Industrial production statistics
Data extracted in December 2019.
Planned article update: January 2021.
EU-28 value of sold industrial production, 2008 - 2018 (2015=100)
This article analyses recent data on industrial production in the European Union (EU), as well as in some EFTA and candidate countries, based on results of industrial production (PRODCOM) statistics. Cyprus, Malta and Luxembourg are exempt from collecting PRODCOM data and therefore not available. Data presented in this article are collected under the industrial production regulation and cover the activities under sections B and C (Mining and quarrying and Manufacturing) of the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
In 2018, the value of sold production covered by the sectors mining and quarrying and manufacturing amounted to EUR 5 335 billion. Figure 1 presents the evolution of EU-28's value of sold production from 2008 to 2018. After the economic crisis in 2008, the value generated by EU production was reduced dramatically in 2009, with a sharp decrease of 18 %. However, there was a turn-around between 2009 and 2011 when the value of sold production increased by 15 % and remained stable in the following three years. The results of 2018 show the consolidation of the growth in production, after the full recovery and surpassing the 2008 level. This upwards trend of the EU's industrial production was continued in 2018 and was mainly due to the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers & semi-trailers, other transport equipment and machinery & equipment.
Industrial production by country
Figure 2 shows the share of the EU-28's value of sold production, by individual EU Member States in 2018. Three-quarters of the EU-28's value of sold production (77 %) was generated by six EU Member States. Germany recorded the highest value of sold production equivalent to almost 28 % of the EU-28 total, followed by Italy (16 %), France (12 %), the United Kingdom (9 %), Spain (8 %) and Poland (5 %). The other 22 EU Member States contributed with smaller shares (up to 3 %).
Looking more in detail to the manufacturing sectors, Slovakia stood out with the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers and of other transport equipment which represented 50 % of the country's total value of sold production in 2018. It was closely followed by the Czechia (31 %) and Hungary (26 %).
Over 42 % of Greece's value of sold production was generated by the manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco activities. The Netherlands was close to this share with 33 %, followed by Croatia, Spain, Bulgaria, Belgium and Lithuania with shares between 26 and 29 %. On the contrary, the Czechia and Slovakia are the least specialized countries in food manufacturing, with the lowest share in sold production of 9 % and 6 % respectively.
Industrial production by sector
The analysis that follows refers to the division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE). In some cases the results are presented as a group of divisions, i.e. Food, beverages and tobacco (Divisions 10, 11 and 12 of NACE Rev.2).
Figure 3 shows the share of the manufacturing activities in the EU-28's value of sold production for 2008 and 2018 respectively. The EU-28's value of sold production is concentrated in fourteen groups of activities; six of these groups account for almost three-quarters of the total for both reference years. The sectors manufacture of food, beverages & tobacco products, manufacture of basic metals & fabricated metal products and manufacture of motor vehicle and other transport equipment accounted together for 47 % of the value of the sold production in 2018. The share of most of the other manufacturing activities in the EU-28's value of sold production remained stable from 2008 to 2018.
Looking into the smaller contributing domains, the manufacture of pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations had the highest increase in 2018, of 49 % compared with the 2008 value of sold production and, on the other side, the manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products was down by 6 %.
The five largest manufacturing activities
The analysis refers to the top five manufacturing activities presented at division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Figure 4 shows the evolution of the value of sold production for the five largest manufacturing activities in the EU-28, over the period 2008 - 2018. Between 2008 and 2018, the manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers was the most volatile activity among the top five manufacturing actives. In terms of reported value of the sold production, this activity increased the most compared with 2008 (with 31 % or EUR 180 billion). The Manufacture of food products increased in 2018 by EUR 102 billion (16 %) compared with 2008, while the highest increase of EUR 110 billion was in 2017.
Analysing based on constant prices, in 2018, the manufacture of machinery and equipment decreased by 1 %, the manufacture of chemicals and chemical products decreased by 2 % and the manufacture of fabricated metal product, except machinery and equipment by 4 % compared with 2008. Food manufacturing increased by 5 % and the manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers by 21 % over the same period.
Results for some examples of products or group of products sold
The results are detailed at four-digit level of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Production of motor vehicles accounted for two thirds of EU-28's value of sold production of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Figure 5 further analyses the share of the value of sold production for the Manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (Division 29 of NACE Rev.2) in 2018.
The overall value of sold production generated by the Manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers in 2018 was of EUR 755 billion; this value represents 14 % of the total EU-28's value of sold production. In 2018, the value of sold production for this manufacturing sector reached its peak, it rose by 31 % compared with 2008, and by 7 % compared with last year. In 2018, approximately EUR 467 billion, representing almost two thirds of the sold production value, referred the manufacturing of motor vehicles (61 %). The manufacturing of other parts and accessories, bodies (coachwork), electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers accounted for the rest of the sold production in this activity, representing 39 %.
On average, one kilogram of fresh bread produced in EU-28 was sold for 1.52 Euro
Figure 6 presents the value of production sold for 1 kilogram of fresh bread, in the EU-28 over the period 2008 - 2018 and in each country for 2018.
The economic crisis in 2008 brought slightly down the sold production of fresh bread across the EU-28; the quantity fell by 2 % in 2009 compared with 2008, while the value fell by 5 % in the same time. However, the value of production sold started to increase again from 2009 onwards, reaching a 7% increase over the period 2008-2018, while the quantity decreased by 3 %.
The average value of production sold for one kilogram of fresh bread increased by 12 % between 2008 and 2018. Its peak was reached in 2016, when it reached EUR 1.53 for 1 kilogram of fresh bread. Afterwards this value fell slightly in 2017 by 2 % and in 2018 almost increased back to EUR 1.52 per kg.
Italy was the country where one kilogram of fresh bread produced was sold at the highest price, over EUR 2.7. In Finland, Austria and Germany this quantity was sold at between EUR 2 and 2.61. Rather low prices, of under EUR 1 per kg, were observed in the Czechia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Ireland, Hungary and Romania. Bulgaria is the country with the lowest value of production sold, slightly above 50 cents/kg.
EU-28's production of antibiotics is stable for the last 3 years
Figure 7 provides an overview of the value of sold production of basic pharmaceutical products produced in the EU-28, during the period 2008-2018. Throughout the period 2008-2015, the sold production value of pharmaceutical products fluctuated at between EUR 17 and 24.5 billion. For the last 3 years the EU-28’s pharmaceutical production remained quite constant and reached 26.1 billion in 2018. The manufacturing of antibiotics decreased by 70 % in 2010, more than doubled in 2011 and continued at the steady pace with a total sold production value 3 billion EUR in 2018. The pro-vitamins and vitamins hit the highest point recorded in these last 11 years, the manufacturing of these products increased by almost 200 % since 2008. The antibiotics and vitamins represent 11 % and 15 % respectively of the total basic pharmaceutical production.
Half of the value of wearing apparel produced across EU-28 is made in Italy
The EU produced 10.8 million items of wearing apparel in 2018, with a value of sold production of EUR 33.3 billion. The manufacturing of this product decreased by 20% since 2008 and reached the lowest drop in 2015. Since then the value of sold production steps up by over 12 % each year. Italy’s production of wearing apparels accounted for nearly a half of the quantity produced at the EU level; this production was over EUR 14 billion; Spain and Portugal came after. These three EU Member States remained in the lead of the manufacturing of these products, followed by Romania, the United Kingdom and Germany to complete the top 6 of EU producers. These six countries together count for almost 90 % of the total production within the EU.
Figure 8 analyses the production of wearing apparels (Division 14 of NACE Rev.2) in the EU Member States in 2018.
A look into the EU's production of consumer electronics
Figure 9 shows the quantity shares of nine main consumer electronics producers in the EU-28 during 2018. In total, 438 million items of consumer electronics were produced in 2018 counting for more than EUR 17.2 billion. Poland is leading in the production of such electronics, with a sold production of over nearly 20 million items. It is followed by Portugal (11 million), Slovakia (7.5 million), the United Kingdom and Hungary (5 million each), Italy (4 million), Denmark 3 million, Czechia and Germany (slightly over 1 million each). Slovakia and Poland were the most specialized EU Member States for the production of television receivers which represents 100 % of the sold quantity of consumer electronics in each country. As follows, Czechia (94 %) is placed third. Italy (88 %), Denmark (67 %) and Germany (64 %) mostly produce loudspeakers; headphones, earphones and combined microphone/speaker sets. Hungary focused on audio-frequency electric amplifiers (97 %) and microphones (3 %) manufacture. Microphones were mostly produced in the United Kingdom (80 %). And radio broadcast receivers was a domain for Portugal (72 %) and Denmark (30 %).
Source data for tables and graphs
The Prodcom list is linked to the activity classification NACE and to the classification of products by activity (CPA): the first four digits of each Prodcom code refer to a NACE class, the fifth and sixth digits relate to a CPA sub-category, and the seventh and eighth digits are specific to the Prodcom list. Most headings correspond to one or more codes from the combined nomenclature (CN), a classification used for statistics on international trade in goods: some headings (mostly industrial services) do not correspond to a CN heading at all. The relationship with CN makes it possible to calculate apparent consumption by linking production statistics to international trade statistics.
The production surveyed covers only the production actually carried out on the territory of the reporting country. This means that the production of subsidiaries which takes place outside an enterprise’s territory is not included in the survey results for that country. As a general principle, when a production process takes as an input a material that does not match the description of the product, and produces as an output something that does, then production of the product should be recorded. If the processing of a product does not change the heading under which it is listed, it should not be recorded, since this would result in double-counting. This means that the link to turnover data is tenuous, since some activities do not result in new products and should not be recorded in Prodcom statistics.
At the time of writing (September 2018), Prodcom data are available for the EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Eurostat produces aggregates for the EU-28. According to the terms of the Prodcom Regulation, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta have derogations not to provide Prodcom data to Eurostat because of their size; as such there is no data for these three Member States in the database.
Data are available during the year following the reference year, with the first release of information usually taking place in July. As more complete and revised data become available, updates are released on a monthly basis.
Data in Excel files
The development of Prodcom dates back to 1985 when Eurostat organised a series of meetings on production statistics, whose objective was to harmonise the various ways industrial production statistics were collected in the EU Member States. Although statistics were collected on products in most countries, there was a varied selection of classifications in use reflecting national situations and a range of different survey methods were applied.
The Prodcom Regulation is designed to enable these national statistics to be compared and, where possible, aggregated to give a picture of the developments of an industry or product in the European context. This aim became more urgent with the creation of the single market in 1992 and the statistical system had to adapt.
Before data collection could begin, it was necessary to draw up a common list of products to be covered. Drawing up the Prodcom list was a unique opportunity for Eurostat, the national statistical authorities and the European trade associations to work together to produce a classification that would be understood by businesses and would be appropriate for national and European statistics. Production statistics are used by the European Commission and national administrations for policymaking and by professional/trade associations and their members. The use of the data in climate change statistics is increasing, as well as in other environmental statistics such as the analysis of material flows or chemicals production and consumption statistics.
- Business economy by sector - NACE Rev. 2 (online publication)
- Industrial production statistics introduced - PRODCOM — background article
- Chemicals production and consumption statistics
- Structural business statistics introduced — background article
- Material flow accounts and resource productivity
- Detailed data by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 1.1) (prom1) (Excel tables N1)
- Sold production, exports and imports by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 1.1) - annual data (DS_043408)
- Total production by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 1.1) - annual data (DS_043409)
- Sold production, exports and imports for steel by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 1.1) - monthly data (DS_008573)
- Detailed data by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) (prom2) (Excel tables N2)
- Sold production, exports and imports by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066341)
- Total production by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066342)
- Traditional international trade database access (ComExt) (comext)
- Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 of 19 December 1991 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production]
- Commission Regulation (EC) No 912/2004 of 29 April 2004 implementing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production
- Regulation 2119/2017 of 22 November 2017 establishing the "PRODCOM list" of industrial products provided for by Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 (Official Journal of the European Union No L 325 of 8.12.2017)