Methodology

Detailed information on surveys and indicators is available through the metadata files accompanying the Eurobase tables. The method of collection varies from one domain to another.

Research and development (R&D)

Community innovation survey (CIS)

Data from national CIS surveys based on the Oslo Manual, OECD/European Commission, 2005.

High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services

Data from various sources collected in different ways; statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Patents

Data from the patent database PATSTAT hosted by European Patent Office (EPO). PATSTAT gathers data on applications to the EPO and around 70 national patent offices across the world (mainly USPTO and JPO) - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

Data from the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Data Collection on Education Systems (UOE) according to the guidelines in the Canberra Manual, OECD, 1995 - statistics compiled at Eurostat.

Careers of doctorate holders

Data from the two first rounds (2006 and 2009) of the international survey on the Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH), jointly carried out by Eurostat, the OECD and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.