Tourism statistics at regional level
Data extracted in March 2021.
Planned article update: September 2022.
Canarias in Spain was the EU region with the highest number of international (non-resident) tourists (84 million nights spent in tourist accommodation) in 2019, while the French capital region, Île-de-France, had the highest number of domestic tourists (41 million nights).
96.4 % of the nights spent in tourist accommodation in 2019 in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in north-eastern Germany were spent by domestic tourists, compared with 4.0 % on the Greek island of Kriti (2018 data).
Tourism has the potential to play a significant role in the economic aspirations of many European Union (EU) regions and can be of particular importance in remote/peripheral regions, such as the EU’s coastal, mountainous or outermost regions. Infrastructure that is created for tourism purposes contributes to local and regional development, while jobs that are created or maintained can help counteract industrial or rural decline. However, (mass) tourism can have negative consequences, as excess demand puts a strain on local infrastructure and may be a nuisance to local communities, while tourists may impact the environment locally through noise, pollution, waste and wastewater, habitat loss and globally through transport-related emissions.
In spring 2020, during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the EU, virtually all EU Member States implemented containment measures and restrictions on non-essential travel internally and/or internationally. Some partially or completely closed borders. Where international travel continued, it was in some cases accompanied by a requirement to go into quarantine. These travel-related restrictions had an immediate and massive impact on tourism. As well as travel-related restrictions, governments imposed restrictions on the way that many tourism-related businesses could operate, in some cases closing them altogether. In the course of spring 2020, tourism came to a halt in many Member States as both demand and supply were hit by the pandemic and the actions implemented to slow its spread. Most restrictions were lifted before or during the peak summer season.
The partial recovery in the number of tourist accommodation arrivals in the EU during the summer of 2020 was largely driven by domestic demand, with many people staying in their home country for a ‘staycation’ rather than crossing borders for a foreign holiday. Compared with 2019, the number of arrivals in July and August 2020 was particularly low in hotels and similar establishments, while the impact was less for holiday and other short-stay accommodation. Least impacted were camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks, although the number of arrivals in this type of accommodation was still down by about one quarter. As subsequent waves of the pandemic affected various EU Member States, many reintroduced restrictions in autumn and winter 2020, with major consequences for winter tourism, whether related or not to winter sports. At the time of writing, in spring 2021, some Member States have started to reduce or remove restrictions on international travel from selected countries.
It should be remembered that there are many regions within the EU where tourism-related activities play an important and sometimes dominant role; these are likely to have been particularly hard hit by the economic and social consequences of the crisis. The same is true for the people working in tourism-related enterprises: young people, immigrants, women and people on low pay typically make up a relatively large proportion of the workforce in many of these enterprises.
This article presents information on regional patterns of tourism across the EU. Its main focus is the provision of tourist accommodation services, as measured by the number of nights spent; it concludes with information relating to the sustainability of tourism, as detailed by a number of indicators that measure tourism pressures.
Tourism, in a statistical context, refers to the activity of visitors taking a trip to a destination outside their usual environment, for less than a year. It is important to note that this definition is wider than the common everyday definition, insofar as it encompasses not only private leisure trips but also visits to family and friends, as well as business trips.
Number of nights spent
In 2019, there were 2.9 billion nights spent in tourist accommodation across the EU. This figure refers to the total number of nights spent by all tourists and reflects both the length of stay and the number of tourists. It is considered a key indicator for analysing the tourism sector, even if it does not cover stays at non-rented accommodation nor same-day visits.
Map 1 shows information on the number of nights spent in tourist accommodation in 2019 by domestic tourists and international tourists for NUTS level 2 regions.
There were 25 regions in the EU (out of 240 for which data are available; note that data for Greece are for 2018) where at least 30.0 million nights were spent in tourist accommodation. These regions were mainly coastal regions, along with several mountain regions (such as Tirol in Austria) and a very small number of inland urban regions (city destinations such as the French capital region). A total of 1.3 billion nights were spent in tourist accommodation across these 25 regions. As such, approximately one tenth of the EU regions accounted for a cumulative share of 44 % of the total nights spent. This high concentration of tourist numbers in relatively few locations has implications for sustainable development.
The infographic below shows that there were 1.4 million nights spent in coastal regions of the EU in 2019, which was 47.4 % of the total. International tourists are generally more likely (than domestic tourists) to spend their holidays in coastal areas.
The distribution of nights spent in tourist accommodation according to the degree of urbanisation was balanced as approximately one third of the total was in each of the categories: 33.7 % in cities, 33.4 % in towns and suburbs and 32.9 % in rural areas.
The three regions with the highest number of tourist nights in the EU were the island region of Canarias (Spain), Jadranska Hrvatska (on the Adriatic coast in Croatia) and Île-de-France (the French capital)
The list of the EU regions with the highest numbers of tourist nights in 2019 is dominated by coastal regions around the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, the highest number of nights spent in tourist accommodation was recorded in Spain’s Atlantic island destination of Canarias (96.1 million). Several other coastal regions featured in the top 10: the Adriatic region of Jadranska Hrvatska (Croatia; 86.2 million), four more Spanish regions — Cataluña (84.1 million), Andalucía (72.0 million), Illes Balears (68.4 million) and Comunidad Valenciana (50.1 million) — as well as Veneto (Italy; 71.2 million) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (France; 54.6 million). The top 10 was completed by two non-coastal regions, both of which were located in France: the capital region of Île-de-France (which had the third highest number of nights spent in tourist accommodation at 84.7 million) and Rhône-Alpes (51.5 million).
Map 1 also displays information concerning the share of nights spent by international (or non-resident) tourists. Across the EU as a whole, the share was 47.3 % in 2019; in other words, just under half of the nights spent in tourist accommodation in the EU were spent by people who were not residents of the country where they were staying.
In 2019, domestic tourists (residents of the country visited) accounted for 1.5 billion nights spent in tourist accommodation across the EU. This figure was 11 % higher than the 1.3 billion nights spent by international tourists; note that the latter includes tourists from other EU Member States as well as from non-member countries.
The share of international tourists in the total number of nights spent in tourist accommodation was generally high in coastal regions, particularly island regions. It exceeded 90.0 % in seven regions: five island regions — Kriti (Greece, 2018), Malta, Cyprus, Ionia Nisia (Greece, 2018) and Iles Balears; the coastal region of Jadranska Hrvatska; and the mountainous region of Tirol. Several capital regions appear among the 15 other regions where this share reached 75.0 % or higher (as shown by the darkest orange shade in the map), with particularly high shares of international tourists in the Czech and Hungarian capitals.
In 2019, there was an annual increase of 2.3 % in the number of nights spent in EU tourist accommodation
Between 2018 and 2019, the number of nights spent in EU tourist accommodation increased by 2.3 %. Map 2 presents regional information for the annual rate of change in the total number of nights spent in tourist accommodation between 2018 and 2019. More than four fifths of NUTS level 2 regions recorded an increase in their number of nights spent in 2019. This was the case for 201 out of the 240 EU regions for which data are available (note that data for Greece and Slovenia relate to the change in 2018 and 2017 respectively). There were 38 regions where the change in the number of nights spent was negative, including 23 where the decline was larger than 1.5 % (as shown in Map 2 in the darkest shade of blue).
Between 2018 and 2019, one quarter of all EU regions recorded an increase of at least 5.0 % in the total number of nights spent in tourist accommodation (as shown by the two darkest orange shades in the map). The highest growth rates were recorded in Zahodna Slovenija (Slovenia), Prov. Namur (Belgium), Mayotte (France), Stredné Slovensko and Východné Slovensko (both Slovakia), ranging from 15.9 % to 18.3 %. Among these five regions with the fastest growth, Zahodna Slovenija was the only region with more than 10.0 million nights spent in 2019, while Mayotte had the smallest level of tourism by this measure (0.1 million nights).
An analysis of the top 5 tourist destinations in the EU reveals a variety of developments between 2018 and 2019. Among these regions, Andalucía and Cataluña recorded the highest growth rates in terms of nights spent (up 3.5 % and 2.9 % respectively), while Jadranska Hrvatska recorded a more modest increase (up 1.6 %). By contrast, there was a decline in the total number of nights spent in the Île-de-France (down 1.6 %) and in Canarias (down 3.8 %). The contrasting developments for the Île-de-France and Jadranska Hrvatska resulted in the Croatian coastal region overtaking the French capital region to record the second highest number of nights spent (behind Canarias).
The three destinations with the highest number of nights spent by domestic tourists were French: Île-de-France, Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur
Figure 1 presents the most frequented tourist destinations for both domestic and international tourists. The ranking for domestic tourists is dominated by relatively large EU Member States, reflecting the fact that they have a larger number of potential clients. In 2019, the three most frequented regions across the EU for domestic tourists were all located in France. There were 40.7 million nights spent by domestic tourists in tourist accommodation within Île-de-France, while Rhône-Alpes (36.9 million) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (36.6 million) recorded almost as many nights. Within Spain, Andalucía had the highest number of nights spent by domestic tourists, Schleswig-Holstein had the highest number of nights spent by domestic tourists in Germany, and in Italy the most frequented region for domestic tourists was Emilia-Romagna.
The second half of Figure 1 shows that international tourists often stayed in the most frequented holiday destinations in the EU. The large number of nights spent by international tourists in some of these regions may result in considerable pressures on the environment and sustainability, especially as many international tourists arrive by air (particularly for some of the island regions) and tend to travel during high/peak seasons. In 2019, three of the top four most frequented destinations in the EU for international tourists were located in Spain: Canarias (83.9 million nights in tourist accommodation), Illes Balears (62.3 million) and Cataluña (56.4 million). The second most frequented destination for international tourists was Jadranska Hrvatska (80.6 million).
More than 19 out of 20 nights spent in Kriti and Malta were attributed to international tourists
Figure 2 extends the analysis of the most frequented destinations by providing information about those NUTS level 2 regions that were most dependent upon domestic and upon international tourists. In 2019, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany) on the Baltic coast had the highest share of nights spent in tourist accommodation attributed to domestic tourists (96.4 %), followed by two Romanian regions: Sud-Vest Oltenia (95.8 %) and Sud-Est (94.7 %). Several of the regions with high shares for domestic tourists were located in Germany.
International tourists accounted for a majority of the nights spent in many of the EU’s most frequented tourist destinations in 2019. This was most notably the case in the Greek island region of Kriti, where 96.0 % (2018 data) of nights spent in tourist accommodation were attributed to international tourists. There were also very high shares for international tourists in Malta (95.2 %), Cyprus (94.2 %) and Ionia Nisia (94.1 %), as well as the coastal region of Jadranska Hrvatska (93.5 %). Aside from coastal and island destinations, international tourists also accounted for a high proportion of the total nights spent in the mountainous western Austrian regions of Tirol and Vorarlberg, as well as the capital regions of Praha and Budapest.
This section focuses on net occupancy rates of bedrooms in hotels and similar accommodation establishments for 2019. The occupancy rate of bedrooms is calculated as the percentage of available bedrooms that are used; bedrooms that are closed for seasonal or other temporary reasons are excluded. Across the EU, the occupancy rate for 2019 was 59.0 %. Rates of 70.0 % or more were recorded in 21 NUTS level 2 regions (shown with the darkest shade of orange in Map 3). Among these, three recorded rates of 80.0 % or 80.1 %: Illes Balears and Canarias (both in Spain) and Noord-Holland (in the Netherlands). Occupancy rates below 50.0 % were recorded in 81 of 239 regions in the EU for which data are available (2018 data for Greece). Among these, 31 regions had rates below 40.0 % (the darkest shade of blue in the map). A large number of these regions with relatively low rates were in Greece or Italy, with most of the remainder in eastern EU Member States, most notably in Czechia, Romania and Bulgaria. The lowest bedroom occupancy rate of all was 18.2 % in Dytiki Makedonia (Greece).
Since the advent of mass tourism in the 1950s and 1960s, EU regions have been affected by tourism in different ways. Some regions continue to receive very few visitors, while others have seen their numbers of tourists grow at a rapid pace. The vast majority of regions receive the bulk of their visitors during a single season, although others have a more steady flow of tourists year-round (note that from 2021 onwards, Eurostat will publish monthly, regional accommodation statistics).
Sustainable tourism involves the preservation and enhancement of cultural and natural heritage, including the arts, gastronomy or the preservation of biodiversity. The success of tourism is, in the long-term, closely linked to its sustainability, with the quality of destinations often influenced by their natural and cultural environment.
Tourism density — defined here as the relationship between the total number of nights spent and the total area of each region — provides one measure that may be used to analyse sustainability issues. In 2019, there were, on average, some 671 nights spent in tourist accommodation for every square kilometre (km²) across the EU territory. Tourism density was generally high in regions where space was at a premium: capital regions, other major urban regions, and some coastal (particularly small island) regions. By contrast, tourism density was relatively low in many eastern and northern regions of the EU, as well as some interior regions of Spain.
There were 23 NUTS level 2 regions in the EU where tourism density in 2019 stood at more than 4 000 nights per km² (as shown by the darkest shade of orange in Map 4); among these, 11 had ratios in excess of 10 000 per km². The highest ratios were recorded in capital regions: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale/Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest (45 856), Wien (40 525), Berlin (38 072), Praha (37 257), Budapest (20 508) and Noord-Holland (10 304). Regional tourism density was also high in three island destinations that attract tourists year-round: Malta (31 365), Illes Balears (13 703) and Canarias (12 906). There were two other regions that recorded ratios of more than 10 000 nights spent per km²: Hamburg in Germany (20 373) and Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla in Spain (10 451). Note these density ratios are influenced by the administrative boundaries that delineate each region. For example, the capital regions of Belgium, Austria and Czechia mentioned above each cover an area of less than 500 km². By contrast, the French capital region of Île-de-France — which is the second most frequented tourist destination in the EU — has an area of almost 12 000 km²; a high proportion of its visitors stay within the city boundaries of Paris (103 km²).
An alternative tourism pressure indicator can be calculated as the number of nights spent in tourist accommodation relative to the resident population in a region. This can give an idea of the pressure on a region’s infrastructure. In the EU, there were 6 439 nights spent in tourist accommodation per 1 000 inhabitants in 2019.
This measure was generally high in island, coastal, mountain and rural regions, particularly in southern Europe, Austria and Croatia, but also further north, for example in Zeeland and Drenthe in the Netherlands. One notable, urban exception was the Czech capital region. By far the highest ratios of nights spent in tourist accommodation relative to the resident population were in the Greek islands of Notio Aigaio and Ionia Nisia, with ratios of 90 278 and 75 508 nights spent per 1 000 inhabitants (both 2018 data) respectively.
By contrast, the number of nights spent in tourist accommodation relative to the resident population was relatively low in many eastern regions of the EU, particularly in Poland and Romania. However, the lowest ratio was in the outermost French region of Mayotte (373 per 1 000 inhabitants).
The same indicator as shown in Map 5 is also presented in Figure 3. This figure illustrates the extent to which this measure of tourism pressure varies between the regions within each EU Member State. The largest ranges were observed in France and Greece (2018 data): the ratio of 31 254 nights per 1 000 inhabitants in Corse was 84 times as high as the ratio of 373 per 1 000 in Mayotte; the ratio of 90 278 nights per 1 000 inhabitants in Notio Aigaio was 72 times as high as the ratio of 1 262 per 1 000 in Dytiki Makedonia. Relatively large inter-regional differences were also observed in Italy, Croatia and Spain. By contrast, there was relatively little regional difference for this indicator among the regions of Lithuania or Ireland.
Source data for figures and maps
Eurostat’s tourism statistics consist of two main components: on the one hand, there are statistics relating to the capacity and occupancy of collective tourist accommodation; on the other, there are statistics relating to tourism demand. In most EU Member States, the former are collected via surveys filled in by accommodation establishments, while the latter are usually collected via traveller surveys at border crossings or through household surveys.
Regional tourism statistics are only available from suppliers of tourism services and are collected through surveys of tourist accommodation establishments. These surveys provide information that covers tourism capacity (counts of establishments, rooms and bed places) and occupancy (the number of arrivals and nights spent). The data may be analysed by NUTS level 2 regions (as shown in this article), by degree of urbanisation, and for coastal/non-coastal areas.
Since 2012, the legal basis for the collection of tourism statistics has been Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2011 concerning European statistics on tourism and Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1051/2011 of 20 October 2011. Among other changes, Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1681 of 1 August 2019 introduced a requirement to provide data on nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments analysed by NUTS level 3.
Tourism statistics may be analysed according to the tourist’s country of residence (not the tourist’s citizenship). Domestic tourism covers the activities of residents who stay in their own country (but outside their usual environment) and this may be contrasted with the activities of international tourists (often referred to as inbound or non-resident tourists).
Note that, as of mid-2021, Eurostat also publishes experimental statistics on Short-stay accommodation booked through four major online collaborative economy platforms (Airbnb, Booking, Expedia Group and Tripadvisor), including data at a regional level and at a city level.
Tourist accommodation establishments are local kind-of-activity units. They include all types of tourist accommodation providing, as a paid service, accommodation for tourists, regardless of whether or not the provision of tourist accommodation is the main or a secondary activity. These establishments are defined according to the activity classification NACE as units providing short-term or short-stay accommodation services as a paid service:
- hotels and similar accommodation (NACE Group 55.1) — includes accommodation provided by hotels, resort hotels, suite/apartment hotels, motels;
- holiday and other short-stay accommodation (NACE Group 55.2) — includes holiday homes, visitor flats and bungalows, cottages and cabins without housekeeping services, youth hostels and mountain refuges;
- camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks (NACE Group 55.3) — includes the provision of accommodation in campgrounds, trailer parks, recreational camps, and fishing and hunting camps for short-stay visitors.
The number of nights spent (overnight stays) is based on a count of nights that guests/tourists actually spend (sleep or stay) in specific types of accommodation.
The bedroom occupancy rate at hotels and similar establishments is calculated by dividing the total number of bedrooms used during the reference period (the sum of the bedrooms in use each day) by the total number of bedrooms available (the sum of bedrooms available each day, net of seasonal closures and other temporary closures). The result is multiplied by 100 to express the occupancy rate as a percentage.
The EU’s competence in the area of tourism is one of support and coordination in relation to the actions of individual EU Member States. Policymakers seek to maintain the EU’s position as a tourist destination while supporting the contribution made by tourism-related activities to overall growth and employment.
A European Commission communication Europe, the world’s No. 1 tourist destination — a new political framework for tourism in Europe (COM(2010) 352 final) was adopted in June 2010 and remains in force. It provides a framework for the development of tourism within the EU, with four priority areas for action: stimulate competitiveness; promote sustainable and responsible tourism; consolidate Europe’s image as a collection of sustainable, high-quality destinations; maximise the potential of policies/financial instruments for developing tourism in the EU.
The European Commission has encouraged the diversification of the EU’s tourism offer through initiatives relating to maritime/coastal tourism, sustainable tourism, cultural tourism, tourism for all, accessible tourism, low-season tourism or collaborative tourism. To enhance the visibility of the EU as a tourist destination and increase international tourist arrivals, the European Commission undertakes a wide range of communication and promotion activities. Furthermore, it provides ad hoc grants to the European Travel Commission (ETC), a non-profit organisation responsible for promoting Europe as an international tourist destination through reports, handbooks and websites (such as visiteurope.com).
The EU is a key cultural tourism destination thanks to its heritage that includes museums, theatres, archaeological sites, historical cities, industrial sites as well as music and gastronomy. The EU promotes a balanced approach between the needs to boost growth on one side, and the preservation of artefacts, historical sites, and local traditions on the other. Cultural tourism provides an opportunity to showcase European heritage, for example, through establishing cultural routes.
In its communication on maritime and coastal tourism A European Strategy for more Growth and Jobs in Coastal and Maritime Tourism (COM(2014) 86 final), the European Commission reflected on the diversity of the EU’s coastal regions and their capacity to generate wealth and jobs by fostering ‘a smart, sustainable and inclusive Europe’ in line with the Blue Growth opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth (COM(2012) 494 final). With this in mind, policymakers are seeking to redefine ‘mass-tourism’ and to develop new forms of ‘niche’ tourism which focus on solutions that are sustainable from an economic, social and environmental point of view.
The COVID-19 pandemic has put considerable pressure on the EU’s tourism and travel-related activities. On 13 May 2020, the European Commission adopted a comprehensive package of initiatives to allow for a coordinated framework to resume activities after the first wave of the pandemic within Europe. At the centre of the package was a communication that provided a strategy to stimulate the recovery, Tourism and transport in 2020 and beyond (COM(2020) 550 final). EU support measures for tourism include liquidity support, fiscal measures and an easing of state aid rules, as well as guidance on passenger rights and the application of the Package Travel Directive.
The European Commission’s proposal, The EU budget powering the recovery plan for Europe (COM(2020) 442 final) included a new initiative called Recovery Assistance for Cohesion and the Territories of Europe (REACT-EU). Its purpose is to increase cohesion support to EU Member States to make their economies more resilient and sustainable during the recovery phase from the COVID-19 pandemic. This is intended to help bridge the gap between first response measures (such as the Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative) and longer-term recovery. Funding will support key crisis repair actions in the most important sectors for a green, digital and resilient recovery. Support is available across all parts of the economy, including tourism-related activities.
The European Travel Commission (ETC) is a non-profit organisation responsible for the promotion of Europe as a tourist destination and has a long-term strategic partnership with the European Commission to promote ‘Destination Europe’. In September 2020, the ETC published a Handbook on COVID-19 recovery strategies for national tourism organisations and, starting in October 2020, regularly conducted monitoring of sentiment for domestic and intra-European travel.
On 17 March 2021, the European Commission made a Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable certificates on vaccination, testing and recovery to facilitate free movement during the COVID-19 pandemic (COM(2021) 130 final). The proposal includes the establishment of a Digital Green Certificate that aims to facilitate safe, free movement within the EU. The certificate is intended to be a proof that a person has been vaccinated against COVID-19, received a recent negative test result or has recovered from COVID-19. The certificate will be available, free of charge, in digital or paper format and will include a QR code to ensure security and authenticity and may be extended to cover non-member countries if various conditions (including reciprocity) are met.
Direct access to
- Regional tourism statistics (t_reg_tour)
- Tourism (t_tour), see:
- Annual data on tourism industries (t_tour_inda)
- Occupancy of tourist accommodation establishments (t_tour_occ)
- Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00111)
- Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by degree of urbanisation (from 2012 onwards) (tin00179)
- Occupancy of tourist accommodation establishments (t_tour_occ)
- Regional tourism statistics (reg_tour)
- Occupancy in collective accommodation establishments: domestic and inbound tourism (reg_tour_occ)
- Tourism (tour), see:
- Annual data on tourism industries (tour_inda)
- Occupancy of tourism accommodation establishments (tour_occ)
- Nights spent by residents and non-residents (tour_occ_n)
- Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by NUTS 2 regions (tour_occ_nin2)
- Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by degree of urbanisation (from 2012 onwards) (tour_occ_ninatd)
- Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by coastal and non-coastal area (from 2012 onwards) (tour_occ_ninatc)
- Nights spent by residents and non-residents (tour_occ_n)
- Occupancy of tourism accommodation establishments (tour_occ)
Manuals and further methodological information
- Methodological manual on territorial typologies — Eurostat — 2018 edition
- Methodological manual for tourism statistics — 2014 edition
- Tourism — Methodology — Metadata, manuals and guidelines
- Occupancy of tourist accommodation establishments (ESMS metadata file — tour_occ_esms)
- Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 of 6 July 2011 concerning European statistics on tourism and repealing Council Directive 95/57/EC
- Regulation (EU) No 1051/2011 of 20 October 2011 implementing Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 concerning European statistics on tourism, as regards the structure of the quality reports and the transmission of the data
- Commission delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1681 of 1 August 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning European statistics on tourism, as regards the transmission deadlines and adaptation of Annexes I and II