Enlargement countries - energy statistics
Data extracted in February 2020.
Planned article update: June 2021.
Solid fuels were the main source of primary energy production in 2018 in most of the EU candidate countries and potential candidates.
In 2018, the Western Balkans countries were generally less dependent on energy imports than the EU, while Turkey was more dependent.
Compared with the EU, the contribution of renewable sources to electricity consumption was higher in 2018 in three of the candidate countries and potential candidates.
Enlargement countries - electricity produced from renewable energy sources, 2013 and 2018
This article is part of an online publication and provides information on a range of energy statistics for the European Union (EU) enlargement countries, in other words the candidate countries and potential candidates. Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey currently have candidate status, while Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo* are potential candidates.
The article presents an overview of main energy indicators, notably primary energy production, net imports of energy and energy consumption, as well as information on the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation.
Primary production and net imports
In 2018, the EU-27’s primary energy production amounted to 634 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), 9.2 % lower than in 2008 (see Table 1). The general downward movement of EU-27 production was gradual, except for 2009 when it fell considerably, in part due to the effects of the global financial and economic crisis. Lower levels of primary energy production in the EU-27 may, at least in part, be attributed to resources (such as oil, gas or coal fields) becoming exhausted or uneconomical.
Primary energy production in Turkey was 39.9 million toe in 2018, by far the largest value recorded among the candidate countries and potential candidates, ahead of the 10.0 million toe of energy production in Serbia. In contrast to the situation in the EU-27, primary energy production increased between 2008 and 2018 in many of the candidate countries and potential candidates, most notably in Albania (up overall by 74.1 %) and Turkey (39.2 %). In Serbia, the level of primary production in 2018 was 6.7 % lower than in 2008, while primary production in North Macedonia was 31.2 % lower at the end of the period under consideration than it had been in 2008.
Solid fuels were the main source of primary energy production in a majority of candidate countries and potential candidates
The structure of primary energy production is largely determined by a territory’s natural resources and also by its strategic policy decisions which affect, in particular, the development of nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 2018, nuclear and renewable energy sources (the main sources under ‘Others’ in Table 1) made up just over two thirds (67.3 %) of the energy production in the EU-27. By contrast, more than three quarters of Kosovo’s (78.3 %) and Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (78.1 %) energy production was from solid fuels and this was also the main source of primary energy production — accounting for more than half of all primary production — in North Macedonia and Serbia. In Montenegro, the share for solid fuels was just under half (49.9 %) while it was just over two fifths (41.5 %) in Turkey. Albania was an exception as solid fuels contributed 7.2 % of primary production while the contribution of petroleum products was 45.6 %, far higher than in any of the other candidate countries and potential candidates.
Candidate countries and potential candidates were generally less dependent on energy imports than the EU-27
All of the candidate countries and potential candidates were net importers of energy in 2018, as was the EU-27 (see Table 2). Relative to population size, the EU-27’s net energy imports were 1.98 toe per inhabitant, some 46 % more than the average (1.36 toe per inhabitant) recorded for Turkey, which had the highest ratio among the candidate countries and potential candidates. All of the other candidate countries and potential candidates reported net imports of 0.8 toe per inhabitant or less, in other words, less than two fifths of the level recorded in the EU-27.
Relative to its overall energy needs (measured by the gross inland energy consumption), Turkey also had the highest energy dependency, as net imports made up 74.2 % of its gross inland energy consumption in 2018. North Macedonia was the only other candidate country or potential candidate that reported that net imports supplied more than half of gross inland energy consumption, with a ratio of 58.7 %; elsewhere among the candidate countries and potential candidates this ratio was around one third or lower. For comparison, the EU-27’s energy dependency was 59.9 % in 2018.
Gross inland energy consumption is an indicator of the overall energy needs of an economy, these being met by primary production and net imports (with data also reflecting changes in stocks and bunkers). In 2018, the EU-27’s gross inland energy consumption was 1.48 billion toe (see Table 3), having fallen from 1.59 billion toe in 2008. Between 2008 and 2014 there was an overall downward path to gross inland energy consumption in the EU-27, with a rebound in 2010 after the relatively large fall in 2009 (down 5.9 %, related to the global financial and economic crisis) the only increase. Between 2014 and 2017 there was a slight upward trend in consumption, with annual increases ranging from 0.8 % to 2.1 %. In 2018 a fall was again registered, as EU-27 consumption was 0.9 % lower than the year before.
In North Macedonia, gross inland energy consumption fell between 2008 and 2013 and again between 2013 and 2018, such that by 2018 it was 15.2 % lower than in 2008, the largest overall fall among the candidate countries and potential candidates. In Montenegro there was a fall of 12.5 % between 2008 and 2018 and in Serbia energy consumption fell 8.0 % during the same period. By contrast, Turkey’s gross inland energy consumption increased 48.9 % between 2008 and 2018, while in Kosovo the increase during this period was 16.5 % and in Albania the increase was 9.8 %.
High energy intensity in the candidate countries and potential candidates, particularly in Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Energy intensity is a measure of the efficiency with which an economy consumes energy to produce output, with gross domestic product (GDP) being used as the measure of overall output: it is expressed as units of energy consumed per unit of GDP, the latter in constant prices (or using chain-linked volume data) to remove the effects of inflation. As well as reflecting the efficiency of transforming energy sources (for example to electricity) or converting energy to heat, motion, light and other uses, this measure also depends on a range of factors, such as the structure of an economy, the climate, the standard of living and transportation patterns/preferences, to name but a few.
The energy intensity of the EU-27 and most of the candidate countries and potential candidates (for which data are available) decreased between 2008 and 2013 and again between 2013 and 2018 (see Table 3); the only exceptions were Turkey — which recorded a fall in energy intensity between 2008 and 2013 followed by a smaller rise through to 2018 — and Bosnia and Herzegovina — which recorded a rise between 2014 and 2017.
In 2018, 120 kilograms of oil equivalent (kgoe) of energy were needed in the EU-27 to generate EUR 1 000 of GDP (at 2010 prices). In Turkey, the candidate country or potential candidate with the lowest energy intensity, the equivalent level of consumption was 32 % higher than in the EU-27, at 159 kgoe per EUR 1 000 of GDP (at 2010 prices), while in Albania it was 79 % higher. Elsewhere among the candidate countries and potential candidates energy intensity was at least double that in the EU-27 and was more than three times as high in Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2017 data).
Albania reported a high share of final energy consumption by transport
Industry accounted for approximately one quarter of the final energy consumption of the EU-27 in 2018 (see Table 4). This share rose slightly from 25.4 % in 2013 to 25.8 % in 2018. There were two candidate countries and potential candidates that had higher shares of final energy consumption for industry: in Turkey (30.0 %) and Serbia (28.4 %) this share was around three tenths in 2018. By contrast, in Montenegro and Kosovo, the industrial share of final energy consumption was below one fifth. Comparing 2013 and 2018, the share of industry in final energy consumption fell in five of the candidate countries and potential candidates, with the largest declines in Montenegro and North Macedonia; the exceptions — where the industrial share increased — were Bosnia and Herzegovina (2014-2017) and, in particular, Albania.
The share of final energy consumed by transport was 30.5 % in the EU-27 in 2018. In Turkey (30.2 %) and Kosovo (29.2 %) somewhat lower shares were recorded, while the share for transport was notably lower in Serbia (25.3 %). In the four remaining candidate countries and potential candidates, the share of transport in final energy consumption was higher than in the EU-27, by a relatively small amount in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2017 data) and by a larger margin in North Macedonia and most notably in Albania. The relative share of transport in final energy consumption rose between 2013 and 2018 in the EU-27 and six of the seven candidate countries and potential candidates. The strongest growth for this share was recorded in North Macedonia (up 10.1 percentage points), while Albania was the only candidate country or potential candidate to record a fall.
The share of final energy consumption by households was just over one quarter (26.1 %) in the EU-27 in 2018. In Albania and Turkey the share for households was somewhat lower than that observed in the EU-27, while the share for households in the remaining candidate countries and potential candidates was higher than in the EU-27: slightly higher in North Macedonia and clearly higher elsewhere. Among the candidate countries and potential candidates, the share of final energy consumption by households in 2018 peaked at just under two fifths in Kosovo (39.0 %).
Renewable sources’ contribution to electricity consumption was higher in half of the candidate countries and potential candidates than in the EU-27
In the five years between 2013 and 2018, the ratio of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to electricity consumption in the EU-27 increased by 5.3 percentage points from 26.9 % to 32.2 % (see Figure 1).
In three of the six candidate countries and potential candidates for which data are available (no data for Bosnia and Herzegovina) — Kosovo, North Macedonia and Serbia — the value observed for this ratio was lower than that in the EU-27 in 2018, while elsewhere the share was higher, ranging between 37.5 % in Turkey and 92.5 % in Albania.
Like the EU-27, all the candidate countries and potential candidates reported a higher ratio of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to electricity consumption in 2018 than in 2013, with the largest increase (in percentage point terms) in Albania (up 29.8 points) and in Turkey (up 7.5 points). It should be noted that hydro-power was often the major source of renewable energy used for electricity generation in the candidate countries and potential candidates, the output of which is dependent on the amount of rainfall, which varies — sometimes greatly — from one year to the next.
Source data for tables and graphs
Data for the enlargement countries are collected for a wide range of indicators each year through a questionnaire that is sent by Eurostat to candidate countries and potential candidates. A network of contacts has been established for updating these questionnaires, generally within the national statistical offices, but potentially including representatives of other data-producing organisations (for example, central banks or government ministries). The statistics collected in this annual exercise are available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website, together with a wide range of other socio-economic indicators collected as part of this initiative. Note that in 2016, it was decided to stop collecting nearly all energy statistics using the questionnaires, instead relying on information that was collected by Eurostat’s unit responsible for energy statistics. Alongside Eurostat’s regular collection of energy statistics from EU Member States and EFTA countries, the enlargement countries provide energy statistics directly to Eurostat and these data have been used as the basis for the analyses presented in this article. These statistics from Eurostat’s regular collection of energy statistics are made available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website.
In order to meet the increasing requirements of policymakers for energy monitoring, Eurostat has developed a coherent and harmonised system of energy statistics. As well as covering EU Member States and EFTA countries these data are also collected from several enlargement countries. Time series are generally available from 1990 onwards. The collection of energy data is based on Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics.
Data are available for a variety of fuel types, namely solid fuels, crude oil and petroleum products, natural and derived gases, nuclear heat, electricity, waste and renewable energy sources. Basic data on energy quantities are in fuel specific units, such as liquid fuels in thousand tonnes, electricity in kilowatt-hours; these units are converted to common energy units (such as tonnes of oil equivalent (toe)) to allow the addition or comparison of data for different energy sources.
Tables in this article use the following notation:
|Value in italics||data value is forecasted, provisional or estimated and is therefore likely to change;|
A competitive, reliable and sustainable energy sector is essential for all economies. The energy sector has been under the spotlight in recent years due to a number of issues that have pushed energy to the top of national and EU political agendas, for example, concerning the security of supply of fossil fuels and the impact of the production and consumption of energy on the environment.
In 2009, a climate and energy package was adopted by the EU, with the goal of combating climate change and boosting the EU’s energy security and competitiveness through the development of a more sustainable and low-carbon economy by 2020.
The European Commission is looking at cost-efficient ways to make the European economy more climate-friendly and less energy-consuming; energy efficiency is expected to be a key driver of this transition. With its Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 (see COM (2011) 112 final), the European Commission has set out a pathway for achieving much deeper emission cuts by the middle of the century: by moving to a low-carbon society, the EU could be using around 30 % less energy in 2050 than it did in 2005.
The use of renewable energy sources is seen as a key element of the EU’s energy policy and should help to: reduce dependence on fuel from non-member countries; reduce emissions from carbon-based energy sources, and decouple energy costs from oil prices. In January 2014, the European Commission put forward a further set of energy and climate objectives for 2030 with the aim of encouraging private investment in infrastructure and low-carbon technologies. These objectives are seen as a step towards meeting greenhouse gas emission targets for 2050. The key targets proposed are to have 40 % less greenhouse gases in 2030 than there were in 1990 and for the share of renewable energy (in consumption) to reach at least 27% by 2030. Alongside the proposed targets were plans to reform the emissions trading system and to consider further amendments to the energy efficiency directive.
In 2019, the European Commission announced the European Green Deal, which has the aim of making Europe the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050. To achieve this, the European Commission presented an ambitious package of measures that should enable European citizens and businesses to benefit from sustainable green transition, alongside a roadmap of key policies from cutting emissions, to investing in cutting-edge research and innovation, to preserving Europe’s natural environment.
The energy community was established as an international organisation in 2006 and currently includes the EU and several non-member countries, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia among the candidate countries and potential candidates, as well as Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine; Norway, Turkey and Armenia have observer status. The aim of the energy community is to extend the internal market concerning energy to south-east Europe and beyond. The objectives are to:
- attract investment in power generation and networks to ensure stable and continuous energy supply that is essential for economic development and social stability;
- create an integrated energy market allowing for cross-border energy trade and integration with the EU market;
- enhance the security of supply;
- improve the environmental situation in relation to energy supply in the region;
- enhance competition at a regional level and exploit economies of scale.
While basic principles and institutional frameworks for producing statistics are already in place, the enlargement countries are expected to increase progressively the volume and quality of their data and to transmit these data to Eurostat in the context of the EU enlargement process. EU standards in the field of statistics require the existence of a statistical infrastructure based on principles such as professional independence, impartiality, relevance, confidentiality of individual data and easy access to official statistics; they cover methodology, classifications and standards for production.
Eurostat has the responsibility to ensure that statistical production of the enlargement countries complies with the EU acquis in the field of statistics. To do so, Eurostat supports the national statistical offices and other producers of official statistics through a range of initiatives, such as pilot surveys, training courses, traineeships, study visits, workshops and seminars, and participation in meetings within the European Statistical System (ESS). The ultimate goal is the provision of harmonised, high-quality data that conforms to European and international standards.
Additional information on statistical cooperation with the enlargement countries is provided here.
* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.
- Statistical books/pocketbooks
- Key figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition
- Key figures on enlargement countries — 2017 edition
- Energy, transport and environment indicators — 2019 edition
- Basic figures on enlargement countries — 2020 edition
- Basic figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition
- Basic figures on enlargement countries — 2018 edition
- Energy and transport statistics for the enlargement countries — 2018 edition
- Environment and energy (cpc_en)
- Candidate countries and potential candidates: energy (cpc_energy)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy statistics — quantities (nrg_quant)
- Energy statistics — quantities, annual data (nrg_quanta)
- Energy balances (nrg_bal)
- Simplified energy balances (nrg_bal_s)
- Energy indicators (nrg_ind)
- Share of energy from renewable sources (nrg_ind_ren)
- Energy balances (nrg_bal)
- Energy statistics — quantities, annual data (nrg_quanta)
- Candidate countries and potential candidates (cpc) (ESMS metadata file — cpc_esms)
- Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics.
- Summaries of EU legislation: Common system for the production of energy statistics
Summaries of EU legislation: