Climate Action

2030 climate & energy framework


The 2030 climate and energy framework sets three key targets for the year 2030:

  • At least 40% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions (from 1990 levels)
  • At least 27% share for renewable energy
  • At least 27% improvement in energy efficiency

The framework was adopted by EU leaders in October 2014. It builds on the 2020 climate and energy package.

It is also in line with the longer term perspective set out in the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050, the Energy Roadmap 2050 and the Transport White Paper.

Greenhouse emissions – a cut of at least 40%  

The framework contains a binding target to cut emissions in EU territory by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030.

This will enable the EU to:

  • take cost-effective steps towards its long-term objective of cutting emissions by 80-95% by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group,
  • make a fair and ambitious contribution to the Paris Agreement.

To achieve the at least 40% target:

  • non-ETS sectors would need to cut emissions by 30% (compared to 2005) – this needs to be translated into individual binding targets for Member States.

Renewables – increasing to at least 27% share

The framework sets a binding target at EU level to boost the share of renewables to at least 27% of EU energy consumption by 2030.

Energy efficiency – increasing by at least 27%

On the basis of the Energy Efficiency Directive, the European Council has endorsed an indicative energy savings target of 27% by 2030.

This target will be reviewed in 2020 having in mind a 30% target.

New governance system

A transparent and dynamic governance process will be further developed to help deliver the Energy Union, including the 2030 climate and energy targets, in an efficient and coherent manner.


A joined-up approach for the period up to 2030 helps ensure regulatory certainty for investors and coordinate EU countries' efforts.

The framework helps drive progress towards a low-carbon economy and build an energy system that

  • ensures affordable energy for all consumers,
  • increases the security of the EU's energy supplies,
  • reduces our dependence on energy imports and
  • creates new opportunities for growth and jobs.

It also brings environmental and health benefits – e.g. through reduced air pollution.

Investments needed

  • Average annual additional investments are projected to amount to €38 billion for the EU as a whole over the period 2011-30
  • Fuel savings will to a large extent compensate for these
  • More than half of the investments are needed in the residential and tertiary sectors
  • Lower-income countries need to make relatively larger efforts compared to GDP – but European Council conclusions address distribution and include measures to enhance fairness and solidarity while ensuring overall efficiency.

Energy system costs

  • Costs do not differ substantially from the costs of renewing an ageing energy system, necessary in any case
  • Total cost of the energy system in 2030 is projected to to increase by an equivalent of 0.15% of the EU's GDP if targets are met cost-effectively
  • Overall there is a shift from operational costs (fuel) to capital costs (investments)

European Council conclusions

Communication and other documents

Green Paper

Other documents