Transport statistics at regional level
Data extracted in March 2020.
Planned article update: September 2021.
In 2018, the Italian region of Lombardia had the highest number of road fatalities (483 deaths) among regions in the EU, while the Greek region of Notio Aigaio had the highest ratio of fatal road accidents to population size (161 deaths per million inhabitants).
Paris-Charles De Gaulle in France was the busiest passenger airport in the EU (69.4 million passengers in 2018), while Frankfurt/Main in Germany was the busiest airport for freight and mail (2.2 million tonnes in 2018).
Transport and mobility play a fundamental role in the European Union (EU), linking regions together. EU transport policy promotes environmentally friendly, safe and efficient travel, while underpinning the rights of citizens, goods and services to circulate freely within the single market. To do so, transport policy addresses a broad range of issues, including: climate change, safety, passenger rights and customs-related procedures.
This article focuses on regional statistics for road transport and transport infrastructure. The first part presents information concerning: the motorway network, the number of passenger cars relative to the total number of inhabitants (otherwise referred to as the motorisation rate), as well as the number of road accidents resulting in injuries or fatalities. The second half provides statistics on the EU’s transport infrastructure: the density of rail networks, principal maritime ports and principal airports (note that a wider selection of information for air transport services was presented in a previous edition).
Road transport plays an essential role in passenger and freight transport markets. Roads are by far the most common transport mode in the EU for passenger and inland freight transport. Road freight transport is an important component of modern economic systems, providing services that connect producers, traders and consumers. In a similar vein, road passenger transport is also key, with many individuals and families — especially those living in suburban or more rural regions —dependent to a greater or lesser degree on the use of a car.
Policy objectives for road transport include, among other issues: ensuring mobility on an ever more congested road network; reducing road fatalities; lowering air pollution (emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants) and the carbon footprint to which road transport contributes; decreasing the reliance on fossil fuel use and promoting the use of electric vehicles; reviewing the working conditions of professional drivers.
Most road networks in the EU were developed from a national perspective. However, the motorway network provides international traffic arteries that facilitate the flow of passengers and freight between EU Member States. The EU-27 motorway network totalled 71 423 km in 2018 (excluding Greece, for which no data are available).
Map 1 shows the density of the motorway network across NUTS level 2 regions, expressed in terms of kilometres (km) of motorway per 1 000 km² of land area. There were 35 NUTS level 2 regions where the density of the motorway network was at least 50 km/1 000 km² (as shown by the darkest shade). By contrast, there were 23 regions with no motorways; many of these were peripheral and/or island regions. Note that the statistics presented for Germany, Makroregion Województwo Mazowieckie (Poland) and Continente (Portugal) relate to NUTS level 1 regions.
The density of the motorway network is closely linked to population density, although Malta (the most densely populated EU Member State) is a clear exception. Some of the densest networks are concentrated in an area covering the Benelux Member States and western regions of Germany. There were also relatively high ratios of motorway density in several capital regions, metropolitan regions, industrial conurbations and regions containing major sea ports.
In 2018, regional motorway density peaked in Bremen (Germany; 205 km/1 000 km²), a relatively small region which is a manufacturing centre that lies at the crossroads of several major transport arteries; it also includes the port of Bremerhaven. The next highest rates were recorded for two regions in the Netherlands: Zuid-Holland (127 km/1 000 km²) which includes the EU’s largest port (Rotterdam) and Utrecht (125 km/1 000 km²) which is at the centre of the Netherlands, where a number of motorways intersect.
Some of the densest motorway networks in the EU are found in capital regions: those of Hungary, Austria, the Netherlands, Spain, Czechia, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovakia and France all reported ratios above 50 km/1 000 km². Many of these regions are relatively small in size, reflecting administrative boundaries, and their high ratios often reflect the close proximity of a motorway ring and its branches around city centres. For example, the network in Budapest (Hungary) was 61 km in length, which was one tenth of the length recorded for Île de France (613 km), even though the density of the motorway network in Budapest (120 km/1 000 km²) was 2.4 times as high as that for Île de France (51 km/1 000 km²).
In 2018, there were 237 million passenger cars circulating on the roads of the EU-27. Germany (46.5 million) had the largest stock of vehicles, followed by Italy (39.0 million) and France (32.9 million). The EU-27 motorisation rate — or the average number of passenger cars per inhabitant — stood at 503 per 1 000 inhabitants (2015 data); in other words, around one car for every two persons.
The use of passenger cars may be expected to be relatively low in regions characterised by efficient and extensive public transport systems that have frequent services. In these regions, people may be less inclined to own a vehicle (or multiple vehicles within one household), especially when the regions where they live/work suffer from congestion and/or difficulties to find a place to park. This pattern was particularly apparent in capital and metropolitan regions of western and Nordic Member States, in contrast to eastern and southern parts of the EU where the highest motorisation rates were often recorded in capital regions.
Berlin (Germany) had one of the lowest motorisation rates in the EU, at 330 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants in 2018. Car ownership in Berlin was considerably lower than in any other part of Germany, with the next lowest motorisation rates being recorded in Hamburg and Bremen (both 425 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants). Relatively low motorisation rates — less than 450 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants — were also reported in a number of other capital regions, those of: Austria, Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland and the Netherlands.
Higher motorisation rates are also often found in suburban, rural and peripheral regions, especially when these lack alternative modes of inland passenger transport. The highest motorisation rates in the EU — at least 650 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants in 2018 — are shown by the darkest shade in Map 2. These regions were principally located in Italy (13 regions), Poland (five regions) and Finland (four regions). There were six other regions with rates above this threshold. Three of these were within commuting distance of their capital regions: Flevoland (the Netherlands), Prov. Vlaams-Brabant (Belgium) and Burgenland (Austria). The others were the capital regions of Attiki (Greece), Praha (Czechia) and Luxembourg.
The motorisation rate in Valle d’Aosta/Vallee d’Aoste (Italy) was 8.3 times as high as that recorded in Peloponnisos (Greece)
The highest motorisation rates were recorded in northern Italy: Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste (1 488 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants), Provincia Autonoma di Trento (1 156) and Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Bozen (925). Note that these statistics may reflect specific circumstances: for example, the high rate in Valle d’Aosta/Vallee d’Aoste is, at least in part, attributed to lower taxation on new vehicle registrations. At the other end of the range, the lowest motorisation rate was recorded in Peloponnisos (southern mainland Greece), at 179 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants. There were 18 other regions with motorisation rates that were below 350 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants (as shown by the lightest shade in Map 2); a majority of these were regions from Greece and Romania.
Road safety in the EU has improved in recent decades and EU roads are among the safest in the world. That said, road safety remains a major societal issue: in 2018, there were 23 418 road fatalities and no fewer than 1.23 million injuries on the EU-27’s roads (the latter figure includes 2017 data for Ireland). In recent years, there has been some evidence of a slowdown in the rate at which the number of EU road fatalities has been falling. To address this issue, the EU has adopted a new approach, Vision Zero, which aims to reduce the number of deaths on the EU’s roads to almost zero by 2050. Vision Zero provides a strategic plan and monitoring of key safety performance indicators, for example on vehicle safety, seat belt wearing rates, speed compliance or post-crash care. The strategy has set the initial goal of cutting in half the number of fatalities and serious injuries by 2030.
In 2018, there were 52 road fatalities per million inhabitants across the EU-27. Map 3 confirms that some of the highest incidence rates for road fatalities were recorded in rural regions. By contrast, urban regions tended to report a much lower incidence of road fatalities. This may be linked to reduced average speeds: for example, lower speed limits in built-up areas or motorway networks in and around major conurbations being frequently congested.
Looking in more detail, there were 15 NUTS level 2 regions where the number of road fatalities was at least 100 deaths per million inhabitants in 2018 (as shown by the darkest shade). These regions were often clustered together: for example, in eastern Bulgaria, southern Belgium, central Poland, southern Portugal or southern and western Romania. The highest incidence rates for road fatalities in 2018 were recorded in Notio Aigaio (Greece; 161 road fatalities per million inhabitants), Alentejo (Portugal; 142), Mazowiecki regionalny (Poland; 127) and Prov. Luxembourg (Belgium; 123). These statistics should be interpreted with care as the data presented may involve vehicles which are in transit through a region or non-residents staying in a region on holiday, for business or other reason. As such, and other things being equal, regions that have transit corridors or regions with high numbers of visitors may well experience a higher incidence of injuries and fatalities.
There were 16 regions across the EU where the incidence of road fatalities was less than 25 deaths per million inhabitants in 2018 (as shown by the lightest shade in Map 3). The lowest incidence rate was recorded in Finnish autonomous archipelago of Åland, where there were no road fatalities in 2018. However, most regions with relatively low fatality rates were predominantly urban areas. Bremen (Germany) had the second lowest incidence of road fatalities (9 deaths per million inhabitants), while the next lowest ratios were recorded in the capital regions of Austria, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. Wien, Berlin, Stockholm and Hovedstaden each reported an incidence rate for fatal road accidents of 10-14 deaths per million inhabitants.
Lombardia (Italy) had the highest overall number of fatal road accidents (483 deaths) and road injuries (44 625)
In absolute terms (see Figure 1), the highest numbers of road fatalities were unsurprisingly recorded in some of the most populated regions of the EU. The northern Italian region of Lombardia had the biggest count of deaths in 2018 (483), followed by Rhône-Alpes (France; 361), Lazio (the capital region of Italy; 338) and Cataluña (Spain; 326).
Figure 1 also extends the analysis of victims of road accidents to include road injuries. These injuries are diverse in nature and outcome: some victims will fully recover within a relatively short period of time, whereas others may remain permanently disabled. Alongside the highest number of road fatalities, Lombardia also recorded the highest number of road injuries in 2018 (44 625), followed by Cataluña (35 426). In relative terms, there were several regions across Austria and Germany that recorded relatively high incidence rates for road injuries. The Austrian regions of Tirol, Vorarlberg, Salzburg and Oberösterreich each reported in excess of 6 000 road injuries per million inhabitants in 2018; this was also the case in Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (Spain), Liguria (Italy) and Bremen.
The regional distribution of railway infrastructure is shaped by specific historical developments, economic developments and the geographical characteristics of regions. For example, several eastern EU Member States have longer rail networks than their western neighbours, reflecting a legacy from the communist era, when there was often a greater reliance on rail (compared with road) for transporting both passengers and goods.
Map 4 presents information on railway density — as measured by the length of railway lines per 1 000 km² of territory. Note that the statistics presented for Germany and Makroregion Województwo Mazowieckie (Poland) relate to NUTS level 1 regions. In general, the lowest levels of railway density were recorded in peripheral regions of the EU, whereas the highest ratios tended to be in the centre of the EU (where there are more opportunities for establishing a network of connections to surrounding regions). Railway density peaked in a band of regions that ran from northern France, through the Benelux Member States and Germany into eastern regions of the EU. Many of these regions are characterised by high levels of population density and recent investment in the expansion of high-speed rail networks.
Looking in more detail, the densest rail networks in the EU were recorded in the capital regions of Berlin (Germany; 736 km/1 000 km²) and Praha (Czechia; 505 km/1 000 km²). Other capital regions that had relatively high ratios of railway density included Budapest (Hungary; 379 km/1 000km²), Bucureşti-Ilfov (Romania; 159 km/1 000 km²) and Île-de-France (France; 153 km/1 000 km²). These high ratios in capital regions may reflect, among other factors, the relatively small area covered by most capital regions, as well as the presence of (several) mainline terminals/stations from which railway lines tend to radiate outwards. Other than capital regions, railway density was also relatively high — at least 150 km/1 000 km² — in several largely urban and densely populated regions, for example: Hamburg, Bremen and Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, Zuid-Holland in the Netherlands, Severozápad in Czechia, or Śląskie in Poland.
At the other end of the range, there was no railway in 18 regions of the EU. These were predominantly island and/or peripheral regions located in Greece, Spain, France, Cyprus, Malta, Portugal and Finland. They are shown by the lightest shade in Map 4 — alongside the Greek region of Dytiki Makedonia, which had the lowest railway density (among those regions with a railway), at 9 km/1 000 km².
Rotterdam (the Netherlands) was the leading maritime port in the EU for freight, while Helsinki (Finland) was the leading maritime port for passengers
The total tonnage of goods transported by sea to/from EU-27 ports was 3.58 billion tonnes in 2018. Rotterdam (the Netherlands; 441 million tonnes) handled far more goods than any other maritime port in the EU (see Figure 2). It accounted for 12 % of all goods transported by sea in the EU-27, and more than twice as many goods as passed through Antwerpen (Belgium; 212 million tonnes). Two other maritime ports on the North Sea coast — Hamburg (118 million tonnes) and Amsterdam (100 million tonnes) — reported at least 100 million tonnes of goods transported by sea in 2018. The next largest ports in the EU — with between 60 and 90 million tonnes of goods handled — were Algeciras, Valencia (both Spain), Marseille and Le Havre (both France).
The number of maritime passengers passing through EU-27 ports stood at 410 million in 2018. Contrary to the EU’s maritime freight transport (that is largely based on moving bulky goods over long distances), most passenger journeys by sea are relatively short in distance and remain within the EU. The top 20 passenger ports in the EU-27 accounted for 36.4 % of the total number of maritime passengers embarking and disembarking in 2018. Helsinki (Finland) had the highest number of maritime passengers (11.6 million) despite a modest fall in passenger numbers during 2018. There were two other ports in the EU through which at least 10.0 million passengers passed: Messina (Italy; 10.6 million) and Tallinn (Estonia; 10.0 million). The next largest ports — in terms of maritime passengers —were Calais (France), Reggio di Calabria (Italy), Peiraias (Greece) and Stockholm (Sweden), each with between 8.5 and 9.1 million. Algeciras and Peiraias were the only ports to appear in the list of leading passenger ports and the list of leading freight ports, suggesting that most ports were specialised in one or other of these types of maritime transport.
The rapid growth of air passenger transport has been one of the most significant developments in transport services in recent years, both in the EU and the rest of the world. These rapid changes have, at least in part, been driven by liberalisation measures covering, for example, air carrier licensing, market access and fares. These measures have led (in particular) to the growth of low-cost airlines and an expansion of smaller regional airports which are generally less congested and charge lower landing fees than main international airports.
The busiest passenger airport in the EU was Charles De Gaulle (Paris), while the busiest freight airport was Frankfurt
Figure 3 presents information relating to the top 20 passenger airports in the EU, as measured by the total number of passengers carried (arrivals plus departures). In 2018, there were 996 million air passengers carried in the EU, with the top 20 airports accounting for close to three quarters (72 %) of these. Charles De Gaulle (Paris, France) was the busiest passenger airport in the EU with a total of 69.4 million passengers carried. There were three other airports with more than 50 million passengers carried in the same year: Schiphol (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), Frankfurt (Germany) and Barajas (Madrid, Spain).
In 2018, more than half of the passengers carried through Charles de Gaulle (57.5 %), Schiphol (54.9 %), Dublin (Ireland; 51.0 %) and Frankfurt (50.9 %) were arriving from/destined to airports in non-member countries. Note that a high number of passengers passing through Dublin were travelling from/destined to airports in the United Kingdom (which is outside the EU since 1 February 2020). By contrast, extra-EU arrivals/departures accounted for no more than 25 % of the total number of passengers that passed through Palma de Mallorca (25.0 %), Tegel (Berlin, Germany; 24.0 %) or Orly (Paris, France; 23.1 %) airports. Orly also stood out insofar as more than two fifths (44.4 %) of its passengers in 2018 were travelling on national flights; the next highest shares for national passengers were recorded for Tegel (37.7 %) and Eleftherios Venizelos (Athinai, Greece; 33.6 %).
Figure 3 also shows a ranking for the top 20 EU airports handling (loading and unloading) freight and mail. In 2018, the busiest cargo airport was Frankfurt (2.18 million tonnes), closely followed by Charles de Gaulle (2.12 million tonnes), while Schiphol (1.73 million tonnes) and Leipzig/Halle (Germany; 1.21 million tonnes) were the only other airports to record in excess of a million tonnes of freight and mail. As such, the three largest airports in the EU were the same for air freight and mail as they were for air passengers, albeit in a different order. Given the relatively high cost of transporting goods by air, it is perhaps unsurprising to find that the majority of air freight and mail that was loaded and unloaded in the EU’s leading cargo airports was destined for/arrived from non-member countries.
The relative specialisation of airports in air freight and mail may, at least to some degree, reflect the geographical proximity of a large population base or business customers specialised in logistics, as well as spare runway capacity to allow cargo planes to fill slots that would otherwise be occupied by passenger flights. In 2018, the six airports that were in the top 20 ranking for freight and mail but were not in the top 20 ranking for passengers included: Leipzig/Halle (Germany), Luxembourg, Köln/Bonn (Germany), Liège (Belgium), Frankfurt-Hahn (Germany) and Maastricht/Aachen (the Netherlands). Some of these airports were particularly specialised in air freight services (with relatively low numbers of air passengers), as a result of developing their freight business as logistics centres.
Source data for figures and maps
Regional transport statistics are collected for a number of transport modes, covering a broad range of indicators, for example, transport infrastructure (the length of transport networks) or equipment rates (the number of vehicles per inhabitant). The other main area of regional transport statistics concerns flows of passenger and freight traffic between, within and through regions, with differences across regions often closely related to the level and structure of their economic activity, their number of inhabitants, or their geographical location in relation to key transport infrastructure (such as road and rail networks, or ports and airports).
A motorway is a road, specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which: a) is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for traffic in two directions, separated from each other, either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic, or exceptionally by other means; b) has no crossings at the same level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; c) is especially sign-posted as a motorway and is reserved for specific categories of road motor vehicles. Entry and exit lanes of motorways are included, as are urban motorways.
A passenger car is a road motor vehicle intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver). Included are: a) passenger cars; b) vans designed and used primarily for transport of passengers; c) taxis; d) hire cars; e) ambulances; f) motor homes; g) special passenger cars (police cars, firefighters’ cars).
The legal basis for road transport statistics is Regulation (EU) No 70/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council which provides for comprehensive regional statistics with regard to both the carriage of goods and vehicle journeys. Regional data on transport infrastructure (for example, the length of motorways) and stocks of vehicles (for example, passenger cars) are currently provided on a voluntary basis.
For road safety statistics, regional data are also collected on a voluntary basis. Two types of casualties are distinguished: people who are killed (road fatalities) and people who are injured. Road fatalities include persons who are killed immediately in a traffic accident or who die within 30 days as a result of an injury sustained in a road accident; these statistics exclude suicides. An injured person is any person who, as result of an injury sustained in a road accident, was not killed immediately or did not die within 30 days, but sustained an injury, normally needing medical treatment; these statistics exclude attempted suicides. Persons with lesser wounds, such as minor cuts or bruises, are not normally recorded as injured persons. Regional data on road safety are currently provided on a voluntary basis.
A railway line is a line of transportation exclusively for the use of railway vehicles and maintained for running trains. It consists of a pair of rails over which rail borne vehicles can run maintained by an infrastructure manager. Metro, tram and light rail urban lines are excluded. Within the EU, the cumulative length of railway lines excludes: lines solely used for operating touristic trains and heritage trains; lines constructed solely to serve mines, forests or other industrial or agricultural installations and which are not open to public traffic; private lines closed to public traffic and functionally separated networks; private lines used for own freight transport activities. Regional data on rail networks are currently provided on a voluntary basis.
A port is an area of land and water made up of such infrastructure and equipment so as to permit, principally, the reception of waterborne vessels, their loading and unloading, the storage of goods, the receipt and delivery of those goods and the embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, crew and other persons and any other infrastructure necessary for transport operators within the port area.
An airport is defined as an area of land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft and open for commercial air transport operations. Regional data for air passenger and freight transport are aggregated from data at the level of main airports.
The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport is responsible for developing transport policy within the EU. Its remit is to ensure mobility in a single European transport area, integrating the needs of the population and the economy at large, while minimising adverse environmental effects. It is hoped that the promotion of more efficient and interconnected transport networks in the EU will, among other benefits, lead to advanced mobility, carbon reductions, improved competitiveness and productivity gains. Policy initiatives within the transport domain touch on everyday lives. For example, the European Commission has proposed legislation relating to:
- the protection of passenger rights;
- security measures, such as a list of airlines banned from EU skies;
- road safety measures to reduce road fatalities and serious road accidents;
- funding to deliver a modern trans-European transport network (TEN-T) with multimodal management systems that facilitate the mobility of goods and passengers across the EU;
- a range of policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by delivering sustainable transport.
In March 2011, the European Commission adopted the White paper Roadmap to a single European transport area — towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system (COM(2011) 144 final). It contains 40 initiatives designed to help build a competitive transport system in the EU and also sets a range of environmental goals to be achieved by 2050.
The European Commission’s jobs, growth and investment package, adopted in 2014, highlights a range of infrastructure projects including: transport links between EU Member States; the expansion and upgrading of freight and passenger capacities in ports and airports; dedicated rail connections between important airports and urban centres; ‘green’ projects in the area of maritime transport; and the promotion of alternative fuel-infrastructures along major roads. When re-assessing its investment plan for Europe in 2016, the European Commission made proposals to increase the duration of the fund and its financial capacity; an amending Regulation (EU) No 2017/2396 was adopted in December 2017, with the goal of making at least EUR 500 billion of investment available up until the end of 2020, principally through the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI).
The European Commission has also enacted legislation in order to promote a safer, more connected and cleaner mobility system in the EU — Europe on the move. The objective is to promote safer traffic, less polluting vehicles and more advanced technological solutions through an integrated policy for future road safety, emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles, an action plan for developing and manufacturing batteries for use in transport vehicles, as well as a strategy for connected and automated mobility.
The EU has a long term strategic goal for road safety: Vision Zero (in other words, no deaths and serious injuries on European roads by 2050). In order to achieve this, the European Commission provided proposals for an EU road safety policy framework 2021-2030 — Next steps towards Vision Zero (SWD(2019) 283 final) in June 2019. The proposals are designed to underpin a 50 % reduction in fatalities and serious injuries by 2030 through monitoring indicators such as vehicle safety, the seat belt wearing rate, speed compliance and post-crash care.
- Transport, see:
- Regional transport statistics (t_tran_r)
- Regional transport statistics (t_reg_tran)
- Transport, see:
- Multimodal data (tran)
- Regional transport statistics (tran_r)
- Victims in road accidents by NUTS 2 regions (tran_r_acci)
- Regional transport statistics (tran_r)
- Road transport (road)
- Road transport infrastructure (road_if)
- Length of motorways and e-roads (road_if_motorwa)
- Road transport equipment - stock of vehicles (road_eqs)
- Passenger cars, by age (road_eqs_carage)
- Road transport infrastructure (road_if)
- Maritime transport (mar)
- Maritime transport - main annual results (mar_m)
- Top 20 ports - gross weight of goods handled in each port, by direction (mar_mg_aa_pwhd)
- Top 20 ports - passengers embarked and disembarked in each port, by direction (mar_mp_aa_pphd)
- Maritime transport - main annual results (mar_m)
- Air transport (avia)
- Air transport measurement - traffic data by airports, aircrafts and airlines (avia_tf)
- Airline traffic data by main airport (avia_tf_ala)
- Air transport measurement - traffic data by airports, aircrafts and airlines (avia_tf)
- Regional transport statistics (reg_tran)
- Other regional transport (reg_otran)
Manuals and further methodological information
- Illustrated glossary for transport statistics — 5th edition, 2019
- Methodological manual on territorial typologies — Eurostat — 2018 edition
- Reference manual on regional transport statistics — 2015 edition
- Regional transport statistics (ESMS metadata file — reg_tran_esms)
- Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea (recast)
- Regulation (EU) No 437/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 February 2003 on statistical returns in respect of the carriage of passengers, freight and mail by air
- Regulation (EU) 2018/643 of the European Parliament and of the Council on rail transport statistics (recast)