertising the vacancy on a public notice board,

- approaching, interviewing or selecting possible candidates/potential recruits directly,

- approaching employees and/or personal contacts,

- using internships.

'Specific period of time’ refers to the maximum time the vacancy is open and intended to be filled. That period shall be unlimited; all vacancies for which active steps are continuing on the reference date shall be reported.

An 'occupied post’ means a paid post within the organisation to which an employee has been assigned.

The job vacancy rate (JVR) is the number of job vacancies expresses as a percentage of the sum of the number of occupied posts and the number of job vacancies:

JVR = number of job vacancies / (number of occupied posts + number of job vacancies) x100

The job vacancy rate quarter on quarter change is measured as the current quarter job vacancy rate minus the rate for the previous quarter. It is expressed in percentage points.

The job vacancy rate year on year change is measured as the current quarter job vacancy rate minus the rate for the same quarter in the previous year. It is expressed in percentage points.

3.5. Statistical unit

The basic statistical unit for the data collection is the enterprise or local unit. However the majority of participating national statistical offices collect the vacancy data from enterprises. More information can be found in the quality reports of the countries.

3.6. Statistical population

In general, the data cover all enterprises with one or more employees. In France, only business units with 10 employees or more are surveyed. In France and Italy, in the sectors of public administration, education and human health (NACE Rev. 2 sections O, P and Q), public institutions are not fully covered. In Denmark, only units within the business economy (NACE Rev. 2 sections B to N) are surveyed.

3.7. Reference area

The European Union and the euro area, EU Member States, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the Republic of North Macedonia.

3.8. Coverage - Time

For the countries, time series, in general, are available from 2009.  For some countries time series are longer and start before 2009. For the European Union and the euro area, data are from the first quarter of 2006 onwards.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measure Top

Job vacancies and occupied posts measure number of posts. The job vacancy rate (JVR) measures the proportion of total posts that are vacant, according to the definition of job vacancy above, expressed as a percentage as follows:

JVR = number of job vacancies / (number of occupied posts + number of job vacancies).

The quarter-on-quarter and year-on-year changes are expressed in percentage points.


5. Reference Period Top

Data on job vacancies and occupied posts represent the stock of vacant and occupied posts at a given reference date or averaged across a given reference period. There is currently no internationally agreed rule for the time of recording of job vacancy statistics. Depending on countries, the time of recording for quarterly job vacancy statistics may be one specific day in the quarter (e.g. the 15th of the middle month, the last calendar or working day of the quarter) or a three month average. More information can be found in the quality reports of the countries.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Job vacancy statistics (JVS) are collected under the JVS framework regulation  (Regulation (EC) No 453/2008) and the two implementing regulations: the implementing regulation on the definition of a job vacancy, the reference dates for data collection, data transmission specifications and feasibility studies (Regulation (EC) No 19/2009), as well as the implementing regulation on seasonal adjustment procedures and quality reports  (Regulation (EC) No 1062/2008).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

At the request of some countries, certain data are not published at national level. These data are only used for the calculation of EU-level statistics.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

The releases of Job Vacancy Statistics data are provided in the Release Calendar for Euro Indicators.

8.2. Release calendar access

The Release Calendar for Euro Indicators is available here.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Member States whose number of employees represents more than 3 percent of the European Community total transmit the aggregate number of vacancies and occupied posts within 45 days after the end of the reference quarter. Eurostat publish JVS flash for the EU around 5 days after the deadline for the data transmission.

Within 70 days after the end of the reference quarter, Member States transmit data broken down by economic activity. Eurostat publishes a news release around 8 days after the deadline for the data transmission.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases

Statistics Explained

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

1st and 2nd International Workshops on Methodologies for Job Vacancy Statistics - Proceedings

Labour market statistics - 2011 edition 

Statistics Explained quarterly

Job vacancy and unemployment rates - Beveridge curve

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult data on-line.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Microdata are not provided by the countries.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The methodology is provided in the JVS framework regulation  (Regulation (EC) No 453/2008) and the two implementing regulations: the implementing regulation on the definition of a job vacancy, the reference dates for data collection, data transmission specifications and feasibility studies (Regulation (EC) No 19/2009), as well as the implementing regulation on seasonal adjustment procedures and quality reports  (Regulation (EC) No 1062/2008).

10.7. Quality management - documentation

The quality reports of the countries are avaible online (see links to the quality reports above). 


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

On arrival at Eurostat, data from the countries are checked for completeness and consistency. 

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Apart from a general check for completeness, JVS data are compared to other statistics, primarly LFS, to check for consistency in developments over time.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Collecting JVS is very relevant, these being the only statistics that measure unmet labour demand. Quarterly data on job vacancies are used by the Commission (the Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs) and the European Central Bank to monitor short-term developments in the business cycle and the labour market. The job vacancy rate is one of the principal European economic indicators (PEEIs) , the primary source of information used to analyse and monitor short-term cyclical economic developments within the EU, the euro area and individual EU countries.

JVS are also used for indicator-based structural analyses conducted as part of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth . The job vacancy rate is also included in the employment performance monitor, a selection of key indicators in the labour market that are monitored in the context of the Commission’s Joint Employment Report (JER).

However, JVS would be even more relevant if the existing gaps in the coverage of sections O-S of NACE Rev. 2 and small businesses were filled.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not carry out satisfaction survey targeted at users of Job Vacancy Statistics. Incomplete coverage is still the main reason why JVS data are not used more widely. It is vital for all Member States to fully cover the public sector and small businesses in their quarterly estimates. Improved coverage would also enable the number of vacancies for the European aggregates to be published.

12.3. Completeness

Since 2010, most EU member states deliver full JVS. France, Italy and Denmark still provide incomplete data, therefore EU aggregates are only available for the job vacancy rates.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

As an indication of accuracy, the countries calculate the coefficients of variation in the number of job vacancies (not seasonally adjusted), taking into account the characteristics of their national sample design. The coefficient of variation expresses the standard error as a percentage of the quantity being estimated. It provides a measure of the variability of the estimated number of job vacancies. The sample size and response rate significantly affect the accuracy of estimates. The detailed information can be found in point 13.2.

13.2. Sampling error

The coefficient of variation expresses the standard error as a percentage of the quantity being estimated. It provides a measure of the variability of the estimated number of job vacancies. According to the quality reports for the 2017 reference year, the coefficients of variation for total job vacancies were below 15% in all Member States but Cyprus and Greece (at least for one of the four quarterly surveys conducted).

 

Country Coefficients of variations of the surveys for reference quarters (%) Max value
2019Q1 2019Q2 2019Q3 2019Q4
Belgium 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7
Bulgaria (**) 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Czechia (*) NA NA NA NA NA
Denmark 2.8 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.4
Germany 2.8 2.7 3.2 2.2 3.2
Estonia 5.0 4.5 3.7 3.0 5.0
Ireland 25.2 26.7 27.2 23.4 27.2
Greece 22.7 18.7 16.5 14.4 22.7
Spain 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.2 5.9
France 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5
Croatia (*) NA NA NA NA NA
Italy 5.3 5.4 3.5 3.8 5.4
Cyprus 7.0 7.0 6.0 8.0 8.0
Latvia 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9
Lithuania 5.4 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.2
Luxembourg (*) NA NA NA NA NA
Hungary 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8
Malta 2.6 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.3
Netherlands (**) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Austria (**) 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
Poland (**) 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4
Portugal 3.6 3.5 3.0 4.6 4.6
Romania 5.4 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.4
Slovenia 5.8 3.3 4.2 5.1 5.8
Slovakia 4.6 6.6 5.8 8.2 8.2
Finland 7.8 6.7 7.6 8.1 8.1
Sweden (**) 1.8 2.0 2.9 2.1 2.9

(*) Not applicable; no survey conducted and administrative data used

(**) Identical average for all quarters of 2018

 

The sample size and response rate significantly affect the accuracy of estimates.

 

Country Sample size of the surveys for reference quarters Smallest size Largest size
2019Q1 2019Q2 2019Q3 2019Q4
Belgium 10523 10672 10814 10957 10523 10957
Bulgaria (**) 20500 20500 20500 20500 20500 20500
Czechia (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Denmark (**) 7000 7000 7000 7000 7000 7000
Germany 9919 10105 9992 109986 9919 109986
Estonia (**) 8533 8533 8533 8533 8533 8533
Ireland (**) 7150 7150 7150 7150 7150 7150
Greece (**) 5852 5852 5852 5852 5852 5852
Spain (**) 28000 28000 28000 28000 28000 28000
France 37731 37731 37731 37836 37731 37836
Croatia (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Italy (**) 14859 14859 14859 14859 14859 14859
Cyprus (**) 3300 3300 3300 3300 3300 3300
Latvia (**) 7502 7502 7502 7502 7502 7502
Lithuania (**) 7172 7172 7172 7172 7172 7172
Luxembourg (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hungary (**) 9259 9259 9259 9259 9259 9259
Malta (**) 2617 2617 2617 2617 2617 2617
Netherlands (**) 26000 26000 26000 26000 26000 26000
Austria (**) 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500 6500
Poland (**) 100000 100000 100000 100000 100000 100000
Portugal (**) 12170 12170 12170 12170 12170 12170
Romania (**) 23500 23500 23500 23500 23500 23500
Slovenia (**) 11996 11996 11996 11996 11996 11996
Slovakia 40653 40944 40605 39825 39825 40944
Finland (**) 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500
Sweden (**) 15800 15800 15800 15800 15800 15800

(*) Not applicable; no survey conducted and administrative data used

(**) Identical average for all quarters of 2018

 

 

Country Response rates of the surveys for reference quarters (%) Lowest rate Highest rate
2019Q1 2019Q2 2019Q3 2019Q4
Belgium 61.4 60.2 59.6 57.9 57.9 61.4
Bulgaria (**) 94.6 94.6 94.6 94.6 94.6 94.6
Czechia (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Denmark (**) 98.1 98.0 98.3 98.2 98.0 98.3
Germany 90.7 89.1 90.1 12.6 12.6 90.7
Estonia 99.4 99.4 99.3 99.4 99.3 99.4
Ireland 83.7 84.1 85.5 85.2 83.7 85.5
Greece 59.7 48.4 56.0 56.7 48.4 59.7
Spain (**) 89.2 89.2 89.2 89.2 89.2 89.2
France 97.2 97.1 97.2 97.7 97.1 97.7
Croatia (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Italy 79.7 78.4 79.7 78.8 78.4 79.7
Cyprus 80.9 82.0 90.2 85.9 80.9 90.2
Latvia 95.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 95.0
Lithuania 97.9 97.6 97.2 96.5 96.5 97.9
Luxembourg (*) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hungary 97.0 96.1 96.0 95.8 96.0 97.0
Malta 71.4 72.7 74.4 76.5 71.4 76.5
Netherlands (**) 86.0 86.0 86.0 86.0 86.0 86.0
Austria (**) 75.0 75.0 75.0 75.0 75.0 75.0
Poland 57.2 57.5 57.6 56.7 56.7 57.6
Portugal 75.8 75.4 75.6 72.9 72.9 75.8
Romania 99.4 99.3 99.1 98.9 98.9 99.4
Slovenia 97.8 97.4 97.7 96.5 96.5 97.8
Slovakia 95.8 95.6 96.2 96.2 95.8 96.2
Finland 72.3 82.5 85.3 74.9 72.3 85.3
Sweden (**) 87.2 86.2 85.7 85.9 85.7 87.2

(*) Not applicable; no survey conducted and administrative data used

(**) Identical average for all quarters of 2018

13.3. Non-sampling error

The main non-sampling error leading to a possible bias is the reduced coverage in France and Denmark. Due to this only rates are published for aggregates, as the bias in these should be smaller, no evidence on the magnitude exists on an EU level though.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Data are normally released around 50 and 78 days after the reference quarter (see point 9).

14.2. Punctuality

The punctuality of JVS transmissions was generally satisfactory as regards both the flash estimate and the final publication. Although minor delays were recorded occasionally for some countries, there were no structurally late deliveries that could impair the timely publication of the JVS release. Member States have been reminded regularly of the importance of meeting the mandatory deadlines for transmitting PEEI data, including job vacancy statistics.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Data are, in general, comparable across the countries. The main issue concerns the reduced coverage for some countries.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Data are, in general, comparable over time. There are the following breaks in time series:

  • Portugal: Data before the first quarter of 2010 exclude data for the Autonomous Regions and data for public administration.
  • Spain: A new survey was introduced from 2013Q2. Until further notice, no data are available from 2013Q1. Before the first quarter of 2010 the number of vacancies and occupied posts for section "O - Public administration and defence; compulsory social security" have not been transmitted and were not included in aggregated groups (B-S, O-Q).
  • France: In the fourth quarter of 2010 there was a change in the questionnaire that collects information on job vacancies. This led to a sizeable increase to the number of vacancies compared to past observations. There were some significant revisions in the transmission of French 2018Q4 data back to 2015Q4. France explained that these were the result of an improvement in the Acemo survey’s coverage (Acemo: ‘Activité et conditions d’emploi de la main-d’oeuvre’), which had triggered a level shift in both occupied posts and vacancies, leaving the job vacancy rate broadly unchanged.
  • Germany: The survey results are corrected for non-responses starting with the fourth quarter of 2010.
  • Malta: The new methodology is implemented from Q1 2017. The backward data will be revised in 2018. 
  • Belgium: A new survey and new methodology were introduced from the first quarter of 2012.
  • Italy: Break in series after 2009Q4 due to changes in estimation method and survey.
  • Slovenia: New methodology from 2013Q1; a new survey was introduced from 2015Q1.
  • Finland: New methodology from 2013Q1.
  • Latvia: New methodology from 2015Q4.
15.3. Coherence - cross domain

It is not possible to check directly the extent to which job vacancies are measured in a consistent fashion, as there is no other harmonised source used at European level that measures unmet demand on the labour market. While many Member States count vacancies reported to public employment services, it is problematic to use these figures to check whether the JVS are measured in a consistent way. This is because they suffer from heavy undercoverage and/or double counting if the administrative register is not updated to take account of filled vacancies. Moreover, JVS from administrative sources are based on national definitions, which differ from one country to another.

The number of occupied posts, a variable which is part of the denominator of the job vacancy rate, can be compared with information from other sources, in particular the number of employees reported in the Labour Force Survey (LFS). Comparisons and subsequent assessments of differences must nevertheless take account of conceptual and survey-related differences between sources.

The difference between the number of employees recorded in the LFS and the number of occupied posts recorded in JVS for the whole economy generally fluctuates between -20% and +20%. Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Greece, Portugal, Hungary and Romania are exceptions.

Hungary does not cover businesses with fewer than five employees in its JVS, but imputes them based on the data collected for businesses with 5-9 employees; this may explain part of the gap recorded.

The negative gap measured for Luxembourg can be explained by the large proportion of cross-border work, which creates large discrepancies between the domestic concept of the labour market used in the LFS and the national one applied in JVS; the LFS surveys resident households only, whereas JVS cover resident enterprises, including their non-resident (i.e. cross-border) workers.

Bulgaria’s quality report stated that the definition of employees used in the LFS is broader than for JVS statistics, encompassing people working under a civil contract (contract for certain work to be done), those working under management and control contracts, and those working without a contract of any kind. Moreover, JVS do not include military personnel.

Romania explained in its quality report that discrepancies between the LFS and JVS as regards the number of occupied posts reflected the fact that occupied posts collected using JVS methods did not include the following:

  • individuals whose employment contract is suspended for a given period (on the grounds of maternity leave, childcare leave, sick leave or unpaid leave, or because of some other type of absence);
  • posts which, though temporarily suspended, might fall vacant and be occupied for a limited period of time;
  • posts in armed forces or in the informal sector.

Portugal and Greece provided some general explanations, pointing out the differences between the two sources as regards methodology and definitions.

Together with the competent national authorities of the countries listed above, Eurostat will monitor discrepancies between the number of employees recorded by the LFS and the number of occupied posts recorded in JVS.

It is also important that vacancies and posts on the payroll of temporary agencies are covered and assigned to section N of NACE Rev. 2.

Finally, the main challenge as regards comparability is for all Member States to cover the entire economy in their job vacancy surveys, i.e. to include small businesses and NACE Rev.2 sections O-S. As noted in sections 2.2 and 2.3 above, two Member States continue to fall short of this objective.

The detailed information is in the countries' quality reports.

15.4. Coherence - internal

All figures are checked for internal consistency.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Depends a lot on the data source. In countries with stand alone surveys, the burden for a surveyed business unit may be some minutes. If the survey is part of an omnibus in most cases it will be a matter of seconds.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

In principle all data are subject to revision. Major causes of revisions are additional data being received and the implementation of new or updated methodologies.

17.2. Data revision - practice

In terms of revisions, the situation differs for the two releases of the job vacancy rate, i.e. the flash and the final estimates. The flash estimates, which are released in Eurobase at T+50 days, may be revised at T+78 days, when the news release with the final estimates is published. Although the flash data did not cover all the Member States, revisions did not exceed 0.1 percentage points for the euro area and the EU.

As regards final estimates published at T+78 days, revisions can be measured by comparing the first and second transmission of JVS for a given quarter. For the euro area and the EU, revisions in the job vacancy rate never exceeded 0.1 percentage points over the reference period of this report.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

EU job vacancy statistics are compiled on the basis of data provided by the participating countries. All the countries, except Czechia, Luxembourg and Croatia conduct a survey to estimate the number of job vacancies. Czechia, Luxembourg and Croatia use administative sources. Data on occupied posts are generally obtained from the same survey as job vacancies. The detailed information is provided in the countries' quality reports.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Quarterly.

18.3. Data collection

Surveys conducted mainly by using postal questionnaires or Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Other methods are Telephone data entry, by post, internet, email or fax. Details can be found in the country quality reports. Administative sources are also used.

JVS have been transmitted by all Member States using the Statistical Data and Metadata eXchange (SDMX)  data structure and internationally agreed code lists (available online through a dedicated registry). The same coding was used in Eurostat’s JVS database and to transmit the EU’s JVS to the European Central Bank.

This standardisation avoids ambiguities and misunderstandings with Member States and simplifies the data validation process, making it suited for automation. This was done by using a new tool for IT validation, described in section 18.4 below.

18.4. Data validation

Data communicated by individual countries are checked for internal consistency and correlation with earlier data. No further adjustments are made.

IT validation: To check the structure and coding of JVS, a new IT tool (STRUVAL) has been introduced to simplify the production process and reduce the risk of errors arising from wrong coding. When the file transmitted is not in line with the SDMX standards in force, it is automatically rejected, and Member States receive a success / failure notification by email. They may access the IT validation report through a web service.

Statistical validation: In each quarterly transmission, Eurostat makes plausibility checks by comparing data over time and across NACE Rev. 2 economic activities. In the event of significant quarter-on-quarter changes in the number of occupied posts or job vacancies, Eurostat asks Member States to confirm the data or retransmit a corrected data file. No major issues have been uncovered by the plausibility checks carried out over the last few years. However, minor inconsistencies have been detected for some countries between individual and aggregated NACE Rev. 2 sections. These have been corrected. As regards volatility, results for Finland were somewhat above the average. Finland will look into whether data volatility could be reduced by increasing the sample size or improving the methodology used. Malta improved its national methodology so as to measure only the number of vacancies open on a reference date ('stock data'), making sure that any vacancies filled before that date are not recorded. Eurostat’s validation detected some significant revisions in the transmission of French 2018Q4 data back to 2015Q4. France explained that these were the result of an improvement in the Acemo survey’s coverage (Acemo: ‘Activité et conditions d’emploi de la main-d’oeuvre’), which had triggered a level shift in both occupied posts and vacancies, leaving the job vacancy rate broadly unchanged.

18.5. Data compilation

The national institutions responsible for compiling job vacancy statistics send aggregated national statistics to Eurostat. These national data are then used to compile the job vacancy rate at the European Union and Euro Area levels. These job vacancy rates are computed by first totalling the number of job vacancies and the number of occupied posts for the countries which have supplied these data. No estimates were made for any country that was not participating in the job vacancy statistics data collection. Because of incomplete EU coverage, the EU totals for the numbers of job vacancies and occupied posts are not yet published.

The EU-level results are based on all business units and all economic activities for which national figures are available. To allow a comparability over time, the EU/EA job vacancy rates for 2009Q1 to Q4 have been calculated by using the available NACE Rev. 2 data (B-S) and for the missing countries, which have not provided NACE Rev. 2 data for 2009, the Total of NACE Rev. 1.1 data was included.

For some countries, information on specific economic activities or establishments is not transmitted.  If national data are only available for a sub-category of all business units, e.g. with 10 or more employees, this sub-category is used in the computation of the job vacancy rate at the EU-level.

If, for a participating country, data for a quarter are missing, Eurostat might undertake some estimations. The estimates of missing data are not published.

Flag management: Eurostat also introduced new rules on the processing of flags that signal special events such as breaks in the series and specify the confidentiality status of the data. Consequently, the flagging of JVS is now harmonised across the EU and between national figures and European aggregates.

18.6. Adjustment

Seasonal adjustment:

Under Article 1 of Commission Regulation (EC) No 1062/2008, EU countries are also required to transmit seasonally adjusted (SA) data. It is mandatory to supply SA data on job vacancies and occupied posts at least for individual/aggregated NACE Rev. 2 sections B-E, F, G-I, J, K, L, M-N, O-Q, R-S. Eurostat uses the data supplied on SA job vacancies and occupied posts to calculate the SA job vacancy rates for each country as a ratio.

In December 2016, Eurostat started publishing SA data on the EU and the euro area, in addition to the existing SA data on individual Member States. These figures are disseminated for the following aggregated sections of NACE Rev. 2: B-S, B-N, B-F and G-N.

At the EU and euro area level, occupied posts and job vacancies are first aggregated across Member States and then seasonally adjusted (direct seasonal adjustment).

Eurostat has started to give SA data a higher profile by publishing European aggregates in the Statistics Explained article on JVS, alongside not seasonally adjusted (NSA) data.


19. Comment Top

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Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Methodology overview