Electricity price statistics
Data extracted in May 2019.
Planned article update: November 2019.
Household electricity prices in the EU highest in Denmark (EUR 0.31 per kWh) and lowest in Bulgaria (EUR 0.10 per kWh) during the second half of 2018.
Non-household electricity prices in the EU highest in Cyprus (EUR 0.18 per kWh) and lowest in Finland (EUR 0.07 per kWh) during the second half of 2018.
Electricity prices for household consumers (2 500 kWh < annual consumption < 5 000 kWh, taxes included), second semester 2018
This article highlights the development of electricity prices both for household and non-household consumers within the European Union (EU). It also includes price data from Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo , Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia.
The price of energy in the EU depends on a range of different supply and demand conditions, including the geopolitical situation, the national energy mix, import diversification, network costs, environmental protection costs, severe weather conditions, or levels of excise and taxation. Note that prices presented in this article include taxes, levies and VAT for household consumers, but exclude refundable taxes and levies and VAT for non-household consumers.
Electricity prices for household consumers
Highest electricity prices in Denmark and Germany
An overview of average electricity prices in euro per kilowatt-hour (EUR per kWh) for the last three years (second half of each year in order to avoid seasonal effect) is presented in Table 1.
For household consumers (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-size consumers with an annual consumption within the range of 2 500 kWh < consumption < 5 000 kWh), electricity prices during the second half of 2018 were highest among the EU Member States in Denmark (EUR 0.3123 per kWh), Germany (EUR 0.3000 per kWh) and Belgium (EUR 0.2937 per kWh); see Figure 1. The lowest electricity prices were in Bulgaria (EUR 0.1005 per kWh), Lithuania (EUR 0.1097 per kWh) and Hungary (EUR 0.1118 per kWh). The price of electricity for household consumers in Denmark was more than three times as high as the price in Bulgaria.
The EU-28 average price in the second semester of 2018 — a weighted average using the most recent (2017) data for the quantity of electricity consumption by households — was EUR 0.2113 per kWh.
The development of electricity prices for household consumers in the EU-28 and euro area since the first half of 2008 is presented in Figure 2. The price of the energy, the supply and the network (prices without taxes) remained stable during the last decade. It went from EUR 0.1149 per kWh in the first half of 2008 to EUR 0.1411 per kWh in the second half of 2014 and now stand at EUR 0.1329 per kWh. However, the weight of the taxes has increased constantly from 27% in 2008 to 37% in 2018.
Weight of taxes and levies differs greatly between Member States
The proportion of taxes and levies in the overall electricity retail price for household consumers is shown in Figure 3. The relative amount of tax contribution in the second half of 2018 in the EU was smallest in Malta (5.9 %) where a low VAT rate is applied to the basic price and no other taxes are charged to household consumers. The highest taxes were charged in Denmark where 64.3% of the final price was made up of taxes and levies.
Largest falls in electricity prices in Latvia, Poland and Germany
Figure 4 shows the change in electricity prices for household consumers including all taxes and VAT in national currency terms between the second half of 2017 and the second half of 2018; these prices fell during the period under consideration in four of the EU Member States. The highest price increase was observed in Cyprus (19.6 %), while the price of electricity for household consumers fell most notably in Latvia (-4.5 %).
Electricity prices for non-household consumers
Electricity prices highest in Cyprus and Germany
For non-household consumers (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-size consumers with an annual consumption within the range of 500 MWh < consumption < 2 000 MWh), electricity prices during the second half of 2018 were highest among the EU Member States in Cyprus and Germany (see Figure 5). The EU-28 average price in the second semester of 2018 — a weighted average using the most recent (2017) national data for the quantity of consumption by non-household consumers — was EUR 0.1149 per kWh.
The development of electricity prices for non-household consumers in the EU-28 since the first half of 2008 is shown in Figure 6. The price of the energy, the supply and the network (prices without taxes) first increased. They went from EUR 0.0846 per kWh in the first half of 2008 to EUR 0.0959 per kWh in the first half of 2012. They now stand at EUR 0.0804 per kWh, lower than a decade ago. However, the weight of the taxes has increased constantly from 13% in 2008 to 30% in 2018.
Proportion of non-recoverable taxes and levies in electricity prices
The proportion of non-recoverable taxes and levies in the overall electricity price for non-household consumers is presented in Figure 7. In the second half of 2018 the highest share of taxes was charged in Germany, where non-recoverable taxes and levies made up 48.5 % of the total price.
Development of electricity prices for non-household consumers
Figure 8 shows the change in electricity prices for non-household consumers including all non-recoverable taxes and levies in national currency terms between the second half of 2017 and the second half of 2018; these prices fell during this period in six of the EU Member States. The highest price increases were observed in Cyprus (30.1 %), while the price of electricity for non-household consumers fell by 11.0 % in Greece.
Source data for tables and graphs
Defining household consumers
Throughout this article, references to household consumers relate to the medium standard household consumption band with an annual electricity consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh. All figures are consumer retail prices and include taxes, levies and VAT.
Note that the comparison between the 2017 and 2018 prices are made with prices in national currencies in order to exclude the influence of changes in exchange rates between national currencies and the euro for EU Member States and non-member countries that do not use the euro.
Defining non-household consumers
Throughout this article, references to non-household consumers relate to the medium standard non-household consumption band with an annual consumption of electricity between 500 and 2 000 MWh. In this article, prices are presented corresponding to the basic price for electricity production and network costs, including all non-recoverable taxes and levies.
Due to a change in methodology from 2007 onwards, there is a break in series and hence only a relatively short time series is available. Nevertheless, even in this relatively short timeframe, electricity prices have fluctuated considerably.
In 2016, Regulation (EU) 2016/1952 entered into force which defines the obligation for the collection and dissemination of electricity prices for household and non-household consumers. Until January 2017, price data for the household sector was provided by the reporting authorities on a voluntary basis. Until 2016, the domain of non-household consumers was defined as industrial consumers, but reporting authorities were allowed to include other non-household consumers. With the introduction of Regulation (EU) 2016/1952, the definition was changed from industrial to non-household consumers in order to have a unique methodology for all reporting countries.
Electricity tariffs or price schemes vary from one supplier to another. They may result from negotiated contracts, especially for large non-household consumers. For smaller consumers, they are generally set according to the amount of electricity consumed along with a number of other characteristics; most tariffs also include some form of fixed charge. There is, therefore, no single price for electricity. In order to compare prices over time and between EU Member States, this article shows information for consumption bands for household consumers and for non-household consumers. There are in total five different types of households for which electricity prices are collected following different annual consumption bands. Across non-household consumers, electricity prices are collected for a total of seven different types of users.
The prices collected cover average prices over a period of six months (a half year or semester) from January to June (first half or semester 1) and from July to December (second half or semester 2) of each year. Prices include the basic price of the electricity, transmission and distribution charges, meter rental, and other services. Electricity prices for household consumers are presented including taxes, levies, non-tax levies, fees and value added tax (VAT) as this generally reflects the end price paid by household consumers. As non-household consumers are usually able to recover VAT and some other taxes, prices for enterprises are shown without VAT and other recoverable taxes/levies/fees. The unit for electricity prices is that of euro per kilowatt hour (EUR per kWh).
The price and reliability of energy supplies, electricity in particular, are key elements in a country’s energy supply strategy. Electricity prices are of particular importance for international competitiveness, as electricity usually represents a significant proportion of total energy costs for industrial and service-providing businesses. In contrast to the price of fossil fuels, which are usually traded on global markets with relatively uniform prices, there is a wider range of prices within the EU Member States for electricity. The price of electricity is, to some degree, influenced by the price of primary fuels and, more recently, by the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission certificates.
These issues were touched upon in a Communication from the European Commission Facing the challenge of higher oil prices (COM(2008) 384), which called on the EU to become more efficient in its use of energy, and less dependent on fossil fuels — in particular, by following the approach laid out in the climate change and renewable energy package.
The EU has acted to liberalise electricity and gas markets since the second half of the 1990s. Directives adopted in 2003 established common rules for internal markets for electricity and natural gas. Deadlines were set for opening markets and allowing customers to choose their supplier: as of 1 July 2004 for business customers and as of 1 July 2007 for all consumers (including households). Some EU Member States anticipated the liberalisation process, while others were much slower in adopting the necessary measures. Indeed, significant barriers to entry remain in many electricity and natural gas markets as seen through the number of markets that are still dominated by (near) monopoly suppliers. In July 2009, the European Parliament and Council adopted a third package of legislative proposals aimed at ensuring a real and effective choice of suppliers, as well as benefits for customers. It is thought that increased transparency for gas and electricity prices should help promote fair competition, by encouraging consumers to choose between different energy sources (oil, coal, natural gas and renewable energy sources) and different suppliers. Energy price transparency can be made more effective by publishing and broadcasting as widely as possible prices and pricing systems.
- Energy (t_nrg), see
- Energy Statistics - prices (t_nrg_price)
- Electricity prices by type of user (ten00117)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy Statistics - prices of natural gas and electricity (nrg_price)
- Energy statistics - natural gas and electricity prices (from 2007 onwards) (nrg_pc)
- Energy statistics - natural gas and electricity prices (until 2007) (nrg_pc_h)
- Energy statistics - electricity prices for domestic and industrial consumers, price components (ESMS metadata file — nrg_pc_204_esms)
- This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.