Research and development statistics at regional level
Data extracted in April 2021.
Planned article update: September 2022.
The skewed nature of R&D activity was such that nearly half (around 49 %) of the EU’s intramural R&D expenditure took place in just 15 out of 201 NUTS level 2 regions (national data for Ireland and France; NUTS level 1 data for the Netherlands).
Hovedstaden (the Danish capital region) had the highest share of R&D personnel in its total number of persons employed (4.2 %; 2017 data). The next highest shares were recorded in two German regions, Stuttgart and Braunschweig (both 3.9 %; 2017 data).
Spending on research and development has the potential to improve the daily lives of millions of people, both within the European Union (EU) and elsewhere, by helping to solve some of the world’s largest societal and generational challenges. For example, the European Commission’s political guidelines for the period 2019-2024 include a target to become the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050. These guidelines are backed-up by a commitment to invest in innovation and research through the European Green Deal Investment Plan and Just Transition Mechanism, to help facilitate a transition towards a climate-neutral, competitive and inclusive European economy.
The EU is one of the world’s leading producers of scientific knowledge: it welcomes researchers from all over the globe. In May 2021, the European Commission adopted a communication on a Global Approach to Research and Innovation — Europe’s strategy for international cooperation in a changing world (COM(2021) 252 final), which underlines the EU’s desire to play a leading role in supporting international research and innovation partnerships, while delivering innovative solutions that deliver green and digital solutions in line with the sustainable development goals, while promoting resilience, prosperity, competitiveness, economic and social well-being.
It is often claimed that Europe faces an innovation deficit. Indeed, a European Commission communication adopted in January 2018 Horizon 2020 interim evaluation: maximising the impact of EU research and innovation (COM(2018) 2 final) identified that the innovation deficit was not due to an absence of new ideas or discoveries, but instead reflected a lack of success in diffusing/commercialising inventions. This may, in part, be linked to the willingness of EU businesses and financial systems to accept risk, which may impinge upon their ability to identify disruptive research. The communication identified areas such as investing more ambitiously and supporting breakthrough innovations as ways to remedy the deficit.
Young women tend to be under-represented when studying to be ICT professionals, mathematicians, scientists or engineers. In 2020, there were 6.7 million female scientists and engineers in the EU, accounting for 40.8 % of the total number of people employed in science and engineering. Across NUTS level 1 regions, female scientists and engineers were in the majority in just 13 out of the 89 regions for which data are available. The highest shares of female scientists and engineers were recorded in the Bulgarian region of Severna i yugoiztochna Bulgaria (57.1 %), the Polish region of Makroregion Wschodni (56.5 %), the Portuguese Região Autónoma Da Madeira (56.4 %) and the Swedish region of Norra Sverige (55.6 %). At the other end of the range, there were three regions across the EU where less than 3 out of every 10 scientists and engineers were women: Bayern (29.7 %) and Baden-Württemberg (29.1 %) in Germany, and Dunántúl (28.8 %) in Hungary.
This article presents statistical information analysing regional developments for a range of research and development-related indicators within the EU, including the following topics: R&D intensity, R&D expenditure per inhabitant, human resources in science and technology (HRST) and the number of researchers.
Research and development expenditure
Research and experimental development (R&D) — creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge or to devise new applications of existing knowledge — tends to be concentrated in clusters. Research-intensive regions are often situated around academic institutions, high-technology industrial activities and/or knowledge-based services, which attract new start-ups and highly qualified personnel.
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) includes research expenditure made by business enterprises, higher education institutions, government and private non-profit organisations. In 2019, GERD was valued at EUR 307.8 billion across the EU; this was EUR 12.9 billion (or 4.3 %) higher than its level in 2018 (EUR 294.9 billion).
Regional R&D statistics are only available for 2018, when the skewed nature of R&D activity was such that nearly half (around 49 %) of the EU’s intramural R&D expenditure took place in just 15 out of 201 NUTS level 2 regions (national data for Ireland and France; NUTS level 1 data for the Netherlands). These were the only regions in the EU where R&D expenditure was in excess of EUR 4.0 billion, underlining the significance of clusters of scientific and technological excellence. Leaving aside the national data for Ireland and France, the two regions with the highest levels of R&D expenditure were both located in Germany (2017 data): Stuttgart (EUR 15.9 billion) and Oberbayern (EUR 10.7 billion).
The highest R&D intensity was recorded in Braunschweig
R&D intensity is frequently used as a measure to determine an economy’s creative/innovative capacity. It is calculated as the ratio of R&D expenditure relative to gross domestic product (GDP). Despite modest annual increases over most of the last decade, R&D intensity remained below its Europe 2020 benchmark target of 3.00 %: the EU ratio stood at 2.18 % in 2018.
There were 22 regions that recorded ratios of at least 3.00 % in 2018 (national data for Ireland and France; NUTS level 1 data for the Netherlands; 2017 data for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Austria and Sweden) — as shown by the two darkest shades of orange in Map 1. They were predominantly located in Germany, Belgium, Austria and Sweden, although this group also included the capital regions from Denmark and Finland. The three highest ratios for R&D intensity — the only ones in excess of 5.00 % — were recorded in Braunschweig (8.52 %; 2017 data) and Stuttgart (7.69 %; 2017 data) in Germany, and Prov. Brabant Wallon (7.67 %; 2017 data) in Belgium. The two German regions are characterised by clusters of innovative automotive manufacturers, engineering and component suppliers. The Braunschweig region includes Wolfsburg (which is headquarters to the Volkswagen Group), while the Stuttgart region is home, among others, to the headquarters of Bosch, Mercedes-Benz and Porsche. At the other end of the scale, there were 20 regions where the R&D intensity was less than 0.45 % (as shown by the darkest shade of blue). These regions were principally in Romania, Bulgaria, Portugal and Greece, with single regions from Belgium (2017 data), Czechia, Spain and Finland also in this category.
Figure 1 identifies the highest and lowest regional ratios for R&D intensity in each of the EU Member States. Although the range between highest and lowest regional values was quite narrow in Romania, it had the greatest variation for regional R&D intensities among the multi-regional Member States for which regional data are available. This reflected the fact that the R&D intensity was very low in nearly all Romanian regions, with a single region (the capital, Bucureşti-Ilfov) recording a value that was 2.7 times as high as the second highest regional value. Belgium also had a high variation in regional values, but had a large range between the regions with the highest and lowest values: R&D intensity in Prov. Brabant Wallon was 27 times as high as the intensity in Prov. Luxembourg. By contrast, regional R&D intensities varied the least within the Netherlands (NUTS level 1 regions) and Slovenia.
An alternative measure of the level of R&D expenditure is given by the ratio of expenditure relative to the population size. Overall, there were 21 regions across the EU that recorded ratios of at least EUR 1 350 of R&D expenditure per inhabitant in 2018 (national data for Ireland and France; NUTS level 1 data for the Netherlands; 2017 data for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Austria and Sweden). Again, these were predominantly located in Germany, Belgium, Sweden and Austria, but once more this group also included the capital regions from Denmark and Finland. The three highest ratios for R&D expenditure per inhabitant were the same as for R&D intensity, namely Stuttgart (EUR 3 884 per inhabitant) and Braunschweig (EUR 3 683 per inhabitant) in Germany, and Prov. Brabant Wallon (EUR 3 514) in Belgium. At the other end of the scale, there were 15 regions where R&D expenditure per inhabitant was less than EUR 50. These regions were principally in Romania and Bulgaria, with single regions from Greece, Czechia and Poland also in this category. The skewed nature of R&D expenditure can be underlined by the fact that there were 57 regions with a level of R&D expenditure per inhabitant that was above the EU average (shown with orange shades in Map 2), compared with 143 regions with values below the EU average (shown with blue shades).
Comparing the information presented in Maps 1 and 2 it is possible to identify a group of regions where R&D expenditure per inhabitant was relatively high when contrasted with R&D intensity. The vast majority were located in western EU Member States, for example: the capital region in Belgium, Syddanmark and Nordjylland in Denmark, Hamburg, Oberfranken, Düsseldorf and Detmold in Germany, País Vasco in Spain, Emilia-Romagna in Italy, Luxembourg, the Dutch regions of Oost-Nederland and West-Nederland (both NUTS level 1), Salzburg and Vorarlberg in Austria, as well as Ireland (national data). Each of these had a level of R&D expenditure per inhabitant that was above the EU average and a level of R&D intensity that was below the EU average.
Human resources in science and technology
Human resources in science and technology (HRST) are defined as persons who fulfil one or other of the following two criteria:
- have successfully completed a tertiary education;
- employed in a science and technology occupation where the above qualifications are normally required (defined here as those who work as professionals, technicians and associate professionals — as defined by the international standard classification of occupations (ISCO) major groups 2 and 3).
As such, the concept of HRST can relate to a person’s level of education, irrespective of their actual professional occupation. By contrast, the concept of R&D personnel relates specifically to the actual occupation of persons, namely if they are directly engaged in R&D (creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge or to devise new applications of existing knowledge). Therefore, the criteria for HRST are broader, with the number of HRST considerably higher than the number of R&D personnel.
In 2020, there were 118.2 million persons employed in the EU as HRST; among these, there were 72.9 million who met the occupational criterion, 95.0 million who met the educational criterion, and 49.7 million who met both the educational and occupational criteria (otherwise referred to as HRST core).
Map 3 shows the share of HRST in the economically active population (hereafter referred to as the labour force). In 2020, the share of HRST in the EU labour force was 47.2 %. Unlike other science and technology indicators, the regional distribution for this indicator was not highly skewed. Rather, there was a fairly equal split in the number of regions with shares above (112 regions) and below (128 regions) the EU average.
The highest shares of HRST in the labour force were concentrated in capital regions and other urban regions; they were principally located in western regions of the EU. To a large degree — given that a majority of HRST meet the education rather than occupation criterion — the regional distribution shown in Map 3 closely resembles the distribution of people with a tertiary level of educational attainment (for more details, see this article on education and training). Regions with high shares of HRST in their labour force are likely to experience a number of benefits, such as: higher productivity, higher wage levels and clusters of research and technology activity. Factors such as these, in turn, are likely to reinforce their attractiveness to graduates and to (new) businesses, thereby generating spillover effects.
In 2020, there were 21 NUTS level 2 regions across the EU where HRST accounted for at least 57.5 % of the labour force (as shown by the darkest shade of orange in Map 3). More than half of these were located in western regions of the EU: Germany (four regions), Belgium (three regions) and the Netherlands (two regions) were the only EU Member States to have multiple regions that met this criterion. Within this group of 21 regions, Prov. Brabant Wallon in Belgium, País Vasco in Spain and Utrecht in the Netherlands were atypical insofar as they attracted a higher share of HRST to their regional labour force than their respective capital regions.
At the other end of the range, there were 21 regions across the EU where the share of HRST in the labour force was less than 30.0 % (as shown by the darkest shade of blue). Generally they were characterised as rural and peripheral regions that were concentrated in eastern and southern parts of the EU. Nord-Est (Romania) had the lowest regional share, with HRST accounting for around one sixth (15.6 %) of its labour force. There were four other regions in Romania — Sud-Muntenia, Sud-Est, Sud-Vest Oltenia and Vest — where the share of HRST in the labour force was lower than in any other region of the EU (all with HRST accounting for between one fifth and one quarter of their respective labour forces); the next lowest share was recorded in Mayotte (France), at 25.9 %.
In keeping with many other science and technology indicators, some of the highest shares of HRST in the labour force were recorded in capital regions. Indeed, capital regions accounted for 8 out of the 10 regions in the EU where the share of HRST was highest (as shown in the top left part of Figure 2). They included the capital regions of Poland, Germany, the Nordic Member States, France, Czechia and Lithuania; the other two regions were Prov. Brabant Wallon (Belgium) and Utrecht (the Netherlands). In 2020, the highest share of HRST was recorded in Prov. Brabant Wallon (a region neighbouring the Belgian capital region), where HRST accounted for 7 out of 10 persons (70.5 %) in the labour force.
The top right part of Figure 2 shows the share of people with tertiary education within the labour force. This includes people considered as HRST core (in other words meeting both the education and occupation criteria) as well as people who just meet the education criterion. Within the EU, this share was 36.3 % in 2020. Capital regions accounted for 7 out of the 10 regions in the EU where the share of people with tertiary education was highest; the three other regions were Prov. Brabant Wallon and Prov. Vlaams-Brabant in Belgium, and País Vasco in Spain. The highest share of people with tertiary education was 63.2 % in Prov. Brabant Wallon.
The bottom left part of Figure 2 shows the share of people employed in a science and technology occupation within the labour force. This includes people considered as HRST core (in other words meting both the education and occupation criteria) as well as people who just meet the occupation criterion. Within the EU, this share was 34.5 % in 2020. Capital regions accounted for 9 out of the 10 regions in the EU where the share of people employed in a science and technology occupation was highest; the other region was Utrecht in the Netherlands. The share of people employed in a science and technology occupation peaked at 54.8 % in Luxembourg.
The final part of Figure 2 — the bottom right — shows the share of people considered as HRST core. Within the EU, this share was 23.5 % in 2020. Capital regions accounted for 8 out of the 11 regions in the EU where the share of people with tertiary education was highest; the three other regions were Prov. Brabant Wallon and Prov. Vlaams-Brabant in Belgium, and Utrecht in the Netherlands. The share of HRST core peaked at 43.5 % in the Polish capital region (Warszawski stołeczny).
The category of R&D personnel consists of all individuals employed directly in the field of R&D. Included are not only researchers, but also technicians and equivalent staff as well as supporting staff (such as managers, administrators and clerical staff). R&D researchers are employed in public and private sectors (in business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit organisations) to create new knowledge, products, processes and methods, as well as to manage the projects concerned.
In 2018, 2.8 million people (in full-time equivalents) were categorised as R&D personnel in the EU. Map 4 puts the figures on the size of the R&D workforce into context, showing R&D personnel from all sectors together as a share of the overall number of persons employed: for the EU as a whole, this share was 1.5 % in 2018. In the Danish capital region (Hovedstaden), 4.2 % of persons employed were R&D personnel (2017 data). This was the only region in the EU with a share above 4.0 %; the next highest share was 3.9 %, observed in the German regions of Stuttgart and Braunschweig (2017 data for both regions). Including these three regions, there were 22 regions which recorded shares of at least 2.1 % (shown in the map with the darkest shade of orange), spread across 14 EU Member States; note that data are for 2017 for many of these regions and that the information for Belgium and the Netherlands concerns NUTS level 1 regions. Alongside seven German regions (not including the German capital region), this group of regions with the highest shares of R&D personnel included 10 capital regions, as well as País Vasco in Spain, Emilia-Romagna in Italy, Zuid-Nederland in the Netherlands, Steiermark in Austria, and Västsverige in Sweden. At the other end of the range, the share of R&D personnel in the total number of persons employed was less than 0.4 % in 11 regions across the EU. These were mainly in Romania and Poland (2017 data for one region), with a single region in each of Czechia and Portugal.
Sectoral analysis of R&D personnel
The category of R&D personnel includes people working for business enterprises, higher education institutions, governments and private non-profit organisations. In 2018, 0.87 % of employed persons in the EU were R&D personnel working in the business enterprise sector. The corresponding shares for the higher education (0.41 %) and government (0.18 %) sectors were considerably lower (see Figure 3).
The three regions with the highest R&D intensity, highest R&D expenditure per inhabitant and highest ratio of R&D personnel to the total number of persons employed also had the highest ratios of R&D personnel within the business sector to the total number of persons employed: 3.54 % in Stuttgart, 2.67 % in Hovedstaden and 2.48 % in Braunschweig. Braunschweig also appeared among the top 10 regions in terms of the ratio of R&D personnel within the government sector to the total number of persons employed, although its ratio was lower than those recorded for the Czech, Hungarian and Slovak capital regions and for Bremen (also in Germany). As well as being in the top three regions for the business sector ratio, Hovedstaden had the highest ratio of R&D personnel within the higher education sector to the total number of persons employed, ahead of Dytiki Ellada in Greece.
Researchers are persons engaged in R&D activities: they are defined as ‘professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge. They conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods.’
Taking account of different working hours and working patterns, the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the EU in 2019 was 1.86 million, equivalent to 0.96 % of all people employed in the EU. Regional data concerning researchers are available for 2018. In approximately 7 out of 10 (137 out of 192) NUTS level 2 regions (national data for Ireland and France) for which recent data are available (2017 data for some regions), researchers accounted for a share of the total number of persons employed that was smaller than the EU average. At the top end of the distribution, the share of researchers within total employment was more than double the EU average in 12 regions: these were mainly capital regions but also included Stuttgart and Braunschweig in Germany, and Västsverige in Sweden. As such, the distribution of researchers across EU regions can be considered to be highly skewed, with a high proportion concentrated in private and public (including academic) research in a relatively small number of regions.
More than half (54.8 %) of the researchers working in the EU were employed in the business enterprise sector. This share was also quite skewed, as nearly two thirds (122 out of 189) of NUTS level 2 regions (NUTS level 1 data for Belgium, national data for Ireland, France and the Netherlands) recorded a lower share than the EU average in 2018 (2017 data for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Austria, five Polish regions and Sweden; 2016 data for one Polish region). In 19 regions across the EU, the business enterprise sector accounted for 70.0 % or more of all researchers (as shown by the darkest shade of orange in Map 5). These regions were mainly in Germany (nine regions; 2017 data) and Austria (four regions; 2017 data). The highest shares of all were in Vorarlberg in Austria (93.1 %) and Stuttgart in Germany (90.1 %).
Source data for figures and maps
Commission Regulation (EU) No 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology provided the legal requirements and detailed rules concerning the production of European statistics on science and technology (for example, datasets, analyses, frequency or transmission timetable to be respected by the EU Member States). Note that starting from reference year 2021, regional business statistics on R&D expenditure and employment in R&D have a new legal basis — the EBS Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on European business statistics).
Some statistics that are used to analyse research and development are compiled using data from other statistical domains within Eurostat or from a range of databases provided by other international organisations. For example, statistics on human resources in science and technology (HRST) are compiled annually based on microdata from the EU’s labour force survey (LFS).
The methodology for R&D statistics is laid down in the Frascati manual (OECD, 2015). It provides guidelines for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development, with definitions of basic concepts and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.
The methodology for statistics on HRST is laid down in the Canberra manual (OECD, 1995), which lists all HRST concepts and provides definitions of human resources devoted to science and technology in terms of qualification (levels and fields of study) and occupation.
R&D expenditure and intensity
The basic measure of expenditures on research and development (R&D) concerns the intramural expenditures by statistical units. Included are all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy, regardless of the source of funds.
R&D intensity is defined as R&D expenditure relative to gross domestic product (GDP), expressed as a percentage.
Human resources in science and technology
Human resources in science and technology (HRST) include people who fulfil at least one of the following conditions:
- successfully completed tertiary education (human resources in science and technology by level of education);
- employed in a science and technology occupation where the above qualifications are normally required (human resources in science and technology by occupation).
Persons that meet both of the above criteria, in other words, those who have successfully completed a tertiary level education and who are also employed in a science and technology occupation are referred to as human resources in science and technology — core (HRST core).
A researcher is a professional engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge. A researcher conducts research and improves or develops concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods.
Research and innovation communication
In 2014, the European Commission adopted a communication on Research and innovation as sources of renewed growth (COM(2014) 339 final), which proposed that EU Member States should seek to actively support growth-enhancing policies, notably through research and innovation, in order to benefit from: the largest internal market in the world; many of the world’s leading innovative enterprises; and the EU’s highly-educated workforce. This was followed in 2015 by three new policy goals for EU research and development — open innovation, open science and open to the world (designed to open up the innovation process; to spread scientific knowledge as soon as it is available; promote international cooperation in the research community). These ideas were developed further in 2016 and published in Open innovation, open science, open to the world — A Vision for Europe.
The EU’s framework programmes for research have, since their launch in 1984, played a leading role in multidisciplinary research activities. In December 2020, political agreement was reached on the proposals for Horizon Europe, the EU’s 9th framework programme for research and innovation for 2021 to 2027; this programme carries on from Horizon 2020. The first Horizon Europe Strategic Plan covers the period from 2021 to 2024. The European Commission has started preparations for the implementation of Horizon Europe, based on three pillars:
- excellent science supporting frontier research projects;
- global challenges and European industrial competitiveness that reinforces technological and industrial capacities and sets EU-wide missions with ambitious goals tackling some of society’s biggest issues (health, climate change, clean energy, mobility, security, digital, materials);
- innovative Europe designed to make Europe a frontrunner in innovation and SME growth through the creation of a European Innovation Council (a one-stop shop to help innovators create future markets, supporting innovations that have a breakthrough or disruptive nature).
Within Horizon Europe, five European mission areas have been identified with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of funding by pursuing clearly defined targets:
- adaptation to climate change including societal transformation;
- climate-neutral and smart cities;
- healthy oceans, seas, coastal and inland waters;
- soil health and food.
European research area
The European research area (ERA) is a unified research area open to the world. Since 2015, it has six key priorities — outlined in the ERA Roadmap 2015-2020 — designed to have the biggest impact on Europe’s science, research and innovation systems: more effective national research systems; optimal transnational cooperation and competition; an open labour market for researchers; gender equality and gender mainstreaming in research; optimal circulation, access to and transfer of scientific knowledge; international cooperation.
In September 2020, the European Commission published a communication on A new ERA for Research and Innovation (COM(2020) 628 final). This highlighted that the EU faces several challenges, aggravated by the COVID-19 crisis, and that the ERA has a key role to play in addressing these challenges. It noted that, although the EU is still a global leader in research and innovation, its performance has stagnated in recent years. Some other countries, particularly from Asia, have increased in importance in terms of research and innovation, and more broadly in their use of technology. Drawing on the lessons from the COVID-19 crisis, the communication proposes that the ERA needs to be strengthened and research and innovation reinforced. Underlying these goals are not only the issues of prosperity and economic competitiveness, but also the EU’s autonomy. The communication reaffirmed the commitment to the ERA and proposed a ‘new approach in order to accelerate Europe’s green and digital transformation, strengthen Europe’s resilience and preparedness to face future crises, and to support Europe’s competitive edge in the global race for knowledge’.
Developments foreseen for 2021
During 2021, the European Commission plans to release a new communication on the global approach to research, innovation, education and youth.
As part of its priorities for 2019-2024, under the heading of ‘A Europe fit for the digital age’, the European Commission has proposed establishing a European Cybersecurity Industrial, Technology and Research Competence Centre and a related network of national coordination centres.
In many parts of the world, including in the EU, the COVID-19 pandemic served as a reminder of the need for crisis preparation and management. For example, the European Commission intends to develop proposals concerning the detection and response to cross-border health threats within the EU. As well as strengthening existing bodies, the Commission will propose to establish an agency for biomedical advanced research and development. Equally, Horizon Europe will be reinforced to fund health and climate-related research and innovation activities.
Budget for 2021-2027
In total, EUR 88.1 billion (in 2018 prices) have been budgeted for research and innovation between 2021 and 2027, including EUR 5.0 billion as part of the European Recovery Instrument (also known as Next Generation EU); the vast majority of this budget is for Horizon Europe.
- Regional science and technology statistics (t_reg_sct)
- Human resources in science and technology (HRST) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00038)
- Intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00042)
- Researchers, all sectors by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00043)
- Research and development (t_research)
- Human Resources in Science & Technology (t_hrst)
- Regional science and technology statistics (reg_sct)
- R&D expenditure and personnel (reg_rd)
- Human resources in Science and Technology (HRST) (reg_hrst)
- Research and development (research)
- Statistics on research and development (rd)
- R&D expenditure at national and regional level (rd_e)
- R&D personnel at national and regional level (rd_p)
- Statistics on research and development (rd)
- Human resources in Science & Technology (hrst)
- Stocks of HRST at national and regional levels (hrst_st)
Manuals and further methodological information
- European Business Statistics Manual — 2021 edition
- Methodological manual on territorial typologies — Eurostat — 2018 edition
- Science, technology and innovation methodology
- Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology
- Report (COM(2011) 184 final) from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on science and technology statistics
- From the 2021 reference year, the legal basis for R&D expenditure and employment in R&D will be:
- Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of 27 November 2019 on European business statistics