Passenger cars in the EU

Data extracted in September 2021

Planned article update: June 2022

In 2019, Luxembourg had the highest number of passenger cars per inhabitant in the EU, with 681 cars per thousand inhabitants.

This article describes developments in passenger car stocks and new registrations in the European Union (EU), focusing in particular on passenger cars powered by ‘alternative fuels’.

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Overview: car fleet grows, alternative fuels still have a low share

Overall, the passenger car fleet in almost all of the EU Member States has grown over the last five years. The highest number of cars per thousand inhabitants was recorded in Luxembourg, followed by Italy and Cyprus. In 2019, Poland had by far the highest share of passenger cars older than 20 years, followed by Estonia and Finland.

Despite an increase over the last years, passenger cars powered by alternative fuels, including hybrid cars, only made up a small share of the fleet of passenger cars in the EU in 2019. This is reflected by the share of cars powered by alternative fuels being low among the newly registered passenger cars.

New passenger car engine fuel: petrol popular, diesel declining, alternative rising

The preferences for whether a new passenger car should be powered by a petrol or diesel engine vary across the EU Member States (Table 1). For the 22 Member States for which detailed data are available, 19 registered a higher petrol share; this is a change from the past, when a majority of Member States recorded a higher diesel share.

Table 1: New passenger cars by type of engine fuel, 2019
Source: Eurostat (road_eqr_carmot)and (road_eqr_carpda)

In 2019, the highest shares of petrol-powered cars among the new registrations were noted in the Netherlands (78.6 %), Finland (77.2 %) and Estonia (74.4 %), with high shares also recorded in Denmark (69.1 %), Romania (66.7 %), Slovenia 65.9 %), Belgium and Malta (both 65.5 %), Spain (64.2 %), France (63.2 %), Latvia (61.5 %), Sweden (60.3 %), Germany (59.2 %), Austria (56.4 %, 2018 data), Cyprus (55.0 %), and Poland (54.0 %).

By contrast, the highest shares of diesel cars among the new passenger cars were recorded in Croatia (65.9 %), Lithuania (57.4 %) and Ireland (55.0 %).

In the EU Member States and EFTA countries for which recent data are available, an increase in the share of new registrations of passenger cars powered by alternative fuels (including hybrids) can generally be observed in the period from 2017 to 2019. The share is however low in most countries. In 2019, the highest share by far of alternative fuels in new registrations could be seen in the Netherlands (14.0 %), Ireland (12.6 %) and Poland (11.7 %) and, from the EFTA countries, in Norway (41.9 %). Thereafter followed Italy (9.5 %), Germany (8.8 %), and Romania and Hungary both with a share of 6.4 % of passenger cars with alternative fuels amongst the new registrations. For three Member States, registrations of new passenger cars with alternative fuels were less than 2 % of the total registrations in 2019.

Figure 1: New passenger cars with alternative fuel engine, 2017-2019
(% of new passenger cars)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqr_carmot) and (road_eqr_carpda)

The share of registrations of new passenger cars powered by alternative fuels fluctuates in several countries. Indeed, as shown in Figure 1, the share of cars with alternative fuels in the total new registrations increased from 2017 to 2019 in most of the countries. One of the reasons behind this is the variety of government incentives to stimulate the share of cars with lower emissions, and the timing of when these incentives are introduced. These incentives include, for example, tax reductions, subsidies or specific privileges such as access to lanes reserved for public transport and free parking. Other main reasons are the number and variety of passenger car models with alternative fuel engines offered, as well as the prices of such models.

Highest number of passenger cars per inhabitant in Luxembourg

In 2019, the highest number of registered passenger cars was observed in Germany with almost 48 million cars. Thereafter followed Italy (40 million cars) and France (32 million cars). Over the five-year period from 2015 to 2019, there was strong growth in the number of registered passenger cars in several Member States (Table 2). The highest growth over this period was recorded in Romania (34 %), followed by Lithuania (20 %), Hungary (19 %), Slovakia and Poland (both 18 %), Estonia and Cyprus (both 17 %), Czechia (16 %), as well as Portugal and Croatia (both 15 %).

Table 2: Passenger cars
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carmot)

Only one Member State recorded a decline in the number of registered passenger cars over the period observed: Bulgaria, with a decline of 10.5 % from 2015 to 2019.

Amongst the EU Member States with the highest motorisation rates, i.e., passenger cars per thousand inhabitants, there are several smaller countries (Figure 2). Luxembourg (681 passenger cars per thousand inhabitants) heads the list; however, this figure may be influenced by cross-border workers (i.e., not inhabitants) using company cars registered in the country. In second place follows Italy with 663 cars per thousand inhabitants. Other countries with a high motorisation rate include Cyprus (645 cars), and Finland and Poland (both with 642 cars).

Figure 2: Motorisation rate, 2019
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carhab)

At the other end of the scale, a particularly low motorisation rate is recorded in Romania (357 cars), despite a growth in the number of registered cars of 34 % over the period 2015-2019. The motorisation rate in the two EU candidate countries for which data are available (North Macedonia and Turkey) is substantially lower than in the Member States. The smallest value, 150 cars per thousand inhabitants, was recorded in Turkey.

Small petrol engines more common than medium-sized and large engines

In 13 of the 24 Member States for which information is available for 2019, there were more petrol cars than diesel cars, and the share of petrol cars ranged from 83 % in the Netherlands to 47 % in Italy. In the other 11 Member States diesel cars outnumbered petrol cars, and their share ranged from 68 % in Lithuania to 50 % in Slovenia. Despite efforts across Europe to increase the share of cars with low CO2 emissions, the share of passenger cars powered by alternative fuels remained in 2019 low in most Member States. In 8 out of 24 Member States, for which information is available, passenger cars using alternative energy represented less than 1 % of the total passenger car fleet. The most striking exception is Poland, where the share of passenger cars powered by alternative fuels reached 16.1 % in 2019. This is to a large extent due to a high number of cars retro-fitted for LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) use. Other countries with notable shares of passenger cars using alternative fuels are Italy (9.0 %), Lithuania (7.7 %), Latvia (6.8 %) and Sweden (5.6 %), see Figure 3.

Figure 3: Passenger cars by type of engine fuel, 2019
(% of all passenger cars)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carpda)

In 16 out of 21 EU countries, for which data are available, it can be noticed that the share of small petrol engines is higher than the medium- and large-sized ones (Table 3).

In Malta, in 2019 more than half of all passenger cars had small petrol engines, with the share of cars with small-sized petrol engines reaching 55.5 % of the total, followed by the Netherlands with 50.1 %. In Finland, medium-sized petrol engines powered 40.7 % of the passenger cars. Large petrol engines can be found in passenger cars in Estonia (10.9 % of all passenger cars) and Finland (9.1 %) and in the EFTA countries Liechtenstein (17.4 %) and Switzerland (11.7 %).

Table 3: Petrol-driven passenger cars by size of engine, 2019
(% of all passenger cars)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carmot)

Overall, passenger cars with small engines usually use petrol as fuel; there are relatively few passenger cars with small diesel engines in the EU. Medium-sized engines dominate amongst the diesel-powered passenger cars in all Member States for which data are available (Table 4). This is particularly the case for countries with the highest overall share of diesel-powered passenger cars, France and Ireland, as well as in the other countries where more than half of the passenger cars were diesel cars, most notably Spain and Austria (2018 data).

Table 4: Diesel-driven passenger cars by size of engine, 2019
(share of total registered passenger cars %)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carmot)

Highest share of passenger cars over 20 years old in Poland

Several Member States reported in 2019 a large share of ’old’ passenger cars (20 years or older), see Figure 4. The Member States with the highest shares were Poland (37.9 %), Estonia (31.5 %), Finland (26.9 %), Lithuania (22.6 %), Romania (22.1 %) and Malta (21.4nbsp;%). By contrast, the shares of the ’youngest’ passenger cars (less than 2 years old) were highest in Ireland (28.8 %), Luxembourg (23.7 %), Belgium (22.9 %) and Denmark (22.6 %).

Figure 4: Passenger cars by age, 2019
(% of all passenger cars)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carage)

In recent years, several countries have been offering programmes supporting the purchase of new cars with low emissions while scrapping the owners’ old cars. The general aim of these programmes has been the renewal of the passenger car fleet with lower emission cars, while simultaneously stimulating the economy. These programmes have had a certain influence on the age composition of passenger cars in individual countries. In this context, one should take note of the reference year when analysing these data. Figure 5 presents the age distribution of passenger cars in 2019.

Figure 5: Age of passenger cars, 2019
(% of all passenger cars)
Source: Eurostat (road_eqs_carage)

Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

The Eurostat/ITF/UNECE Common Questionnaire on Inland Transport.


The data in this article covers the EU Member States, the United Kingdom, the EFTA countries and the candidate countries (list of countries and the corresponding country codes).


All definitions used are taken from the Eurostat/UNECE/ITF Glossary for Transport Statistics, currently in its 5th edition. This glossary can be found on Eurostat’s website Eurostat/UNECE/ITF Glossary for Transport Statistics.

Passenger cars

Road motor vehicle, other than a moped or a motor cycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver).

Included are:

  • Passenger cars
  • Vans designed and used primarily for transport of passengers
  • Taxis
  • Hire cars
  • Ambulances
  • Motor homes
  • Micro-cars (needing no permit to be driven)

Excluded are light goods road vehicles, as well as motor-coaches and buses, and mini-buses/mini-coaches.

Motor energy

The principal type of motor energy used by the vehicle as certified by the competent authority of the country of registration. For hybrid or dual-fuelled vehicles adapted for using more than one type of motor energy (e.g., LPG and petrol, or electricity and diesel, etc.), the principal type of motor energy should be, where possible, an alternative fuel.

Alternative fuel

A type of motor energy other than the conventional fuels, petrol and diesel. Alternative fuels include electricity, LPG, natural gas (NGL or CNG), alcohols, mixtures of alcohols with other fuels, hydrogen, bio-fuels (such as biodiesel), etc. (this list is not exhaustive). Alternative fuels do not include unleaded petrol, reformulated petrol or city (low-sulphur) diesel.

Motorisation rate

The number of registered passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants.


The Common Questionnaire on Inland Transport is a joint project of Eurostat, the International Transport Forum (ITF) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The data are provided on a voluntary basis by a large number of countries, both within and outside the European Union. Data is collected from reliable sources, but data collection methodologies are not harmonised at EU level. Comparability across countries is restricted as the classifications used in the national vehicle registers are not harmonised. Vehicle registers may exclude taxis, pick-up and vans, and may also exclude very old vehicles. This article covers data provided by the EU Member States, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and EU candidate countries.

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