High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services (htec)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

G4: Innovation and information society

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 04/01/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 04/01/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 04/01/2016


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

'Statistics on high-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services' (sometimes referred to as simply 'high-tech statistics') comprise economic, employment and science, technology and innovation (STI) data describing manufacturing and services industries or products traded broken down by technological intensity. The domain uses various other domains and sources of  Eurostat's official statistics (CIS, COMEXT, HRST, LFS, PATENT, R&D and SBS) and its coverage is therefore dependent on these other primary sources. Two main approaches are used in the domain to identify technology-intensity: the sectoral approach and the product approach. A third approach is used for data on high-tech and biotechnology patents aggregated on the basis of the International Patent Classification (IPC) 8th edition (see summary table in Annex 1 for which approach is used by each type of data).

The sectoral approach:
The sectoral approach is an aggregation of the manufacturing industries according to technological intensity (R&D expenditure/value added) and based on the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE) at 2-digit level. The level of R&D intensity served as a criterion of classification of economic sectors into high-technology, medium high-technology, medium low-technology and low-technology industries.

Services are mainly aggregated into knowledge-intensive services (KIS) and less knowledge-intensive services (LKIS) based on the share of tertiary educated persons at NACE 2-digit level.

The sectoral approach is used for all indicators except data on high-tech trade and patents.

Note that due to the revision of the NACE from NACE Rev. 1.1 to NACE Rev. 2 the definition of high-technology industries and knowledge-intensive services has changed in 2008. For high-tech statistics it means that two different definitions (one according NACE Rev. 1.1 and one according NACE Rev. 2) are used in parallel and the data according to both NACE versions are presented in separated tables depending on the data availability. For example as the LFS provides the results both by NACE Rev. 1.1 and NACE Rev. 2, all the table using this source have been duplicated to present the results by NACE Rev. 2 from 2008. For more details, see both definitions of high-tech sectors in Annex 2 and 3.

Within the sectoral approach, a second classification was created, named Knowledge Intensive Activities KIA) and based on the share of tertiary educated people in each sectors of industries and services according to NACE at 2-digit level and for all EU28 Member States. A threshold was applied to judge sectors as knowledge intensive. In contrast to first sectoral approach mixing two methodologies, one for manufacturing industries and one for services, the KIA classification is based on one methodology for all the sectors of industries and services covering even public sector activities.

The aggregations in use are Total Knowledge Intensive Activities (KIA) and Knowledge Intensive Activities in Business Industries (KIABI). Both classifications are made according to NACE Rev. 1.1 and NACE Rev. 2 at 2- digit level. Note that due to revision of the NACE Rev.1.1 to NACE Rev. 2 the list of Knowledge Intensive Activities has changed as well, the two definitions are used in parallel and the data are shown in two separate tables. NACE Rev.2 collection includes data starting from 2008 reference year. For more details please see the definitions in Annex 7 and 8.

The product approach:
The product approach was created to complement the sectoral approach and it is used for data on high-tech trade. The product list is based on the calculations of R&D intensity by groups of products (R&D expenditure/total sales). The groups classified as high-technology products are aggregated on the basis of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

The initial definition was built based on SITC Rev.3 and served to compile the high-tech product aggregates until 2007. With the implementation in 2007 of the new version of SITC Rev.4, the definition of high-tech groups was revised and adapted according to new classification. Starting from 2007 the Eurostat presents the trade data for high-tech groups aggregated based on the SITC Rev.4. For more details, see definition of high-tech products in Annex 4 and 5.

High-tech patents:

High-tech patents are defined according to another approach. The groups classified as high-tech patents are aggregated on the basis of the International Patent Classification (IPC 8th edition).

Biotechnology patents are also aggregated on the basis of the IPC 8th edition. For more details, see the aggregation list of high-tech and biotechnology patents in Annex 6.

The high-tech domain also comprises the sub-domain Venture Capital Investments: data are provided by INVEST Europe (formerly named the European Private Equity and Venture Capital Association EVCA). More details are available in the Eurostat metadata under Venture capital investments.

Please note that for paragraphs where no metadata for regional data has been specified, the regional metadata is identical to the metadata provided for the national data.

3.2. Classification system

Classification systems used in the domain of science and technology depend on the data source used and target indicator calculated. The following classifications are used:

NACE Rev.1.1 and NACE Rev.2

SITC Rev.4

IPC

ISCED1997

ISCO-88 and ISCO-08

The current regional breakdown of the countries in the regional demographic tables is according to the:

1.  Commission Regulation (EU) No 31/2011 amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). The NUTS classification according to this regulation is shortly named NUTS-2010 classification. 

2. Agreements between Eurostat and Acceding and Candidate countries as well as between Eurostat and EFTA countries, for which statistical regions have been coded in a way that resembles NUTS.  For more details, please consult the Regions in the European Union - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS 2010/EU-27 and Statistical regions for the EFTA countries and the Candidate countries 2008.

3.3. Coverage - sector

For the sector approach the manufacturing sector and the service sector are covered.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Statistics on high-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services' domain uses various other domains and sources of Eurostat's official statistics (CIS, COMEXT, HRST, LFS, PATENT, R&D and SBS).

Below, the main concepts are explained by data type/data source. For more details, please refer to methodologies of the specific data source.

Not all national tables are necessarily available at regional level. To consult the list of available regional datasets, please consult the Annex 9.

1) Venture capital investments (VCI)
Data on Venture Capital Investments are provided by INVEST Europe (formerly named the European Private Equity and Venture Capital Association EVCA). The data are aggregated according to stage of development of venture capital. Because of the significant changes in the methodology of EVCA survey and consequent modifications in the structure of stages of development, the new VCI collection had to be added to include revised data from 2007 onwards.

For more information regarding methodologies, see the Venture Capital investment metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables HTEC_VCI_STAGE1 and HTEC_VCI_STAGE2.

2) High-tech trade (COMEXT)
High-technology trade data are compiled according to the product approach. The products classified high-tech depending on their R&D intensity (R&D expenditure/total sales) are aggregated into 8 high-tech groups on the basis of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). The definition in use presents the data according to SITC Rev.4. The definition by SITC Rev.3 is no more operational as the collection of data by SITC Rev.3 came to an end in 2006. For more details, see the aggregation list of high-tech products in Annex 4 and 5.

All high-tech trade data are extracted from the COMEXT database - Eurostat's database of official statistics on EU external trade and trade between EU Member States.

COMEXT database contains data on the import/export of goods of the EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EFTA. This database is administrated by Eurostat. The data are originally collected according to CN (Combined Nomenclature). The CN corresponds to the Harmonised Coding System (HS) which is a multipurpose international product nomenclature widely approved and used for example by the United Nations statistics on trade. Both CN and HS can be converted into SITC by the mean of correspondence tables.

Notice that high-tech exports include re-exported imports. That means some countries might show large figures due to that a large number of goods pass through the country and is counted as both imports and exports.

The following indicators on trade of high-tech products are calculated for the EU member states:

  • Intra-EU28 high-tech trade in million Euro
  • Extra-EU28 high-tech trade in million Euro
  • Total high-tech trade in million Euro
  • High-tech trade as a percentage of total

The indicator exports/ imports of high-tech products as a percentage of total is calculated as share of exports/imports of high-technology products from a country (entity) in total exports/imports from this country (entity).

In the case the EU, the total trade includes only extra-EU trade (i.e. they exclude intra-EU trade). This makes it possible to consider the EU as an entity and compare it with other countries. Nevertheless, figures for the individual EU Member States include intra-EU trade.

For more information regarding methodologies, see External trade statistics metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HTEC_TRD_TOT4, HTEC_TRD_GROUP4 and HTEC_SI_EXP4.

3) Economic/employment statistics on high-tech industries and knowledge-intensive services (SBS)
Data come from Structural Business Statistics (SBS) and are aggregated according to the sectoral approach at NACE Rev. 1.1 and NACE Rev.2 at 2-digit level.

For more information regarding methodologies, see the SBS metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HTEC_ECO_ENT, HTEC_ECO_ENT2, HTEC_ECO_SBS, HTEC_ECO_SBS2, HTEC_EMP_SBS and HTEC_EMP_SBS2.

4) Employment in high-tech (LFS)
Data come from EU Labour force survey (LFS). Employed people are defined as persons aged 15 years and over who during the reference week performed work, even for just one hour a week, for pay, profit or family gain or were not at work but had a job or business from which they were temporarily absent because of, e.g., illness, holidays, industrial dispute and education and training. In high-tech statistics the population excludes anyone below the age of 15 or over the age of 74.

The data are aggregated according to the sectoral approach at NACE level 2. Until reference year 2008 sectors were aggregated according NACE Rev. 1.1 (see list in Annex 2). In 2008 NACE Rev. 2 was implemented (see list in Annex 3) and the data by NACE Rev.2 aggregated in high-tech sectors were presented in separate tables.

For more information regarding methodologies, see the LFS metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HTEC_EMP_NAT, HTEC_EMP_NISCO, HTEC_EMP_NISCED, HTEC_EMP_REG, HTEC_EMP_RISCO, HTEC_EMP_RISCED, HTEC_EMP_NAT2, HTEC_EMP_NISCO2, HTEC_EMP_NISCED2, HTEC_EMP_REG2, HTEC_EMP_RISCO2 and HTEC_EMP_RISCED2.

5) HRST in high-tech
These data concern stocks of Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) in high-tech. The data on stocks are obtained from the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS), based on yearly data. An HRST stock can be defined as "the number of people at a particular point in time who fulfils the conditions of the definition of HRST" (see HRST metadata under Related metadata section). For data quality reasons, the population excludes anyone below the age of 15 or over the age of 74 from the figures.

Data have been aggregated according to the sectoral approach at NACE 2-digit level. Until reference year 2008 sectors were aggregated according NACE Rev. 1.1 (see list in Annex 2) but from reference year 2008 sectors are aggregated according NACE Rev. 2 (see list in Annex 3).

For more information regarding methodologies, see the HRST metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HRST_ST_NSEC, HRST_ST_NSECSEX, HRST_ST_RSEC, HRST_ST_NSEC2, HRST_ST_NSECSEX2 and HRST_ST_RSEC2.

6) R&D expenditure and personnel in high-tech (R&D)
These data concern R&D expenditure and R&D personnel in the business enterprise sector (BES) and more specifically in high-tech. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002. Data have been aggregated according to the sectoral approach at NACE Rev. 1.1 and NACE Rev.2 at 2-digit level.

For more information regarding methodologies, see the R&D metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HTEC_STI_EXP, HTEC_STI_PERS, HTEC_STI_EXP2 and HTEC_STI_PERS2.

7) High-tech and biotechnology patent applications to the EPO/patents granted by the USPTO (PATENT)
These data concern high-tech and biotechnology patent applications to the European Patent Office - EPO and patents granted by the US Patent & Trademark Office - USPTO. High-tech patents are defined according to another approach (neither sectoral nor product approach). The groups classified as high-tech patents are aggregated on the basis of the International Patent Classification (IPC 8th edition). Biotechnology patents are also aggregated on the basis of the IPC 8th edition (see aggregation list in Annex 5).

For more information regarding methodologies, see Patent application to the EPO metadata and Patents granted by the USPTO metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: PAT_EP_NTEC, PAT_US_NTEC, PAT_EP_NBIO, PAT_US_NBIO and PAT_EP_RTEC.

8) Community innovation survey in high-tech (CIS)
The Community Innovation Survey  is a survey on innovation activities in enterprises. The survey is conducted currently every two years. The CIS is based on the Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data - Oslo Manual, OECD – Eurostat 2005, which gives methodological guidelines and defines the innovation concepts. Data are aggregated according to the sectoral approach based on NACE Rev. 1.1 - 2 digit level in 4 CIS waves (CIS1ight, CIS3, CIS4, CIS5) and starting with CIS 2008, the data collection is based on NACE Rev. 2 - 2-digit level.

For more information regarding methodologies, see the CIS metadata under Related metadata section.

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: INN_CISL, HTEC_CIS3, HTEC_CIS4, HTEC_CIS5 and HTEC_CIS6.

9) Knowledge Intensive Activities (KIA)
The data in this sub-domain concern employment in Knowledge Intensive Activities (KIA) identified based on a level of tertiary educated persons in sectors of economic activity.

The data covering EU28, EFTA and candidate countries are extracted and compiled from EU-Labour Force Survey for the population aged 15-64, using annual average data. Two collections presenting KIA are available: one by NACE Rev.1.1 until reference year 2008, and the second by NACE Rev.2 starting with reference year 2008. Only time series by NACE Rev.2 is subject to annual updates.

The KIA collection by NACE Rev.2 contains as well the data for Japan and United States starting with 2008 reference year. Please note that for JP and US tabulated data public available have been extracted directly from JP Statistics Bureau and US Bureau of Labour Statistics websites. The source data in both countries are originally collected and presented according to the national classifications of sectors of economic activities. The KIA classification was constructed based on the correspondence tables rallying NACE Rev.2 with JSIC Rev.12 in Japan and US NAICS 2007 in United States. For more details regarding the correspondence tables, see Eurostat's metadata server RAMON, the section dedicated to Correspondence tables.

The data source for Japan KIA indicator is the Japan Labour Force Survey (LFS). The data refer to the number of persons employed in economic sectors according to JSIC Rev.12 and aged 15-64 years old.

In the United States, the Current Population Survey (CPS) is the primary source of information for the labour force characteristics. Please note that in case of US data, the employment figures available refer to age group 16 years old and over and correspond to the US NAICS 2007 classification of economic activities.

It must be noted that among valid classifications of economic activities: EU - US and JP, a simple correspondence 1 - to - 1 is not always possible what might impact the values of the statistics shown.

In the high-tech domain, data have been aggregated according to the sectoral approach Knowledge Intensive Activities at NACE Rev. 1.1 - 2 digit level (see list in Annex 7) and NACE Rev. 2 - 2 digit level (see list in Annex 8).

The above mentioned information concerns the Eurobase tables: HTEC_KIA_EMP and HTEC_KIA_EMP2.

3.5. Statistical unit

Dependent on the data source used:

  • SBS and CIS – enterprises and local units
  • Employment , HRST and KIA – individuals
  • R&D – enterprises
  • Patents - innovative activity within a country's borders that result in patent application to the EPO or in a patent granded by the USPTO

See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

3.6. Statistical population

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

3.7. Reference area

European Union aggregates (EU27 and EU28), EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EFTA countries. Other aggregates like EU15 or countries like United States and Japan depend on availability of data in the the primary data sources. 

3.8. Coverage - Time

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Data are expressed in various units depending on primary data source and target data collection and indicator:

  • Trade, R&D expenditure: in Million €/ECU and as a % of total
  • R&D personnel: in Head Count and Full-time Equivalent
  • CIS: mainly in % of total
  • Employment: in thousands of employees and % of total employment
  • HRST: in thousands of persons and as a % of total labour force or % of total employment
  • Patents: in number of units

Please see Annex 10 for details.


5. Reference Period Top

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

EP/Council Decision No 1608/2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and Commission Regulation No 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology.

 

The current regional breakdown of the countries is based on:

1. Commission Regulation (EU) No 31/2011 amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). The NUTS classification according to this regulation is shortly named NUTS-2010 classification.

2. Agreements between Eurostat and Acceding and Candidate countries as well as between Eurostat and EFTA countries, for which statistical regions have been coded in a way that resembles NUTS.

Further legal acts exist for the various data sources used (see Related metadata section for links to primary sources).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable as this domain has only secondary data.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Data are released continuously over the year and has no set dates for the releases.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable. (See 8.1.)

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Data are updated once or twice every year dependent on the periodicity of the data sources used.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Not applicable.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Mainly through the Eurostat publication formats which can be downloaded from Eurostat's website or through Statistics Explained

Regional data: Eurostat Regional Yearbook

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

None as this domain only has secondary data. For micro-data access for the primary sources see related metadata under Related metadata section.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The high-tech domain uses various other domains and primary sources within official statistics (e.g. structural business statistics, innovation statistics, employment statistics, etc.). Documentation on methodology therefore exists mainly at the various primary sources (see Related metadata section).

High-tech aggregations for sectors, products and patents can be found in Annexes.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

No quality documentation is available for high-tech statistics. The main quality issues relate to the primary data sources.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Quality assurance for high-tech statistics is dependent on the primary sources which go through the validation procedures before dissemination. However, with respect to the quality assurance the raw data used for compilation of high-tech statistics are submitted to validation tests and quality checking. The outcomes of the calculations are as well controlled and compared inside and among domains (see Related metadata section for links to primary sources.)

11.2. Quality management - assessment

An overall quality assessment of high-tech statistics is difficult to make, as the statistics depend on the quality of the various primary data sources. However it can be stated that high-tech statistics are of a good quality as they are produced and aggregated based on the data collected through the well-established data-collection tools as LFS survey, CIS survey or SBS. The strengths and weaknesses are closely related to those primary data production  (see Related metadata section for links to primary sources).


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

High-tech database comprises economic, employment and STI data describing high-tech manufacturing industries and services, high-tech products and patents. Creating, exploiting and commercializing new technologies have become essential for competitiveness and having a dynamic knowledge based economy. High-tech indicators can give a more clear perspective on the level of technological/innovation intensity.

Users have needs in terms of high-tech methodologies and definitions. Two main subjects of these needs have been identified:

  • Needs for a definition of medium high-tech products (and medium-low and low)
  • Uniform definition of knowledge intensive activities for both industries and services (the classification on knowledge intensive activities was introduced in February 2011)
12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Survey about the needs and satisfaction about statistics on high-tech has not been launched recently. However indirectly, the level of user satisfaction can be evaluated based on the 2012 Rolling Review on Innovation and R&D statistics.

Nevertheless, the user satisfaction is monitored on a constant way through informal and formal contacts.

12.3. Completeness

For some high-tech data, when being broken down by various dimensions the quality does not apply to the reliability limits set by the primary source. Therefore completeness is difficult to achieve as further breakdowns are difficult.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Statistics on high-tech come from various other domains and primary sources of Eurostat's official statistics (CIS, COMEXT, HRST, LFS, PATENT, R&D and SBS). Therefore, it is evident that if the data source contains errors, the corresponding high-tech data will not be accurate as well. In other words, the estimation of the accuracy of each high-tech sub-domains will be referred to each specific source used (see links under Related metadata section).

13.2. Sampling error

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

14.2. Punctuality

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Dependent on the data source used. For each source inconsistencies can occur, for example when data collected fluctuates because of changes in the way of collecting them. Eurostat identifies these changes by flagging the data as a "break in series". For details on these breaks in series, see the metadata of the data source used (see Related metadata section).

Comparability of regional data over time will be affected by breaks in the NUTS classification.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Comparability of the high-tech sectors/products/patents can be made with the various total populations of the domains of which the data are extracted (for example, employment in high-tech manufacturing or knowledge-intensive services can be compared to the total employment in all sectors).

15.4. Coherence - internal

Concerning the coherence between the high-tech sub-domains, it can be stated that for compiling data on high-tech, several approaches are used:

  • Definition of "high-tech sectors" and "knowledge intensive activities" based on the NACE classification.
  • Definition of "high-tech products" based on SITC.
  • Definition of "high-tech patents" based on IPC.


16. Cost and Burden Top

There is no additional cost and burden for respondents (national statistical offices) in collecting the data other than those related to the primary data sources. The cost and burden related to the production of high-tech statistics is therefore related to Eurostat only.

In other words, high-tech statistics are a good value added of how to use already collected data and require no substantial additional cost and burden for Eurostat other than that of the primary sources.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

No data revisions are made at this secondary level as they are made for primary data. The exception is if an error occurs only at the secondary level which is not coming from the primary data (see under Related metadata section).

17.2. Data revision - practice

As the high-technology domain exploits a variety of Eurostat sources/domains, the status of the data depends on these, as do major revisions. Substantial changes in the methodology are to be commented with the first release of data affected by such changes.

In those cases when an error needs to be corrected in only the high-tech domain and not the primary source, the data will be corrected and the revised data will be uploaded to Eurostat's website. If a substantial change would be made it would be commented in the high-tech metadata.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The domain uses various other domains and sources of Eurostat's official statistics (CIS, COMEXT, HRST, LFS, PATENT, R&D and SBS). The source data links are found under Related metadata section.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

18.3. Data collection

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

18.4. Data validation

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

Apart from the validation made for the primary data, the high-tech data is as well being validated before being uploaded.

18.5. Data compilation

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.

18.6. Adjustment

Dependent on the data sources used. See metadata for the various primary sources under Related metadata section.


19. Comment Top

None.


Related metadata Top
inn_cis8_esms - Results of the community innovation survey 2012 (CIS2012)
employ_esms - Employment and unemployment (Labour Force Survey)
hrst_esms - Human Resources in Science & Technology
tin00141_esms - Venture capital investments
rd_esms - Statistics on research and development
sbs_esms - Structural business statistics
pat_esms - Patent


Annexes Top
Annex 1 - Summary
Annex 2 - High-tech aggregation by NACE Rev.1.1
Annex 3 - High-tech aggregation by NACE Rev.2
Annex 4 - High-tech aggregation by SITC Rev.3
Annex 5 - High-tech aggregation by SITC Rev.4
Annex 6 - High-tech aggregation by patents
Annex 7 - Knowledge Intensive Activities by NACE Rev.1.1
Annex 8 - Knowledge Intensive Activities by NACE Rev.2
Annex 9 - Regional tables
Annex 10 - Computation, units and measures
Annex 11 - LFS flags