Enlargement countries - energy statistics

Data extracted in June 2021.

Planned article update: April 2022.

Highlights

Solid fuels were the main source of primary energy production in 2019 in the EU candidate countries and potential candidates with the exception of Albania, where petroleum products were the main source.

In 2019, the Western Balkans countries were generally less dependent on energy imports than the EU, while Turkey was more dependent.

The electricity generated from renewable energy sources was higher in Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Turkey than in the EU in 2019.

[[File:CPC21_Electricity generated from renewables 2009 and 2019.xlsx]]

Electricity generated from renewable energy sources, 2009 and 2019 (% of gross electricity consumption)

This article is part of an online publication and provides information on a range of energy statistics for the European Union (EU) candidate countries and potential candidates, in other words the enlargement countries. Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey currently have candidate status, while Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Kosovo* are potential candidates.

The article presents an overview of main energy indicators, notably primary energy production, trade of primary energy, and energy consumption, as well as information on the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation.

Full article

Primary production

Energy commodities extracted or captured directly from natural resources are called primary energy sources, while energy commodities which are produced from primary energy sources in transformation plants are called derived products. Primary energy production covers the national production of primary energy sources and takes place when natural resources are exploited, for example, in coal mines, crude oil fields, hydropower plants, or in the fabrication of biofuels. Whenever consumption exceeds primary production, the shortfall needs to be accounted for by imports of primary or derived products.

In 2019, the primary energy production of the candidate countries and potential candidates amounted to 42 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), 6.7 % lower than in 2009 (2009 data not available for Bosnia and Herzegovina).

As presented in Table 1, primary energy production in Turkey was 20.9 million toe in 2019, by far the largest value recorded among the candidate countries and potential candidates, ahead of the 10.2 million toe of energy production in Serbia. Bosnia and Herzegovina followed with 5.4 million toe. At the other end of the scale, Montenegro had the lowest primary energy production, with 0.7 million toe, followed by North Macedonia (1.1 million toe), Albania (1.7 million toe) and Kosovo (1.8 million toe). Primary energy production increased substantially between 2009 and 2019 in Albania (up by 38.9 %) and Montenegro (33.9 %). In Serbia and Kosovo, the level of primary production was relatively stable between 2009 and 2019 with only a small increase of 0.2 %, while Turkey and North Macedonia recorded strong decreases (-29.3 % and -28.9 %, respectively).

In 2019, the EU’s primary energy production amounted to 616 million toe, 7.9 % lower than in 2009. Lower levels of primary energy production in the EU may, at least in part, be attributed to resources (such as oil, gas or coal fields) becoming exhausted or uneconomical.

Table 1: Primary energy production, 2009 and 2019
Source: Eurostat (nrg_bal_s)

Solid fuels were the main source of primary energy production in a majority of candidate countries and potential candidates

The structure of primary energy production is largely determined by a territory’s natural resources and also by its strategic policy decisions which affect the development of particular energy sources, such as the renewable energy sources. Among the candidate countries and potential candidates, solid fuels was the predominant energy source in 2019. More than three quarters of Turkey’s (83.3 %), Kosovo’s (81.3 %) and North Macedonia’s (75.3 %) energy production was from solid fuels and this was also the main source of primary energy production — accounting for more than half of all primary production — in Serbia (66.8 %), Bosnia and Herzegovina (63.0 %) and Montenegro (53.8 %). Albania was an exception as solid fuels contributed only 3.0 % of primary production while the contribution of petroleum products was 57.9 %, far higher than in any of the other candidate countries and potential candidates: 14.8 % in Turkey and 9.2 % in Serbia (the rest of the candidate countries and potential candidates do not produce petroleum products). Close to half of Montenegro’s primary energy production came from renewables and biofuels (46.2 %), while it was more than a third in Bosnia and Herzegovina (37.0 %) and Albania (35.8 %); North Macedonia’s contribution from renewables and biofuels was 24.7 %, followed by Serbia (20.6 %) and Kosovo (18.7 %). Turkey didn’t report any contribution from renewables and biofuels. In 2019, nuclear (the main source under ‘Others’ in Table 1) and renewable energy sources made up just over two thirds (70.9 %) of the energy production in the EU. By contrast, only 17.0 % of its primary energy production came from solid fuels and 3.7 % from petroleum products.

Renewable sources’ contribution to electricity consumption was higher in more than half of the candidate countries and potential candidates than in the EU

In four of the seven candidate countries and potential candidates the ratio of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to electricity consumption was higher than that in the EU in 2019, ranging between 43.6 % and 88.5 % (see Figure 1). The highest share was recorded by Albania (88.5 %), followed by Montenegro (52.7 %), Bosnia and Herzegovina (45.5 %) and Turkey (43.6 %). Serbia’s ratio was close to a third (30.1 %), while North Macedonia’s was close to a quarter (23.8 %). The smallest rate was recorded in Kosovo (5.2 %).

Figure 1: Electricity generated from renewable energy sources, 2009 and 2019
(% of gross electricity consumption)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_ren) and Eurostat data collection.

Between 2009 and 2019, the ratio of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to electricity consumption increased in all candidate countries and potential candidates. The highest increase was in Turkey, 23.9 percentage points (pp). It was followed by Albania (17.7 pp), North Macedonia (8.3 pp), Bosnia and Herzegovina (6.6 pp), Montenegro (6.0 pp), Kosovo (4.0 pp) and Serbia (1.9 pp). It should be noted that hydro-power was often the major source of renewable energy used for electricity generation in the candidate countries and potential candidates, the output of which is dependent on the amount of rainfall, which varies — sometimes greatly — from one year to the next.

EU’s electricity produced from renewable energy sources increased by 13.4 pp during the same period.

Energy trade

Candidate countries and potential candidates were generally less dependent on energy imports than the EU

Net imports are calculated as the quantity of imports minus the equivalent quantity of exports. Imports represent all entries into the national territory excluding transit quantities; exports similarly cover all quantities exported from the national territory.

All of the candidate countries and potential candidates for which data is available were net importers of energy in 2019, as was the EU. Relative to the population size, Turkey had the highest net energy imports, at 1.3 toe per inhabitant, some 37 % less than the EU’s net imports (2.0 toe per inhabitant). All of the other candidate countries and potential candidates reported net imports of 0.8 toe per inhabitant or less, in other words, less than two fifths of the level recorded in the EU (see Table 2). North Macedonia and Serbia both recorded 0.8 toe per inhabitant, followed by Montenegro (0.6 toe per inhabitant) and Kosovo (0.5 toe per inhabitant). The lowest net energy imports were in Albania (0.3 toe per inhabitant). As population data is not available for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the net imports of primary energy per inhabitant can not be calculated.

Between 2009 and 2019, Turkey and North Macedonia recorded increases of their net imports (0.3 toe per inhabitant and 0.2 toe per inhabitant, respectively); Kosovo an increase over the same period (0.2 toe per inhabitant – the compilation of the indicator was not possible for 2014 due to missing population data); Serbia also recorded a small increase of 0.1 toe per inhabitant between 2009 and 2019, with a small drop in 2014 of a little over 0.1 toe per inhabitant. Montenegro’s net imports decreased by 0.2 toe per inhabitant between 2009 and 2014, to then increase by 0.1 toe per inhabitant in 2019. Albania’s net imports had the steadiest evolution: it went slightly down from 0.3 toe per inhabitant in 2009 to 0.2 toe per inhabitant in 2014 and then up to 0.3 toe per inhabitant in 2019. Population data for Bosnia and Herzegovina is not available and therefore, this indicator could not be calculated; nevertheless, from the available data, the net imports recorded an increase from 1 693 toe in 2014 to 1 979 toe in 2019 (no energy data available for 2009).

Table 2: Net imports of primary energy, 2009, 2014 and 2019
Source: Eurostat (nrg_bal_s) and (demo_pjan)

The energy dependency rate shows the proportion of energy that an economy must import. It is defined as net energy imports divided by gross available energy, expressed as a percentage. A positive dependency rate indicates a net importer of energy while a dependency rate in excess of 100 % indicates that energy products have been stocked. In 2019, only two candidate countries recorded energy dependencies of more than 50 %: Turkey (70.0 %) and North Macedonia (58.5 %). The other candidate countries and potential candidates recorded rates of around 30 %: Serbia with 35.6 %, Montenegro 32.9 %, Albania 31.5 %, Kosovo 30.5 % and Bosnia and Herzegovina with 27.4 % (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Energy dependency, 2009 and 2019
(% of net imports in gross available energy, based on toe)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_id)

Between 2009 and 2019, energy dependency rate increased in North Macedonia, Kosovo and Serbia (by 13.3 pp, 4.7 pp and 3.4 pp, respectively), while in Albania, Montenegro and Turkey it decreased (by 14.8 pp, 10.2 pp and 0.4 pp, respectively).

In the EU, the energy dependency rate increased from 57.1 % in 2009 to 60.7 % in 2019.

Energy generation

The amount of electrical energy produced by transforming other forms of energy is called gross electricity generation and is expressed in gigawatt hours (GWh). The electricity generation can vary greatly when the main source is hydro-, wind- or solar-power. In the following description of developments between 2009 and 2019, the 2009 value for each country is regarded as the base value (100 points) to which other years' values are compared.

The gross electricity generation in Turkey had a steady year-to-year increase between 2009 and 2019, increasing by 55.5 points over this period (see Figure 3).

Kosovo’s electricity generation also had an ascending trend. Between 2009 and 2013 it increased by 31.1 points, followed by a drop of 21.9 points in 2014. In 2015 it increased by 13.7 points and between 2015 and 2018 it decreased slowly by 4.1 points. In 2019 it increased again by 8.8 points and was not far from the high peak from 2013.

In Montenegro, electricity generation between 2009 and 2019 recorded an overall increase, but with many fluctuations: in 2010 it recorded a peak with an increase of 45.7 points compared to 2009. By 2013, it almost recovered the fall (+42.9 points compared to 2009). Between 2014 and 2017 there was a general downward trend with a decrease of 25.0 points, partially recovered in 2018 (+48.1 points). In 2019, a new drop was recorded compared to 2018 (-13.7 points).

Albania’s electricity generation was more or less the same in 2019 as in 2009 (+0.1 points increase). Nevertheless, during this period there were many increases and decreases, the lowest point recorded in 2011 (-19.4 points compared with 2009) and the highest value in 2018 (+64.4 points compared with 2009).

Serbia’s electricity generation was relatively constant between 2009 and 2019 (-1.9 points), with a high value in 2013 (+4.1 points compared with 2009) and a low value in 2014 (-11.1 points compared with 2009).

North Macedonia recorded an increase of its electricity generation by 6.3 points in 2010 compared with 2009, followed by a constant fall until 2014 (-27.6 points compared with 2010). It then increased slowly until 2019 (+7.3 points compared with 2014), but it was 14.0 points lower than it was in 2009.

There is not enough data available for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In the EU, the electricity generation was rather steady, with very small variations. Between 2009 and 2019 it increased by 2.2 points.

Figure 3: Gross electricity generation, 2009-2019
(2009=100, based on Gigawatt-hour)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_bal_peh)

Energy consumption

Gross inland energy consumption is an indicator of the overall energy needs of an economy, these being met by primary production and net imports (with data also reflecting changes in stocks and bunkers). In the following description of developments between 2009 and 2019, the 2009 value for each country is regarded as the base value (100 points) to which other years' values are compared.

In Turkey, gross inland energy consumption increased between 2009 and 2012 (+18.2 points). In 2013 a decrease of 3.9 points was recorded, followed by a continuous increase until 2017 (+36.5 points). In 2018 there was another decrease of 2.3 points which was almost recovered by 2019 (+2.0 points). Overall, the increase from 2009 to 2019 was 50.5 points.

Montenegro recorded an increase of its gross inland consumption of 17.5 points by 2011, followed by a decrease of 16.6 points between 2011 and 2014. From 2014 until 2019 the trend was generally up (+14.3 points), with an exception in 2016. Overall, between 2009 and 2019 there was an increase of 15.3 points.

Kosovo and Albania recorded similar increases between 2009 and 2019 (8.5 points and 8.4 points, respectively). Nevertheless, the trends over the years were different, as can be seen in Figure 4.

Serbia’s and North Macedonia’s gross inland consumption was relatively steady between 2009 and 2019 (+1.2 points and +0.9 points, respectively).

Between 2009 and 2019, the EU’s gross inland energy consumption decreased by 3.0 points.

Figure 4: Gross inland energy consumption, 2009-2019
(2009=100, based on thousand toe)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_bal_s)

High energy intensity in the candidate countries and potential candidates, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Serbia

Energy intensity is a measure of the efficiency with which an economy consumes energy to produce output, with gross domestic product (GDP) being used as the measure of overall output: it is expressed as units of energy consumed per unit of GDP, the latter in constant prices (or using chain-linked volume data) to remove the effects of inflation. As well as reflecting the efficiency of transforming energy sources (for example to electricity) or converting energy to heat, motion, light and other uses, this measure also depends on a range of factors, such as the structure of an economy, the climate, the standard of living and transportation patterns/preferences, to name but a few.

The energy intensity of all the four candidate countries and potential candidates for which data is available for both 2009 and 2019, decreased between these years (see Figure 5). In Kosovo it decreased from 567 kilogram of oil equivalent (kgoe) per thousand EUR in 2009 to 392 kgoe per thousand EUR in 2019, the highest decrease. The next highest decreases over the same period were recorded in North Macedonia (from 362 to 284 kgoe per thousand EUR) and Serbia (from 448 to 376 kgoe per thousand EUR). Turkey had the smallest decrease, from 196 to 168 kgoe per thousand EUR. There was no available data for Albania, no 2019 data for Montenegro and no 2009 data for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

EU’s energy intensity in 2019 was 113 kgoe per thousand EUR, a decrease from 136 kgoe per thousand EUR in 2009.

Figure 5: Energy intensity of the economy, 2009 and 2019
(kgoe per thousand EUR)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_ei)

Higher shares of final energy consumption in transport and households

Final energy consumption is a concept stemming from a bottom-up approach – aggregation of consumption in various sectors of consumption (industry, transport, households, services and others). As such, it often uses different data sources and calculation concepts other than the top-down approach used to calculate gross inland energy consumption, which reflects rather more the supply side.

In 2019, the highest share of final energy consumption in transport was recorded in Albania (40.2 %), followed by North Macedonia (39.0 %), Montenegro (33.8 %), Bosnia and Herzegovina (30.0 %), Kosovo (28.2 %), Turkey (26.7 %) and Serbia (25.6).

The share of final energy consumption in households was the highest in Kosovo as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina (38.7 % and 38.3 %, respectively), followed by Serbia and Montenegro (31.7 % and 31.0 %), while Turkey, North Macedonia and Albania recorded the lowest shares (20.3 %, 24.4 % and 24.3 %, respectively).

Turkey had the highest share of final energy consumption in industry, with 28.6 %. Only two other candidate countries had shares higher than 20%: Serbia with 24.2 % and North Macedonia with 23.2 %. The lowest shares were in Bosnia and Herzegovina (16.8 %), Montenegro (17.5 %), Albania (17.7 %) and Kosovo (19.8 %).

The share of final energy consumption in other sectors was in general the smallest in the candidate countries and potential candidates, ranging from 13.3 % in Kosovo to 24.4 % in Turkey.

In 2019, the share of final energy consumption in the EU was dominated by transport with 29.4 %, followed by households with 25.0 % and industry with 24.3 %. The share of final energy consumption in other sectors accounted for 21.3 %.

Figure 6: Analysis of final energy consumption, by sector, 2009 and 2019
(% of total energy consumption)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_bal_s)

The highest changes in the share of final energy consumption between 2009 and 2019 were recorded in Montenegro where the share in other sectors went up by 15.3 pp, while the share in industry went down by 14.7 pp.

Higher shares of renewables in gross final energy consumption in most of the Western Balkans than in the EU

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Kosovo and North Macedonia all had higher shares of renewables in gross final energy consumption than the EU in 2019; only North Macedonia had a lower share than the EU. In 2009, all Western Balkans had higher shares than the EU (see Figures 7). No data is available for Turkey.

Figure 7: Share of energy from renewable sources, 2009 and 2019
(% of gross final energy consumption)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_ren)

In 2019, Bosnia and Herzegovina had the highest share of renewables in gross final energy consumption from the Western Balkans (37.6 %), an increase of 19.1 pp compared with 2009. Montenegro came second, with a share of 37.4 %, a decrease of 2.0 pp from the level recorded in 2009. Albania followed with 36.7 %, up by 5.2 pp compared with 2009. Kosovo and Serbia recorded lower shares, but still higher than the EU: 25.7 % (up by 7.5 pp compared with 2009) and 21.4 % (up by 0.4 pp compared with 2009), respectively. North Macedonia’s share of renewables in gross final energy consumption in 2009, 17.2 %, was above the EU’s share, 13.9 %, but at 16.8 % in 2019 it fell below it (19.7 %).


Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

Data for the candidate countries and potential candidates are collected for a wide range of indicators each year through a questionnaire that is sent by Eurostat to candidate countries and potential candidates. A network of contacts has been established for updating these questionnaires, generally within the national statistical offices, but potentially including representatives of other data-producing organisations (for example, central banks or government ministries). The statistics collected in this annual exercise are available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website, together with a wide range of other socio-economic indicators collected as part of this initiative. Note that in 2016, it was decided to stop collecting nearly all energy statistics using the questionnaires, instead relying on information that was collected by Eurostat’s unit responsible for energy statistics. Alongside Eurostat’s regular collection of energy statistics from EU Member States and EFTA countries, the candidate countries and potential candidates provide energy statistics directly to Eurostat and these data have been used as the basis for the analyses presented in this article. These statistics from Eurostat’s regular collection of energy statistics are made available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website.

In order to meet the increasing requirements of policymakers for energy monitoring, Eurostat has developed a coherent and harmonised system of energy statistics. As well as covering EU Member States and EFTA countries these data are also collected from the candidate countries and potential candidates. Time series are generally available from 1990 onwards. The collection of energy data is based on Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics.

Data are available for a variety of fuel types, namely solid fuels, crude oil and petroleum products, natural and derived gases, nuclear heat, electricity, waste and renewable energy sources. Basic data on energy quantities are in fuel specific units, such as liquid fuels in thousand tonnes, electricity in kilowatt-hours; these units are converted to common energy units (such as toe to allow the addition or comparison of data for different energy sources). While basic principles and institutional frameworks for producing statistics are already in place, the enlargement countries are expected to increase progressively the volume and quality of their data and to transmit these data to Eurostat in the context of the EU enlargement process. EU standards in the field of statistics require the existence of a statistical infrastructure based on principles such as professional independence, impartiality, relevance, confidentiality of individual data and easy access to official statistics; they cover methodology, classifications and standards for production.

Eurostat has the responsibility to monitor that statistical production of the candidate countries and potential candidates complies with the EU acquis in the field of statistics. To do so, Eurostat supports the national statistical offices and other producers of official statistics through a range of initiatives, such as pilot surveys, training courses, traineeships, study visits, workshops and seminars, and participation in meetings within the European Statistical System (ESS). The ultimate goal is the provision of harmonised, high-quality data that conforms to European and international standards.

Additional information on statistical cooperation with the candidate countries and potential candidates is provided here.

Tables in this article use the following notation:

Value in italics     data value is forecasted, provisional or estimated and is therefore likely to change;
: not available.

Context

A competitive, reliable and sustainable energy sector is essential for all economies. The energy sector has been under the spotlight in recent years due to a number of issues that have pushed energy to the top of national and EU political agendas, for example, concerning the security of supply of fossil fuels and the impact of the production and consumption of energy on the environment.

In November 2010, an initiative titled Energy 2020 a strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final) was adopted by the European Commission. This strategy defined energy priorities for a period of 10 years and put forward actions that might have been taken in order to tackle a variety of challenges, including: achieving a market with competitive prices and secure supplies; boosting technological leadership; and effectively negotiating with international partners (for example, to pursue good relations with the EU’s external suppliers of energy and energy transit countries). This work has been further developed through a 2030 energy strategy which provides a policy framework for climate and energy policy to 2030 and a 2050 energy roadmap (see COM (2011) 112 final) which set a long-term goal of reducing the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95 % by 2050. The Commission has proposed a European Climate Law to turn this political commitment into a legal obligation.

The energy community was established as an international organisation in 2006 and currently includes the EU and several non-member countries, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia among the candidate countries and potential candidates, as well as Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine; Norway, Turkey and Armenia have observer status. The aim of the energy community is to extend the internal market concerning energy to south-east Europe and beyond. The objectives are to:

  • attract investment in power generation and networks to ensure stable and continuous energy supply that is essential for economic development and social stability;
  • create an integrated energy market allowing for cross-border energy trade and integration with the EU market;
  • enhance the security of supply;
  • improve the environmental situation in relation to energy supply in the region;
  • enhance competition at a regional level and exploit economies of scale.

In response to continuing concerns about the EU’s dependency on energy imports, in May 2014 the European Commission released its Energy Security Strategy (COM(2014) 330 final) which aims to ensure a stable and abundant supply of energy. As well as short-term measures looking at the impact of a halt to Russian gas imports or a disruption of imports through the Ukraine, the strategy addressed long-term security of supply challenges and proposed actions in five areas, including: increasing energy production in the EU and diversifying supplier countries and routes, and speaking with one voice in external energy policy. In 2015, the European Commission released a Communication concerning A framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate change policy (COM(2015) 80 final) which argued that one important element in ensuring energy security (in particular for gas) was full compliance of agreements related to buying energy from non-member countries. This was followed in February 2016 by European Commission proposals for new rules on EU gas supply security (COM(2016) 52 final) and new rules for energy agreements between EU and non-EU countries (COM(2016) 53 final).

Notes

* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

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