Environmental goods and services sector (env_egs)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

Download


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission, Eurostat, 2920 Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 26/02/2021
2.2. Metadata last posted 26/02/2021
2.3. Metadata last update 26/02/2021


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The environmental goods and services sector (EGSS) accounts report on an economic sector that generates environmental products, i.e. goods and services produced for environmental protection or resource management.

Products for environmental protection prevent, reduce and eliminate pollution or any other degradation of the environment. They include measures undertaken to restore degraded habitats and ecosystems. Examples are electric vehicles, catalysts and filters to decrease pollutant emissions, wastewater and waste treatment services, or noise insulation works.

Products for resource management safeguard the stock of natural resources against depletion. Examples are renewable energy production, energy efficient and passive buildings, seawater desalinization or rainwater recovery.

EGSS accounts provide data on output and exports of environmental goods and services and on the value added of and employment in the environmental goods and services sector.

EGSS data are compiled following the statistical concepts and definitions set out in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 – Central Framework (SEEA CF 2012).

Eurobase provides three tables on EGSS: 'env_ac_egss1', 'env_ac_egss2', 'env_ac_egss3'.

The first two tables present data produced and submitted to Eurostat by EU Member States, EFTA countries, and the UK. Eurostat publishes these data following a validation process. EGSS data for candidate countries undergo the same validation as is in place for EU Member States, and will be published after the discussion of the data status and quality between Eurostat and national statistical authorities in candidate countries. For table 'env_ac_egss2', Eurostat produces output and gross value added volume estimates, i.e. discounting for changes in prices, for all countries. Eurobase table 'env_ac_egss3' contains solely EGSS aggregates for the EU that are calculated by Eurostat from own estimates based on methods documented in Eurostat's EGSS practical guide, using publicly available data sources.

3.2. Classification system

Environmental protection activities are classified by environmental domain as set out in the Classification of Environmental Protection Activities (CEPA 2000). Resource management activities are classified as set out in the Classification of Resource Management Activities (CReMA). Together, sixteen categories and various sub-categories are differentiated:

CEPA 1 - Protection of ambient air and climate, of which:

CEPA 1.1.2 and 1.2.2 Protection of climate and ozone layer

CEPA 2 - Wastewater management

CEPA 3 - Waste management

CEPA 4 - Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water

CEPA 5 - Noise and vibration abatement

CEPA 6 - Protection of biodiversity and landscapes

CEPA 7 - Protection against radiation

CEPA 8 - Environmental research and development, of which:

CEPA 8.1.2 - Environmental research and development for the protection of climate and ozone layer

CEPA 9 - Other environmental protection activities

CReMA 10 - Management of water

CReMA 11 - Management of forest resources, of which:

CReMA 11.A Management of forest areas

CReMA 11.B Minimisation of the intake of forest resources

CReMA 12 - Management of wild flora and fauna

CReMA 13 - Management of energy resources, of which:

CReMA 13A - Production of energy from renewable resources

CReMA 13B - Heat/energy saving and management

CReMA 13C - Minimisation of the use of fossil energy as raw materials

CReMA 14 - Management of minerals

CReMA 15 - Research and development activities for resource management

CReMA 16 - Other resource management activities

CEPA 2000 is a recognised international standard included in the family of international economic and social classifications (see: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon).

CReMA is set out in Annex V of Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European environmental economic accounts.

(Note, at the end of 2020, Eurostat and the Task Force on the classification of environmental activities completed the revision of the CEPA and CReMA explanatory notes. The revision resulted in minor modifications of some of the headings above - see the revised CEPA and CReMA explanatory notes.) 

The suppliers of environmental goods and services are scattered over many NACE sections, divisions, and groups. Countries provide data disaggregated by 21 NACE sections. Activities under NACE C, E, and M are further disaggregated by divisions. In 2020, Eurostat published for the first time NACE totals and data for all 21 NACE sections.

EU-27 aggregates calculated by Eurostat cover CEPA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7-9 and CReMA 10, 13A, 13B. Materials recovery activities covered by NACE Rev. 2 group 38.3 are included in the data. Activities related to forest management are not covered. EU-27 aggregates are broken down into five broad NACE categories: (i) agriculture, forestry and fishing, (ii) mining, quarrying and manufacturing, (iii) electricity, gas, steam, supply of air conditioning, sewerage, waste management, and remediation activities, (iv) construction and (v) services.

3.3. Coverage - sector

EGSS comprises a sector of the economy that produces goods and services aimed at environmental protection and resource management (see SEEA CF 2012 chapter 4). Environmental goods and services either reduce environmental pressures or help maintaining the stock of natural resources (e.g. vehicle catalysts, soil remediation services,) or they are designed to be cleaner and more resource efficient than conventional products (e.g. electric cars, zero-energy buildings). Environmental goods and services can be produced by corporations, households, governments and non-profit institutions.

With a view to support data compilers in the implementation of their data production process, lists of environmental activities and products have been set out in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2174 ('the indicative compendium of environmental goods and services').

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

EGSS has the same system boundaries as the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010) and consists of all environmental products within this production boundary. ESA defines production as the activity carried out under the control and responsibility of an institutional unit that uses input of labour, capital, goods and services to produce output of goods and services.

Only goods and services produced for environmental purposes are included in the scope of the environmental goods and services sector.

'Environmental purpose' means that a good or service helps either 1) preventing, reducing and eliminating pollution and any other degradation of the environment or 2) preserving and maintaining the stock of natural resources and hence safeguarding against depletion.

The EGSS statistics aim at compiling data for the following economic variables:

Output: consists of products that become available for use outside of the producer unit, any goods and services produced for own final use and goods that remain in the inventories at the end of the period in which they are produced. Apart from market output, output for own final use and non-market output, EGSS statistics also include ancillary output, comprising output intended for use within an enterprise.

  • Market output is to be valued at basic prices, that is, the prices receivable by the producer from the purchaser minus taxes and plus subsidies on products.
  • Output for own final use is to be valued at basic prices of similar products sold on the market or by the total costs of production.
  • Non-market output is to be estimated by the total costs of production.
  • Ancillary output is measured as a total of recurrent production costs (such as intermediate consumption, compensation of employees and consumption of fixed capital) incurred by enterprises to: 1) reduce environmental pressures arising from their production process or 2) produce environmental goods or services not intended for use outside the enterprise, but instead supporting other (non-environmental) activities undertaken within the enterprise (e.g. waste management services carried out in-house). For market producers, a mark-up for net operating surplus is added to the value of the EGSS ancillary output.

Gross Value Added: represents the contribution made by the production of environmental goods and services to GDP. It is the difference between the value of the output and intermediate consumption.

Employment: is measured in full-time equivalent jobs engaged in the production of output of environmental goods and services. Full-time equivalent is defined as total hours worked divided by the average annual working hours in a full-time job.

Exports: consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants, of environmental goods and services from residents to non-residents.

See also the reference documents available on Eurostat's website on methodology for environmental accounts.

3.5. Statistical unit

Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community describes the different statistical units of the production system.

The recommended statistical unit for the collection and compilation of EGSS statistics (excluding general government) is the establishment. For general government, the recommendation is to use institutional units and groupings of units as defined in the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010).

3.6. Statistical population

The statistical population is the national economy as defined in SEEA CF 2012 and the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010). It includes all economic activities undertaken by resident units (see also sections 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 above).

3.7. Reference area

The reference area is the economic territory as defined in SEEA CF 2012 and the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010). A unit is said to be a resident unit of a country when it has its centre of economic interest in the economic territory of that country, that is, when it engages for an extended period (1 year or more) in economic activities in that territory.

Eurostat currently publishes EGSS data for EU Member States, EFTA countries, and the UK. Moreover, Eurostat produces and disseminates provisional estimates for the EU-27 as a whole.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Under Regulation 691/2011, EU Member States are obliged to report EGSS data for the period 2014-onwards.

Mandatory data reporting at the end of year n covers the reference period n-2 to n-4.

Voluntary data reporting covers early estimates for reference year n-1 and the period before 2014. The availability of voluntary reporting items varies considerably across countries.

Provisional estimates for the EU-27 as a whole are compiled by Eurostat each year (n), covering the period from year 2000 until year n-2.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.

For output and gross value added, the concept of chain-linked volumes is applied. Eurostat currently chooses 2010 as reference year to which volume indices are chain-linked and applied to output and gross value added data given at current prices. This generates volume estimates that are corrected for price change for any period of observation (see also point 18.5).


4. Unit of measure Top

Output, gross value added, and exports are measured in million units of national currency, in million EUR, and in million EUR as chain linked volumes, reference year 2010 (at 2010 exchange rates). The estimation method is described in the EGSS practical guide.

Employment is measured in full time equivalents (i.e., full time equivalent jobs).


5. Reference Period Top

The reference period for EGSS data is the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

EGSS accounts are compiled and reported in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts (EEEA). EEEA currently include six modules (air emissions accounts, environmental taxes by economic activity, economy-wide material flow accounts, environmental protection expenditure accounts, environmental goods and services sector accounts, and physical energy flow accounts). Since 2017, the reporting for EGSS has been mandatory for EU Member States. In the first mandatory transmission (at end-2017), Member States were obliged to report data for 2014 and 2015. In the second and third transmissions (at the end of 2018 and 2019), Member States were obliged to report data for 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2015, 2016, 2017, respectively.

The EEEA follow internationally agreed concepts and definitions set out in the SEEA CF 2012. They present data in a way that is compatible with National Accounts (ESA, 2010).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

No data sharing arrangements are in place. Eurostat makes available aggregates of all validated non-confidential data on its dissemination website for all users, including European institutions and international organisations.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164) stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society. The European Statistics Code of Practice provides further conditions to be respected by statistical offices in regard to statistical confidentiality (Principle 5).

Eurostat applies to EGSS data the confidentiality policy as described in Regulation (EC) No 223/2009. In case data are confidential but could be derived from the reported totals or sub-totals, Eurostat applies secondary confidentiality to ensure data remain confidential. Confidential data are not disclosed by Eurostat. Access to confidential data for scientific purposes may be granted (after requesting authorisation from the respective country) on basis of Commission Regulations 557/2013 and 223/2009.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Data with a confidentiality flag or an embargo date are not disseminated until the confidentiality flag is removed by a reporting country or the embargo has expired. Confidential data appear as not available (":") in Eurostat's online data base, with a flag "c".


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Data submitted by countries, i.e. data in Eurobase tables 'env_ac_egss1'and 'env_ac_egss2', are published once the validation procedure has been completed, typically in March of year n for the reference period up to (n-3).

The estimates, i.e. Eurobase table 'env_ac_egss3', are typically published before country data.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice (Principle 6 on impartiality and objectivity, Principle 13 on timeliness and punctuality, and Principle 15 on accessibility and clarity), EGSS data that meet the quality standards, including relevant metadata, are made available to users.

Eurostat disseminates European statistics, including EGSS data, on its website (see section 10.3 - 'Dissemination format') in an objective, professional, and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. Eurostat maintains professional independence. The data release is governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

EGSS data are published at least once a year, after data for a new reference year have become available.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

There is no regular news release on EGSS data.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Eurostat publishes EGSS data in an online database and related analyses in Statistics Explained articles.

For further reference:

EGSS data in Eurostat's online data base (navigation tree under "Environment and energy", "Environment", "Environmental goods and services sector")

Statistics Explained: Environmental goods and services – statistics on employment and growth

Statistics Explained: Environmental goods and services - statistics by member state

Gross value added in the environmental goods and services sector is SDG indicator 12.61 and data are published annually in 'Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report on progress towards the SDGs in an EU context'. 

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurostat's public online database is available free of charge under the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database.

Data on EGSS can be found under the following identifiers: "Environment and energy", "Environment", "Environmental goods and service sector" or directly under online codes 'env_ac_egss1' (Employment in the environmental goods and services sector), 'env_ac_egss2' (Production, value added and exports in the environmental goods and services sector) and 'env_ac_egss3' (EU-level estimates of production, value added and employment by industry groups in the environmental goods and services sector). 

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable (Eurostat collects EGSS data from countries at an aggregated level).

10.5. Dissemination format - other

In addition to Statistics Explained web-articles (see section 10.2), information on EGSS may be posted on Facebook and Twitter.

Eurostat's Facebook messages can be accessed here: EurostatStatistics

Eurostat's Twitter messages can be accessed here: @EU_Eurostat

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The following manuals provide guidance and document the compilation and reporting of EGSS data:

1. Environmental goods and services sector accounts — Handbook, 2016 edition

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-GQ-16-008

2. Environmental goods and services sector accounts — Practical guide, 2016 edition

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-GQ-16-011 

3. CEPA and CReMA explanatory notes (version December 2020)

4. Guidance notes:

Guidance note – Reporting of electric and more resource-efficient transport equipment in EPEA and EGSS accounts (version December 2020)

Guidance note – Reporting of energetic refurbishment and construction of new energyefficient buildings in EGSS accounts (version December 2020)

5. Summary of EGSS quality reports submitted annually by countries to Eurostat — available on CIRCABC

https://circabc.europa.eu/ui/group/b01d2930-990e-44fb-9121-a9a6b00a1283/library/5b8441d7-cdee-4a43-9ac0-9659effd46d3?p=1&n=10&sort=modified_DESC

Concepts and recording rules for EGSS accounts follow internationally agreed definitions set out in the SEEA CF 2012 and present information in a way that is compatible with National Accounts (European System of Accounts, ESA 2010).

 

Further information (including the questionnaires for the data collection) is available on Eurostat's website: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/methodology.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

For the voluntary data transmissions before 2017, Eurostat requested that metadata, including information about scope, coverage and sources, are submitted together with the data questionnaire for each data collection. This information was examined and stored internally.

For the mandatory data transmissions from 2017 onwards, Regulation 691/2011 obliges Member States to provide EGSS quality reports, which describe in detail compilation methods and several quality dimensions of the reported data. Eurostat publishes a summary of EGSS quality reports for each reporting round on CIRCABC.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

EGSS data are compiled by EU Member States, EFTA countries, candidate countries, and the UK. At present, Eurostat publishes the data of EU Member States, EFTA countries, and the UK. Quality assurance and documentation is a joint responsibility of Eurostat and each reporting country.

The methodological guidance and operational rules provided, e.g. by the 2016 EGSS handbook, the 2016 EGSS practical guide, the indicative compendium of environmental goods and services and the operational list of environmental products and activities seek to facilitate consistency of data and comparability across countries.

To verify the quality of data sources and compilation methods, Regulation 691/2011 obliges countries to submit a quality report together with the completed data questionnaires. The EGSS quality reports include information about the perimeter of the EGSS sector, the main data sources and the exhaustiveness and coverage of data.

Apart from that, Eurostat has put in place an extensive procedure to validate the data received from countries. The validation tools examine the following aspects:

- completeness and formatting of data and footnotes;

- internal consistency of data tables (totals matching the sum of individual NACE domains and environmental protection/resource management categories);

- plausibility of data revisions;

- consistency of time series and parameter ratios of the reported data;

- consistency of data with related statistics, mainly National Accounts and environmental protection expenditure accounts (EPEA).

11.2. Quality management - assessment

EGSS is a relatively new statistical domain. First pilot studies were conducted in 2009; EGSS accounts received legal cover in 2014 (Regulation 691/2011) and data collection became mandatory in 2017. The completeness and consistency of reported data has been improving since then and will likely continue to do so in the coming years.

At this stage, Eurostat has implemented, and continues to develop further, a validation procedure to ensure high quality of EGSS data reported by countries (see point 11.1). For each data reporting round, Eurostat compiles a progress report, which is presented to the Working Group on Monetary Environmental Statistics and Accounts (MESA WG), which encompasses representatives of all Member States, other reporting countries, Eurostat and other stakeholders. Specific quality issues, changes to the data questionnaire, the template for the quality report, and the methodological guidance are discussed by the MESA WG; agreed improvements are implemented for the subsequent reporting rounds. Progress is assessed once the data validation procedure has been completed by Eurostat, and discussed during the following MESA WG meeting.

As a complementary measure, Eurostat assesses the quality of EGSS data in the preparation of country visits, where persistent methodological issues and quality problems are discussed bilaterally.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

EGSS data are used for the monitoring of gross value added and employment in the environmental economy by Commission services, the European Environmental Agency, OECD, national governments, scientific institutes and universities, businesses, and citizens.

EGSS accounts provide data to assess growth of the environmental economy and to compile indicators for the monitoring of EU Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). EGSS accounts provide important information on the economic activity of sectors that are highly relevant for policy initiatives under the new European Green Deal.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

There are no systematic studies on user satisfaction. Eurostat has regular hearings with European policymakers and contacts with the research community and other stakeholders to monitor the relevance of statistics produced and identify new priorities. EGSS accounts will gain increasing relevance for policy making following the adoption of the European Green Deal in 2019.

12.3. Completeness

Completeness of EGSS datasets varies across countries. Since 2019, the vast majority of Member States are in the position to report a complete set of mandatory data. Where data are missing, sources and compilation methods are still being developed. If certain environmental activities are assumed to be negligible but precise data are not available yet, countries are encouraged to report '0' as the best estimate and flag the data accordingly. Missing data are not gap-filled.

Voluntary EGSS data - on non-market production, ancillary and own final use activities and to the breakdown of market production into environmental-specific services and cleaner and resource efficient products - are less complete. For most countries, there is hence potential to improve further the completeness and granularity of voluntary items.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

See point 11.1 above.

Eurostat assesses the accuracy of national data by systematically applying validation checks to all transmitted EGSS data. Eurostat also benchmarks EGSS data against data from other sources such as energy statistics and agricultural statistics to verify their plausibility and accuracy.

EU-27 EGSS aggregates are estimated following the methods described in the EGSS practical guide. Input data are obtained from official statistics such as national accounts, energy statistics, and environmental protection expenditure accounts, which were validated by Eurostat.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

EGSS accounts constitute secondary statistics. The underlying statistical sources such as surveys used by countries may involve sampling which could contain errors; however, it is the responsibility of each individual country to apply quality control and assurance procedures to ensure survey results are accurate.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Deadline for the reporting of EGSS data and quality reports is 31 December each year. Eurostat disseminates the data with a delay of 3 months, after their validation.

14.2. Punctuality

 Eurostat publishes the data once their validation process has been completed (see section 14.1). If some of the data returns arrive after the legal deadline or major quality issues are detected in the data validation procedure, this might lead to delays in the data release.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Comparability of EGSS accounts compiled by EU Member States, EFTA countries, candidate countries, and the UK is ensured by a common conceptual framework and through Implementing Regulation 2174/2015 that provides an indicative compendium of environmental goods and services and thus determines the perimeter of the EGSS sector. Hence, theoretically, EGSS data are consistent compilations of environmental activities of national economies.

At present, however, only few countries cover all types of relevant activities and products. For most countries, data on voluntary reporting items - such as ancillary, non-market, and own-final-use activities - are missing. Data for several resource management activities remain partially incomplete or subject to major uncertainty. Eurostat took measures to harmonise data by discussing persistent reporting issues in a dedicated task force. The outcome lead to revised explanatory notes for CEPA and CReMA and to two dedicated guidance notes (one on electric vehicles and another on energetic refurbishment and the construction of new energy-efficient buildings).

The standardised approach for estimating EU-27 aggregates compensates for coverage differences of the EGSS data transmitted by countries. The EU-27 aggregates estimated by Eurostat cover output, gross valued added, and employment related to market, non-market and ancillary activities. Due to differences in the coverage of reported EGSS data, the data published for Member States are not fully comparable with the EU-27 aggregates.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Time-series checks applied during the validation aim to assure good time-series consistency of reporting data. The break-in-the-time series flag (b) indicates instances where time-series consistency could not be assured. Countries are encouraged to revise the data to achieve good consistency across time. Comparability over time at country level is still limited for years prior to 2014 (i.e., the reference period not covered under Regulation 691/2011) and for voluntary reporting items. In recent years, many countries have developed data sources and/or methods to compile a complete set of mandatory EGSS data, extending the coverage of environmental activities and/or products, thereby ensuring compliance with reporting requirements under Regulation 691/2011.

The Eurostat estimates of EU-27 aggregates are consistent across the period 2000-2015 since they are obtained for all years using the same set of source data and compilation methods (see section 18.5). There are no breaks in the related data series.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

EGSS accounts have the same system boundaries as National Accounts (European System of Accounts, ESA 2010).

Eurostat estimates of EU-27 aggregates are based on data integration from other statistical domains (for details, see EGSS practical guide). This ensures a high level of coherence with, e.g., national accounts, environmental protection expenditure accounts, and energy statistics.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The data reported in the EGSS questionnaire are internally coherent (totals are consistent with the sum of the breakdowns). Case where totals exceed the sum of their breakdowns may occur and can be explained by unavailable voluntary reporting items.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Countries generally state in their quality reports that the cost and burden for compiling EGSS accounts is comparable with or higher than those for other accounts. Countries citing higher costs attribute these to the novelty of the domain and the need to identify data sources and establish a routine data production process.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Revision policy is set by national authorities. Data for individual years, environmental classes, NACE sections or the complete time-series of EGSS data can be revised to accommodate changes in the methodology of data compilation or any other major benchmark revisions.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The published data should be regarded as final, unless otherwise stated. However, data revisions may occur at any time.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The compilation of monetary-environmental accounts builds in many countries upon statistics that are primarily collected for other purposes.

Datasets 'env_ac_egss1' and 'env_ac_egss2' currently contain data compiled and reported by Member States, EFTA countries, and the UK. Countries are free to decide on the data collection methods to compile EGSS accounts. The general options are: surveys, administrative sources, statistical estimations, and use of already existing statistics or some combination thereof.

In addition to EGSS data reported by countries, Eurostat produces corresponding volume estimates, i.e., discounting changes in prices. The method used is described under point 18.5.

The EU-27 aggregates in datasets 'env_ac_egss1' to 'env_ac_egss3' consist of Eurostat's estimates, calculated with methods documented in the Eurostat EGSS practical guide based on publicly available data sources.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Eurostat receives EGSS data on an annual basis at the end of each calendar year.

The frequency and timing of the data compilation is not necessarily aligned with the frequency and timing of (all) primary statistical data collections that might significantly vary across reporting countries (see also point 18.3).

18.3. Data collection

The most recent EGSS questionnaire can be found under http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/methodology.

Countries use a variety of data sources to compile EGSS data. Hence, the data collection is country specific and also varies according to the nature of data sources, e.g. administrative data, statistical estimations, surveys, accounting statements.  In some cases, customised EGSS surveys of varying frequencies (e.g., 1-3 years) are put in place.

18.4. Data validation

Eurostat validates completeness, consistency, and plausibility of EGSS data with a comprehensive validation procedure. First quality checks are conducted in the data questionnaire, which allows data compilers identifying and correcting major inconsistencies. The subsequent validation by Eurostat involves sixty-four checks whose outcome is discussed with each country in an iterative validation procedure. Eurostat updates the EGSS validation procedure based on the feedback of countries on a yearly basis.

Information about Eurostat's general approach to data validation can be found under http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/data-validation and under point 11.1.

18.5. Data compilation

Data sources, methods and compilation techniques are country specific, but should be employed in a way compliant with the definitions and accounting rules described in the EGSS handbook. Eurostat publishes all validated EGSS data as reported by countries.

Based on the reported data, Eurostat produces volume estimates (i.e., discounting price changes) for output and gross value added. The resulting volumes are chain linked to the reference year 2010 (at 2010 exchange rates). Chain-linked volumes are based on industry-specific deflators (NACE*64 breakdown) from national accounts. The deflators are calculated by valuing output and gross value added given at current prices in terms of prices of the previous year. The thus computed volume changes are imposed on the levels of output and gross value added in reference year 2010. The deflators for gross value added are also applied to gross value added of market producers, and the deflators for output are also applied to market output. The methods to calculate chain linked volumes in national accounts are documented in the Eurostat Handbook on price and volume measures in national accounts.

Eurostat also produces its own estimates of EU-27 totals (covering all Member States of the European Union) for the period 2000-onwards. These estimates are compiled using a standardised data integration approach that combines existing data from various Eurostat data collections (e.g., national accounts, environmental protection expenditure accounts, energy balances) and other international and national sources (e.g. data published by the International Energy Agency) as well as country replies to the data collections on EGSS. The method is documented in Eurostat's EGSS practical guide.

18.6. Adjustment

Eurostat does not employ procedures to modify the statistical data reported. Where compliance with national or international standards cannot be addressed, this is commonly indicated by a data flag (e.g., provisional, data definition differs) and more information on specific country practices can be found in the EGSS quality reports, available on circabc.


19. Comment Top

Further information can be found in Eurostat's dedicated section on Environmental statistics and accounts:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/methodology

The data for the "Environmental Goods and Services Sector" accounts are available in Eurostat's online database under:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database (select "Environment and Energy" and "Environment")


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Methodology (including SEEA CF 2012)