Government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (gba)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

1.2. Contact organisation unit

G4: Innovation and digitalisation

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 03/11/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 03/11/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 29/01/2020


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

This domain provides users with data concerning Government Budget Allocations for R&D (GBARD). GBARD data are measuring government support to research and development (R&D) activities, and thereby provide information about the priority Governments give to different public R&D funding activities.

GBARD data are compiled using the guidelines laid out in the Guidelines for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development - Frascati Manual, OECD, 2015 (See annex at the bottom of the page). In the latest version of the Frascati Manual (FM 2015) the term ‘Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D’ (GBAORD) has been replaced with the simpler term ‘Government budget allocations for R&D’ (GBARD).

 

GBARD data are broken down by:

  - Socio-economic objectives (SEOs) in accordance to the Nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific programmes and budgets (NABS 2007) - (See annex at the bottom of the page).

  - Funding mode: project funding and institutional funding (non-mandatory data).

The part of GBARD allocated to transnational cooperation in R&D is further broken down into three specific categories: transnational public R&D performers; Europe-wide transnational public R&D programmes; and bilateral or multilateral public R&D programmes established between Member State governments or with EFTA and candidate countries.

 

Apart from the basic unit ‘National currency’ (MIO_NAC) data is available in the following units: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_ HAB_KP05), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP), Percentage of total GBAORD (PC_GBA - for the breakdowns by socio-economic objectives and by funding mode), Percentage of total transnationally coordinated R&D (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by category), Percentage of government expenditure (PC_GEXP).

 

The periodicity of GBARD data is annual. Data are collected corresponding to the two legally established deadlines:

  - June data collection: Preliminary GBARD data are provided to Eurostat 6 months after the end of the calendar year (June). This data are targeted to be disseminated in Eurobase in September.

  - December data collection: Final GBARD data are provided to Eurostat 12 months after the end of the calendar year (December). This data are targeted to be disseminated in Eurobase in the following February.

GBARD data are available for following countries and country groups:

  - All EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Japan, the United States and South Korea.

  - Country groups: EU Member States, Euro Area States.

3.2. Classification system

The main classification used in the GBARD database is the Nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific programmes and budgets (NABS 2007). The latest version of the nomenclature (NABS 2007) is applicable since reference year 2007. Before, its earlier version (NABS 1992) was used. For detail information about the differences between the two versions of the NABS please refer to: Comparison between NABS 2007 and NABS 1992 (See annex at the bottom of the page).

The NABS 2007 chapter level covers (See annex at the bottom of the page):

Chapter 1 - Exploration and exploitation of the earth

Chapter 2 - Environment

Chapter 3 - Exploration and exploitation of space

Chapter 4 - Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures

Chapter 5 - Energy

Chapter 6 - Industrial production and technology

Chapter 7 - Health

Chapter 8 - Agriculture

Chapter 9 - Education

Chapter 10 - Culture, recreation, religion and mass media

Chapter 11 - Political and social systems, structures and processes

Chapter 12 - General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from general university funds (GUF)

Chapter 13 - General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from other sources than GUF

Chapter 14 - Defence

Country codes and names are based on the inter-institutional style guide.

3.3. Coverage - sector

GBARD covers not only government-financed R&D performed in government establishments but also government-financed R&D in the other three national sectors (business enterprise, private non-profit, higher education) as well as abroad (including international organisations), (§ 12.16, Frascati Manual, OECD 2015 - See annex at the bottom of the page).

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The main variables collected in the framework of GBARD statistics are:

Government budget allocations for R&D (GBARD) are all allocations allocated to R&D in central (federal) government, regional (state) and local (municipal) government. They therefore refer to budget provisions, not to actual expenditure. Local government budget funds may not be included if their contribution is not significant of if the data cannot be collected.

 

GBARD include both current costs and capital expenditure and do not only cover government-financed R&D performed in government establishments, but also government-financed R&D performed in the business enterprise, private non-profit and higher education sectors, as well as in the Rest of the world. GBARD data are covering all public budget spending related to R&D and are linked to policy issues by means of a classification by "objectives" or "goals" (NABS 2007) - (See annex at the bottom of the page). Programmes are allocated between socio-economic objectives, on the basis of intentions at the time the funds are committed and not the actual content of the projects concerned.

Project funding is defined as the part of GBARD which is allocated to a group or an individual to perform an R&D activity limited in scope, budget and time, normally on the basis of the submission of a project proposal describing the research activities to be done. Even though the concept of project funding does not primarily rely on funds being allocated on competition between researchers or research groups, which is based on the submission of a research proposal, it may be used as a proxy measure on competitive funding.

Institutional funding is defined as the part of GBARD which is allocated to institutions with no direct selection of R&D project or programmes to be performed. Under this type of funding, it is the receiving institution that has discretion over the R&D projects that are to be performed, not the funding organisation.

National public funding to transnationally coordinated R&D is defined as the total budget funded by the government (central, regional, local), as measured by GBARD directed to transnational public R&D performers and transnational public R&D programmes. This indicator comprises national contributions to three categories:

1) Transnational public R&D performers are inter-governmental or European Commission bodies that carry out R&D activity with own dedicated research facilities. This category includes national contributions only to the six largest European R&D performing institutions: European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN); Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL); European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC). These international institutions have as regular members EU Member States, although other European countries (as Switzerland and Norway in CERN) or non-European countries (as Israel in EMBL) might also be their members.

2) Europe-wide transnational public R&D programmes, with and without cross-border flows of funds. Transnationally co-funded public R&D programmes/schemes with cross-border flows of funds involve cross-border flows of funding by member countries usually into a common central budget. Such programmes disburse funding to research activities conducted at national level using national R&D facilities. However, they typically involve some form of trans-national coordination (common objectives/research agenda, trans-national project consortia, etc.). Transnationally coordinated public R&D programmes/schemes with no cross-border flows of funds involve the cross-border coordination of research agendas, objectives, and so on, but do not involve cross-border flows of funding. National authorities coordinate activities with other participating countries, but disburse funds from their own budgets to R&D performers on their own territory (i.e. each country funds its own research teams).

3) Bilateral or multilateral public R&D programmes established between Member State governments (and with candidate countries and EFTA countries) include non-European Commission funded public R&D programmes jointly undertaken by at least two MSs’ governments, although other non-EU countries could also participate in them. They may or may not involve cross-border flows of funds.

3.5. Statistical unit

All public administrations.

3.6. Statistical population

Budget analysis: The data is assembled by national authorities using data collected for public budgets. This essentially involves identifying all the budget items related to R&D and measuring or estimating their R&D content. In some countries, R&D budget text analysis is supplemented with additional information obtained from the national funding agencies/ministries or through statistical surveys.

3.7. Reference area

GBARD statistics are currently available for EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Japan, the United States and South Korea. Eurostat also calculates and disseminates aggregates at the EU and EA levels (EU Member States and Euro Area States).

3.8. Coverage - Time

Eurostat's GBARD database contains national data from 1980 onwards, though the data availability differs according to country. European aggregates are available from 2000 onwards.

3.9. Base period

The base year for the unit Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) and PPS per inhabitant at constant prices is currently 2005. All calculations of non-basic unit (national currencies) are done by Eurostat.


4. Unit of measure Top

GBARD data is available in the following units: National currency (MIO_NAC), Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB), Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_ HAB_KP05), Percentage of gross domestic product (PC_GDP), Percentage of total GBARD (PC_GBA - for the breakdowns by socio-economic objectives and by funding mode), Percentage of total transnationally coordinated R&D (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by category), Percentage of government expenditure (PC_GEXP).


5. Reference Period Top

Calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Until 2003, data on GBARD was collected under a gentleman's agreement. From reference years 2004 to 2011 the data collection was based on the Commission Regulation No 753/2004 on statistics on science and technology (OJ L 118, page 23 from 23 April 2004), and as amended by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 973/2007 (OJL 216, page 10 from 21 August 2007). From 2012 onwards the Commission Implementing Regulation No 995/2012 (OJ L 299, page 18 from 27 October 2012) applies - (See annex at the bottom of the page).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

From December 2005 onwards GBARD data are collected in co-operation with OECD.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164) stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Primary and secondary confidentiality of GBARD data are flagged by the countries and provided to Eurostat. Eurostat removes any data flagged as ‘confidential’. Primary and secondary confidentiality is respected for any data publicly released. Eurostat assumes complete flagging and does not take any further measures.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Preliminary GBARD data are targeted to be published in Eurobase 9 months after the end of the reference year (in September).

Final GBARD data are targeted to be published in Eurobase 14 months after the end of the reference year (in the following February).

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

See also Eurostat's Science, technology and innovation (STI) section website.

Internet access: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Detailed information about the national survey methods applied (Metadata) as well as about the quality of the data (Quality Reports) is provided by the countries to Eurostat systematically once in two years at the minimum.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

National biennial quality reports of Member States, Norway and Switzerland are available since reference year 2009.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Eurostat is ensuring that the statistical practices used to compile national GBARD data are in compliance with Frascati Manual recommendations. Quality evaluation of GBARD statistics is carried out based on the information provided in the national quality reports sent by the countries in addition to the regular metadata provision.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

According to the information available overall quality of GBARD statistics is good and relatively improved compared to the previous quality evaluation. Some differences between countries' measurement methodology (for example the stage in the budgetary process from which GBARD data are drawn) could affect the comparability of the results.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The users who make the most use of GBAD data are:

- Commission DGs: DG Research and Innovation, DG JRC;

- International organisations: OECD, UNESCO;

- National governments;

- Scientific organisations and universities.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

User satisfaction with the national statistics is reported as high. In most of the countries this assessment is based not on specific user satisfaction survey but on ad-hoc feedback received from users.

Main results from the Rolling Review from 2012 also show high degree of users’ and partners’ satisfaction.

12.3. Completeness

Completeness of both preliminary and final GBARD statistics is very good.  


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The overall accuracy of GBARD data is generally good. Some countries use coefficients, usually as a complement of text analysis, for the estimation of the R&D share of budget items.

13.2. Sampling error

The compilation of GBARD statistics relies on administrative data. A sampling error is therefore not defined.

13.3. Non-sampling error

While no quantitative information is available on coverage and measurement errors, countries make substantial efforts to minimise them.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Preliminary GBARD data are provided to Eurostat 6 months after the end of the calendar year (June) and are targeted to be released in September.

Final GBARD data are provided to Eurostat 12 months after the end of the calendar year (December) and are targeted to be released in February.

14.2. Punctuality

Almost all countries are very punctual in the transmission of the GBARD data to Eurostat.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Countries compile GBARD data following the Frascati manual recommendations. Among the few methodological issues which can affect the comparisons across countries are  the stage in the budgetary process from which final GBARD data are drawn (final budget appropriations or actual outlays); and the inclusion of VAT or EU funds for R&D.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Breaks in the series are rare in the most recent years. However, in years further in the past, i.e. years before 1995, methodology to derive GBARD data has changed several times.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The difference between GBARD data and R&D expenditure financed by government varies significantly across the countries. IT can be explained to a certain extent with existing objective methodological reasons.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Regarding coherence between preliminary and final GBARD data, there are slight differences reported by the countries. These differences reflect the respective differences between provisional and final budgets.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Systematic information is not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

 Countries are allowed to revise the data. Any substantial revision is to be justified/explained.

17.2. Data revision - practice

 In case of any substantial revision countries provide justification/explanation.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

At national level GBARD data are compiled by the national statistical authorities: National Statistical Offices, Research Councils and Ministries. They are assembled by national authorities using data collected for public budgets. In some countries R&D budget text analysis are supplemented with additional information obtained from the national funding agencies/ministries or through statistical surveys.

Detailed information about the national survey methods applied (Metadata) as well as about the quality of the data (Quality Reports) is provided by the countries to Eurostat systematically once in two years at the minimum.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

There are two cycles of annual data collection, which correspond to the legally established deadlines for GBARD data transmission by the countries: in June (T+6) for preliminary GBARD data and in December (T+12) for final GBARD data. Between these regular cycles Member States can also provide updates and/or revisions of GBARD data.

18.3. Data collection

GBARD data are provided to Eurostat directly by the national statistical authorities of Member States of the European Union, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Serbia, Turkey, and the Russian Federation. Data for Japan, the United States and South Korea are extracted from OECD database.

In most countries, national budget data is used as administrative data source for the compilation of GBARD data. In some countries R&D budget text analysis are supplemented with additional information obtained from the national funding agencies/ministries or through statistical surveys.

National aggregated GBARD data are collected by Eurostat in the SDMX standard. The collection is made in close co-operation with the OECD. Countries' data, including confidential data, are provided to Eurostat in basic unit national currency. Derived indicators and aggregates are calculated by Eurostat on the basis on data collected, sometimes together with relevant reference data from Eurobase.

GBARD data are possible to be accompanied with a number of flags conveying GBARD statistics' specific information to Eurostat and the OECD. Please see the Excel file (GBARD_FLAGS) in Annex for further explanatory notes.

18.4. Data validation

At Eurostat level, GBARD data provided by the national statistical institutes are checked for consistency and plausibility, and compared with previously provided data before being imported in the internal production database. Suspected errors are reported to the national statistical authorities for correction or explanation of any detected anomaly.

Major breaks in series or/and other deviations are flagged by the countries.

18.5. Data compilation

Production of GBARD statistics relies entirely on the data sent by the countries. The derived indicators are calculated based on relevant reference data from Eurostat data bases (Eurobase). Geographical aggregates (e.g. EU Member States and Euro Area States) are calculated by Eurostat as the sum of the national data expressed in a common unit. Where single Member States' figures are lacking, Eurostat may use unpublished estimates to impute country data and hence calculate European aggregates.

18.6. Adjustment

European aggregates should be seen as estimates and can sometimes deviate from what is obtained when summing up the national data. This can be due to dissemination of single or several national data sets outside the normal data treatment cycles. It can also be due to possible inconsistencies in national data e.g. the totals have been revised with different cycle than their breakdowns. Within the European aggregates consistency is however always assured in a way that breakdowns sum up to the total.  


19. Comment Top

Geographical consistency: While the European aggregates usually coincide with the sum of Member States figures, they are updated only at fixed intervals (normally twice a year), which means there may be a difference between the European aggregate and the appropriate sum of national data between these regular updates due to updates/revision of GBARD data at country level.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002.
The NABS 1992
Comparison between NABS 2007 and NABS 1992
The NABS 2007
Synthesis of National Quality Reports for RD and GBAORD statistics with reference year 2009.pdf
Commission Implementing Regulation No 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology
GBARD_FLAGS.xlsx
Guidelines for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development – Frascati Manual, OECD, 2015