Electricity market indicators


Data extracted in February 2018. Planned article update: April 2019.

Highlights


Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market in 2016 above 80 % in France (86 %), Estonia (80 %) and Croatia (78 %).

Figure 1: Cumulative market share of the main electricity generating companies and their respective installed capacity share, 2016 (in %)

This article takes a look at electricity markets in the European Union (EU), presenting recent statistical data on the number of electricity generating and retailing companies across EU Member States and Norway, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Turkey, Kosovo[1] and Moldova.

During the period 2003-2016, the number of main (main = market coverage above 5 % of national electricity generation) electricity generating companies in the European Union fluctuated between 82 and 90 companies, without a clear up- or downward trend.



Full article


Electricity markets - generation and installed capacity

The information in Table 1 refers to the number of companies that generate electricity representing at least 95 % of net electricity generation at national level.

In 2016, the number of electricity generating companies representing at least 95 % of national net electricity generation remained limited to five or fewer in four EU Member States. Germany did not report a number for this indicator.

Between 2015 and 2016, the number of electricity generating companies representing at least 95 % of national net electricity generation remained stable in nine EU Member States and increases could be observed in 15 Member States, while the number went down most significantly in Belgium, Hungary and Portugal.

Table 1: Number of generating companies representing at least 95% of national generation 2003-2016

Table 2 displays the number of main companies that have a market coverage for at least 5 % of the total national net electricity generation.

Table 2: Number of main electricity generating companies, 2003-2016

Five EU Member States declared only one single enterprise to have a significant share of electricity generation at national level in 2016 (no change compared to 2014 and 2015). In the United Kingdom, Portugal, Lithuania, Ireland and Bulgaria there are five electricity generating companies of considerable importance.

The number of main enterprises at EU-28 level fluctuated between 82 and 90 companies between 2003 and 2016.

Figure 1 displays the cumulated shares of companies in a given country having a share of at least 5 % of their respective national markets, both with regard to the electricity actually generated in 2016 and the installed capacity of the generating power plants.

Cyprus and Malta report a monopoly situation where one single company is responsible for the totality of electricity generation, and thus the installed capacity.

Table 3 displays the market share of the largest generator in the electricity market in 2016 in percentage of national production. Apart from Malta and Cyprus, where only one electricity company dominates the national production, figures above 80 % for the largest electricity generators are observed in France (83 %), Estonia (81 %) and Croatia (81 %). A size of the largest generation company on national level below 25 % can be observed in Luxembourg (18 %), in Poland (16 %) and in Lithuania (14 %). The market share of the largest generator for Bulgaria, Austria, United Kingdom and the Netherlands were not reported.

Table 3: Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market, 1999-2016 (%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_331a)

Member States also provided information on new installed electricity generation capacity during 2016. From Table 4, it can be concluded that the new installed capacity slightly increased compared with 2015 from 27.4 to 27.8 Gigawatt. This increase is mainly due to significant changes (in absolute terms) in Belgium, Portugal, Finland and the United Kingdom.

Table 4: New capacity connected during the year, 2007-2016 (in MW)

Electricity markets - retail

EU Member States (and Norway, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Turkey, Kosovo and Moldova) also reported information concerning the retailing (sales) sector.

Table 5 presents information on the total number of retailers that sell electricity to final customers. When looking to the number of main retailers (retailers are considered as "main" if they sell at least 5 % of the total national electricity consumption), the figures remain stable since several years (around 100 companies).

Table 5: Total number of electricity retailers to final consumers, 2003-2016


Table 6: Number of main electricity retailers, 2003-2016

Eight main companies can be found in Slovenia, seven in Denmark and in the United Kingdom. Markets where only one main company is dealing with the sales of electricity are registered in Greece, Cyprus, and Malta. (See table 6). Germany did not report the number of main retailers they have.

Figure 2 illustrates the number of main electricity retailers to final consumers and their cumulative market shares for all EU Member States plus Norway, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro,the former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and Moldova.

If one looks to the remaining market, which is the market that is covered by non-main retail companies that have a market coverage of less than 5 %, this market for "minor" retail companies is the largest in Sweden (65 %) and in Italy(60 %). The market for "minor" retail companies is below 25 % in 16 out of the 25 EU countries that reported this indicator.

Figure 2: Number of main electricity retailers and their cumulative market share, 2016

Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

The information used to create this article was collected on the basis of a questionnaire "Competition Indicators for the electricity market 2016".

All 28 EU Member States plus Norway, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Kosovo and Moldova returned the questionnaires to Eurostat but sometimes information for individual indicators was not available or confidential.

The reporting was done on a voluntary basis.

Context

Since July 2004, small business consumers in the EU have been free to switch their electricity supplier, and in July 2007 this right was extended to all consumers. Independent national regulatory authorities have been established across the Member States to ensure that suppliers and network companies operate correctly. However, a number of shortcomings were identified in the opening-up of markets, and it was therefore decided to embark upon a third legislative package of measures with the aim of ensuring that all users could take advantage of the benefits provided by a truly competitive energy market. The European Commission launched its third legislative package to liberalise energy markets in September 2007. These proposals were designed to: create a competitive energy market; expand consumer choice; promote fairer prices; result in cleaner energy; and promote the security of supply. During 2009, a number of these proposals were adopted by the European Parliament and the Council.

Direct access to
Other articles
Tables
Database
Dedicated section
Publications
Methodology
Legislation
Visualisations
External links





Main tables

Energy Statistics - main indicators (t_nrg_indic)
Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market (ten00119)
Electricity generated from renewable sources (tsdcc330)
Energy Statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)
Total gross electricity generation (ten00087)
Electricity consumption by industry, transport activities and households/services (GWH) (ten00094)
Electricity consumption by households (tsdpc310)
Energy Statistics - prices (t_nrg_price)
Electricity prices by type of user (ten00117)

Database

Energy Statistics - main indicators (nrg_indic)
Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market - annual data (nrg_ind_331a)
Supply of electricity - monthly data (nrg_ind_342m)
Energy Statistics - quantities, annual data (nrg_quant)
Energy statistics - Supply, transformation, consumption (nrg_10)
Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data (nrg_105a)
Energy Statistics - quantities, monthly data (nrg_quantm)
Energy statistics - supply, transformation, consumption (nrg_10m)
Supply - electricity - monthly data (nrg_105m)

Dedicated section

Methodology

Notes

  1. This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.