Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics


Data from March 2018.

Planned update: January 2019.

Highlights


The Netherlands remained the largest maritime freight transport country in Europe in 2016

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg maintained their positions as Europe's top 3 ports in 2016

The total number of passengers in EU ports was close to 397 million in 2016, a rise of 0.4 % from the previous year

Gross weight of seaborne goods handled (inward and outward) in all ports in 2016 (in tonnes per inhabitant)

This article presents the latest statistical data on freight handling and passenger traffic in ports in the European Union (EU), the EFTA countries Iceland and Norway and the candidate countries Montenegro and Turkey. It also covers maritime transport flows with the main partner geographical areas, as well as individual results for major European ports. This article contains data for 2016.



Full article


Slight increase in seaborne goods and passengers in EU ports

The total gross weight of goods handled in EU ports is estimated at close to 3.9 billion tonnes in 2016, a slight increase of 0.5 % from 2015. According to the latest figures, the EU port freight activity seems to have resumed on a slight path towards recovery in 2014, a trend that was sustained in the three last quarters of 2016 (Figure 1). Even so, the gross weight of goods handled in EU ports in 2016 was still lower than the volumes handled in the years immediately preceding the economic downturn in Europe in 2009.

Figure 1: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports, 2002-2016 (in million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwh) and (mar_go_qm)

The Netherlands remained the largest maritime freight transport country in Europe in 2016, while Rotterdam, Antwerpen, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Algeciras maintained their positions as the five largest freight ports.

Among the EU member states, the seaborne freight-per-capita ratio varied from 34.6 tonnes per inhabitant in the Netherlands to 1.9 tonnes per inhabitant in Poland in 2016. The EU average was 7.6 tonnes per inhabitant. However, Norway recorded the highest ratio of the countries reporting maritime data to Eurostat, with 38.2 tonnes of seaborne goods handled per inhabitant in 2016 (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled (inward and outward) in all ports in 2016 (in tonnes per inhabitant)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwh)

The number of passengers passing through EU ports increased 0.4 % between 2015 and 2016, to almost 397 million passengers (Figure 3). In contrast, the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports has fallen by 7.6 % over the last decade.

Figure 3: Number of seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports, 2002-2016 (in 1000)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_cph)

With 67 million passengers passing through its ports, Italy was the major seaborne passenger country in Europe in 2016, followed by Greece with more than 65 million passengers. These two leading seaborne passenger countries had a combined share of about one third of the total number of seaborne passengers embarking and disembarking in the EU countries (Table 6).

The number of vessels calling in the main EU ports in 2016 is estimated at just above 2.1 million, an increase of 0.1 % from the previous year. In the same period, the estimated gross tonnage (GT) of the vessels calling in EU ports grew by 4.5 % to 17.2 billion GT. During the same period, the average size of vessels calling in the main EU-28 ports increased by 4.4 % to about 8 200 GT in 2016 (Figure 4).

The Netherlands is EU’s largest maritime freight transport country

The Netherlands has reported the largest volumes of seaborne freight handling in Europe every year since overtaking the United Kingdom in 2010. At 589 million tonnes, the volume of seaborne goods handled in Dutch ports represented 15.2 % of the EU total in 2016. The Netherlands was followed by the United Kingdom (UK) and Italy, with shares of 12.5 % and 12.0 % of the EU total, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports, 2006-2016 (in million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_cwhd)

Behind these three, Spain remained the fourth largest EU maritime freight transport country in 2016, while Germany overtook France to resume fifth place among the EU countries. Among other countries reporting maritime freight data to Eurostat, the candidate country Turkey handled close to 426 million tonnes of goods in 2016, placing Turkey between Spain and Germany in terms of total tonnage of seaborne goods handled.

Compared with 2015, the largest relative increases in port freight activity were recorded by the candidate country Montenegro (+8.7 %), Lithuania (+7.2 %) and Slovenia (+6.2 %). The largest relative decreases were recorded in Latvia (-10.1 %) and Estonia (-3.9 %).

Eleven Member States recorded decreases in port freight activity in the ten-year period between 2006 and 2016. The highest relative falls were observed for Estonia (-32.8 %), Croatia (-29.5 %), the United Kingdom (-17.1 %) and France (-16.6 %). In contrast, Lithuania registered the largest relative increase (+69.8 %), followed by Poland (+ 37.3 %), Slovenia (+36.7 %), Portugal (+36.6 %), Cyprus (+33.7 %) and Iceland (+25.8 %).

Inward movements of goods to the EU countries increased by 0.5 % to almost 2.3 billion tonnes in 2016 compared to 2015, while outwards movements increased by 0.6 % to almost 1.6 billion tonnes. Nonetheless, inward movements still accounted for more than 59 % of the total tonnes of goods handled in the EU ports. Liquid bulk goods, such as crude oil and oil products, made up a substantial proportion of the inward tonnage.

More seaborne goods are unloaded from than loaded onto vessels in the majority of EU countries. Malta and the Netherlands had the highest shares of unloaded goods in 2016, with respective shares of 89 % and 68 % of the total tonnes of seaborne goods recorded as inward movements to their ports. In contrast, Romania and Bulgaria, the three Baltic countries and the EEA country Norway and the candidate country Montenegro all had high shares of outward movements of goods.

Liquid bulk made up 38.1 % of the total cargo handled

Liquid bulk goods accounted for 38.1 % of the total cargo handled in the main EU ports in 2016 (Table 2), followed by dry bulk goods (22.2 %), containerised goods (21.7 %) and goods transported on Ro-Ro mobile units (12.4 %). The largest volumes of liquid bulk goods were handled in the Netherlands (281 million tonnes), followed by the United Kingdom (191 million tonnes) and Italy (186 million tonnes). The Netherlands recorded the highest share of liquid bulk goods as a percentage of the total tonnages passing through its main ports in 2016, mainly reflecting large volumes of inward movements of crude oil from Russia.

Table 2: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled (inward and outward) in main ports in 2016 by type of cargo (in % of total cargo handled)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_cwhc)

With 140 million tonnes, Dutch ports also handled the largest volumes of dry bulk goods in the EU in 2016, followed by Spain with 98 million tonnes. Even so, the tonnages of dry bulk goods handled in both the Netherlands and Spain in 2016 were lower than the 165 million tonnes reported by Turkey. Latvia had the highest share of dry bulk goods as a percentage of the total tonnages in 2016, mainly reflecting large volumes of outward movements of coal from its ports.

Containers were the dominant type of cargo handled in German and Belgian ports in 2016, with shares of 42.9 % and 41.1 % respectively of the total cargo passing through the ports of the two countries. The largest volumes of containerised goods, however, were handled in Spanish and German ports, with 138 million tonnes and 127 million tonnes, respectively. The two top container countries were followed by the Netherlands with 109 million tonnes and Belgium with 104 million tonnes of containerised goods.

The share of Ro-Ro units in the total tonnage of goods was the highest for Ireland (30.1 %), Sweden (26.9 %), and Denmark (26.0 %), reflecting the importance of Ro-Ro ferry traffic in the seaborne transport of these countries. In tonnage terms, the United Kingdom (107 million tonnes) and Italy (88 million tonnes) recorded the largest EU volumes of goods transported on Ro-Ro mobile units in 2016.

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg stayed top ports

Rotterdam, Antwerpen and Hamburg, all located on the North Sea coast, maintained their positions as Europe's top three ports in 2016, both in terms of the gross weight of goods handled and in terms of the volume of containers handled in the ports. The 20 largest cargo ports accounted for close to 39 % of the total tonnage of goods handled in the main ports of the reporting countries in 2016, a slight increase compared to 2015. The largest port in Europe, Rotterdam in the Netherlands, on its own accounted for close to 10 % of the total tonnage handled in the countries reporting maritime freight data to Eurostat.

Among the five largest cargo ports in Europe, Rotterdam and Amsterdam recorded decreases of 1.1 % and 2.5 %, respectively in the tonnes of goods handled in 2016 compared to 2015 (Table 3). In contrast, Algeciras recorded an increase of 5.1 % and Antwerpen recorded an increase of 4.5 % from 2015, while Hamburg slightly increased by +0.1 % compared to 2015.

Table 3: Top 20 cargo ports in 2016 - on the basis of gross weight of goods handled (in million tonnes)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_pwhd)

Among the other top 20 cargo ports, Sines recorded the largest growth with 16.6 % compared to 2015. The port of London also reported substantial increases in the total tonnage of goods handled in 2016 (+10.9 %) and became the 13th largest European port in terms of gross weight of goods handled in 2016. The ports of Immingham (-8.0 %), Le Havre and Marseille (-4.6 % and -1.4 %, respectively), on the other hand, reported decreases in port activity in 2016.

With close to 11.7 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) handled, Rotterdam was Europe’s largest container port in 2016 (Table 4). Rotterdam was followed by Antwerpen with 9.9 million TEUs and Hamburg with 8.9 million TEUs handled in total. All in all, five of the top 20 container ports recorded decreases in the number of TEUs handled compared to 2015. In relative terms, the largest decreases were seen by Ambarli (-9.2 %) and Le Havre (-3.1 %). The largest relative increases were recorded by Gdansk (+49.7 %), London (+26.0 %) and Gioia Tauro (+25.3 %).

Table 4: Top 20 container ports in 2016 - on the basis of volume of containers handled in (1 000 TEUs)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_pvh)

The most specialised of the top 20 cargo ports in handling containers were Bremerhaven, Piraeus and Valencia; the most specialised in handling liquid bulk goods were Bergen, Botas and Trieste. While inward activity was prevalent in most of the top 20 ports, the ports of Bergen and Botas handled substantial outward movements of crude oil. In addition, Bremerhaven and Valencia recorded slightly more outward than inward movements of containerised goods (Table 3).

Nine of the top 20 cargo ports in 2016 were located on the Mediterranean, nine were located on the North Sea coast of Europe and the remaining two ports were located on the Atlantic coast (Map 1). The composition of the national port infrastructure will sometimes determine whether a country is represented on the top 20 list of cargo ports or not. Denmark and Finland, for instance, are countries with a large number of medium-sized ports, all handling volumes of goods lower than the 40 million annual tonnes required to make the top 20 list.

Map 1: Main cargo ports in the reporting countries 2016 by gross weight of goods handled
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_aa_pwhd)

Most EU maritime freight transport is with extra-EU partners

Unlike statistics presented earlier in this article, the figures in Table 5 do not present the total handling of goods in ports (inward movements plus outward movements in the ports), but estimate the seaborne transport of goods between the main European ports and their partner ports. As far as possible, double-counting of the same goods being reported as outward transport in one port and inward transport in another port is excluded in these figures (see data sources and availability).

Table 5: Seaborne transport of goods between main ports in the reporting country and their partner ports grouped by main geographical areas (in % of total gross weight of goods transported)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mg_am_cwt) and (mar_mg_am_cwtt)

At above 3.1 billion tonnes, the EU seaborne transport of goods increased 0.7 % from 2015 to 2016. The majority of these goods (62 %) were transported to or from ports outside the EU (international extra EU-28 transport), making maritime transport the most important mode for long distance transport of goods to or from the EU, in tonnage terms. Cross-border transport between ports in the EU (international intra EU-28 transport) made up 25 % of the maritime transport of goods in 2016, while transport of goods between national ports made up 10 % of the total EU maritime transport.

In countries with long shorelines or a large number of islands, like Italy, the EFTA country Norway, Greece and Denmark the share of national seaborne transport tend to be relatively high (from 16 % to 26 %). Countries like Latvia, Ireland, Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Malta, on the other hand, have high shares of international intra-EU transport (above 60 %), because their main maritime freight transport partners are found within the EU. Other countries, like Belgium, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Portugal, Germany, Spain, Greece, France, Lithuania and Italy, have high shares of extra-EU transport (above 55 %), based on their geographical position or the "deep sea" nature of the transport activities prevailing in their main ports.

Map 2 illustrates the largest maritime transport flows between the EU and the main international partners. As shown in the map, all of the EU’s top nine maritime flows of goods in 2016 were inward flows. In declining order, these were the inward flows of goods from the Baltic Sea area of Russia (7.7 % of the total EU seaborne transport), Norway (5.1 %), Brazil (4.3 %), the Black Sea area of Russia (4.0 %), the East Coast of the USA (3.9 %), Egypt (3.4 %), China (3.3 %) and Turkey (3.1%). In comparison, the tenth largest seaborne transport flow in 2016 was the outward flow of goods from the EU to China (2.7 %, not illustrated in the map).

Map 2: Main Extra-EU 28 transport flows in 2016 by gross weight of goods handled
Source: Eurostat - Maritime transport - Goods (mar_go)

Slight increase in number of seaborne passengers

The total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports is estimated at close to 397 million in 2016, a rise of 0.4 % from the previous year (Figure 3). Over the last ten years, however, the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports has fallen by 7.6 % (Table 6).

Table 6: Number of seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports, 2006-2016 (in 1000)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_cph) and (mar_mp_aa_cphd)

Unlike goods movements, where broadly 60 % of goods are unloaded and 40 % loaded in the EU ports, the difference between the number of passengers disembarking ("inwards") and embarking ("outwards") in EU ports is generally small. This reflects the fact that seaborne passenger transport in Europe is mainly carried by national or intra-EU ferry services, with the same passengers being counted twice in the port throughput statistics (once when they embark the ferry in one EU port and once when they disembark the same ferry in another EU port).

At 67 million and 65 million seaborne passengers, respectively, Italian and Greek ports handled a combined share of more than 33 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports in 2016. In consequence, Italy and Greece remained the main countries in terms of EU seaborne passenger transport, despite both countries recording decreases in passengers embarking and disembarking compared to 2015 (-4.3 % and -0.7%, respectively). The two leading countries were followed by Denmark with close to 42 million passengers embarking and disembarking in 2016, a slight increase from 2015.

Compared with the previous year, the largest relative increases in seaborne passengers transport were recorded by Bulgaria (+87.6 % from a low base), Belgium (+28.2 %) and Portugal (+16.6 %) in 2016. The largest relative decreases were recorded in Romania (-98.8 from a low base), Turkey (-44.0 %), Iceland (-26.1 %), Slovenia (-15.9 %) and Cyprus (-13.6 %).

Compared with the seaborne passenger volumes in 2006, 12 Member States recorded decreases in 2016. The highest relative falls were observed for Bulgaria (-77.5 % from a low base), Cyprus (-74.3 %), Greece (-27.8 %) and Italy (-21.8 %). In contrast, Latvia registered the largest relative increase (+160.3 %). The neighbouring countries of Estonia and Lithuania also reported a substantial rise in seaborne passengers of 67.7 % and 59.1 %, respectively, over the last decade.

Although cruise passengers made up only 3.2 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in EU ports in 2016, these passengers play an important role in the ports and countries where the cruise traffic is concentrated. Close to 80 % of the total number of cruise passengers embarking and disembarking in European ports in 2016 did so in the ports of one of the four countries Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany (Table 6). Cruise passengers on day excursions in EU ports are not included in these figures.

The top 20 passenger ports accounted for just below 36 % of the total number of passengers embarking and disembarking in the reporting countries in 2016, a decrease of 1.5 % from 2015 (Table 7). The port of Dover kept its position as the largest European passenger port, despite a 7.5 % decrease in the number of passengers embarking and disembarking from 2015 to 2016. The port of Palma de Mallorca recorded the largest relative increase in the number of passengers between 2015 and 2016 (+17.0 %), while the ports of Messina and Reggio Di Calabria recorded the largest decreases in the same period (-12.6 % and -8.0 %, respectively).

Table 7: Top 20 passenger ports in 2016 - on the basis of number of passengers embarked and disembarked (in 1000)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_aa_pphd)

The time series in Tables 6 and 7 show that some countries and ports have experienced substantial decreases in the number of seaborne passengers over time. These sudden drops are typically caused by structural changes, such as openings of new bridge or tunnel connections and subsequent closure of ferry links. The rapid growth in low cost flights in recent years might be another cause behind the declining trend in the number of seaborne passengers over time.

Most EU seaborne passenger transport is within national borders

Table 8 shows the breakdown of seaborne passenger transport between national, international intra-EU and international extra-EU transport for each reporting country (excluding cruise passengers). Unlike the statistics presented in tables 6 and 7, these figures do not reflect the sum of embarkation and disembarkation of passengers in ports, but estimate the transport of passengers between ports. As far as possible, double-counting of the same passengers being reported as embarking in one port and disembarking in another port within the same statistical aggregate is excluded in these figures (see data sources and availability).

Table 8: Seaborne transport of passengers (excluding cruise passengers) between main ports in the reporting country and their partner ports grouped by geographical areas (in % of passengers (excluding cruise passengers) transported)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mp_am_cft) and (mar_mp_am_cftt)

Estimated at more than 204 million passengers, the seaborne passenger transport to and from the main EU ports slightly increased by 0.1 % from 2015 to 2016. Both of the main EU seaborne passenger countries, Italy and Greece, saw decreases in the estimated number of seaborne passengers transported to or from their main ports compared with 2015 (-6.0 % and -0.8 %, respectively). However, the largest relative decreases in maritime passenger transport were recorded by Turkey (-35.0 %) and France (-10.0 %). In contrast, the estimated number of seaborne passengers transported to or from the main ports of Spain rose substantially in the same period (+26.4 %). Portugal (+16.7 %), Latvia (+11.6 %) and Croatia (+10.9 %) also observed some substantial increases in 2016 compared to 2015 (table 8).

The majority of the seaborne passenger transport in the EU is carried out between ports situated in the same country (60 %), reflecting the dominant role of national ferry services in the EU seaborne passenger transport. In general, countries with busy ferry connections to and from well-populated islands will have both a large volume of seaborne passenger transport and a high share of national maritime passenger transport. This applies to the two leading maritime passenger countries, Italy and Greece, as well as countries like Portugal, Croatia and Spain.

Countries with ferry connections to other EU countries, such as Belgium, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Poland, Estonia, France and Denmark, naturally have high shares of international intra-EU transport. As in previous years, Spain and Denmark recorded the highest shares of extra-EU seaborne passenger transport in 2016, with Spain having ferry links with Morocco and Denmark with Norway.

Vessels calling in the main EU ports

The number of vessels calling in main EU ports in 2016 is estimated at just above 2.1 million, a slight increase of 0.1 % from the previous year (Table 9). In the same period, the estimated gross tonnage (GT) of the vessels calling in EU ports grew by 4.5 % to 17.2 billion GT (Table 10). During the same period, the average size of vessels calling in the main EU ports increased by 4.4 % to about 8 200 GT in 2016 (Figure 4).

Table 9: Number of vessels in main ports by type of vessel, 2011-2016 (based on inward declarations)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)


Table 10: Gross Tonnage (GT) of vessels in main ports by type of vessel, 2011-2016 (in 1000 GT, based on inward declarations)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)


Figure 4: Average Gross Tonnage (GT) per vessel in EU-28 main ports, 2002-2016 (based on inward declarations)
Source: Eurostat (mar_mt_am_csvi)

Greece had the highest number of port calls (457 000 vessels), followed by Italy (388 000 vessels) and Denmark (268 000 vessels). On the other hand, Italy recorded the largest gross tonnage of vessels calling at its main ports in 2016 (2.4 billion GT), followed by the United Kingdom (2.3 billion GT) and Spain (2.2 billion GT).

Vessels in the category “Cargo, non-specialised” (which includes Ro-Ro vessels) made the highest share of calls in main EU ports in 2016, followed by passenger vessels, liquid bulk vessels and container vessels. The non-specialised cargo vessels also had the highest share of the combined gross tonnage of the vessels calling in main EU ports, followed by container vessels and liquid bulk vessels. However, cruise ships had by far the largest average gross tonnage of vessels calling in EU main ports in 2016, followed by container vessels and specialised cargo vessels.

For passenger vessels, there are substantial differences in the average size of vessels making port calls in various countries, with some countries, like Germany, Croatia and Italy, having a large number of small passenger vessels calling in their main ports. A similar variation is found for container vessels. Due to a dominance of feeder services, some countries, like Ireland, have a low gross tonnage for container vessels even though the number of vessels is quite high. In other countries, like Bulgaria, Germany, France, Malta and the Netherlands, the average size of container vessels calling in the main ports is much higher, reflecting a higher share of deep-sea oriented container transport or the presence of hub ports.

Source data for tables and graphs


Data sources

This article presents the trends in freight and passenger transport in European Union (EU) ports and also includes figures for Iceland, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. The content is based on data collected within the legal framework for EU maritime transport statistics, i.e. Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea and later amendments. Directive 2009/42/EC is a recast of the original Council Directive 95/64/EC of 8 December 1995.

The EU-28 aggregates in the statistics refer to the total of 23 maritime Member States. The Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Hungary, Austria and Slovakia have no maritime ports. Norway and Iceland provide Eurostat with data as members of the European Economic Area (EEA). The EEA country Liechtenstein has no maritime ports. Montenegro and Turkey provide data as candidate countries.

“Main ports” are ports handling more than 1 million tonnes of goods or more than 200 000 passengers annually (however, data for some smaller ports may be included in the published results). Data are presented at level of “statistical ports”. A statistical port consists of one or more ports, normally controlled by a single port authority, able to record ship and cargo movements.

Explanatory notes for tables:

Basic results and derived indicators (such as growth rates and shares in % of total) in the tables are rounded. However, the figures are based on the non-rounded original data. As a result, the sum of shares in % of total, as shown in the tables, is not necessarily equal to 100%. A special aggregate EEA+ME+TR is used in some tables to show the total sum of all ports in the countries reporting maritime data to Eurostat.

Explanatory notes for countries are available in the metadata on the Eurostat website.

Table 1: Starting from 2011, the figures for Spain include data for a number of minor regional ports outside the state-controlled port system. Turkey started to report data on seaborne transport in 2008 and Montenegro in 2012. Data have been partially estimated by Eurostat for a number of French ports for the period 2009-2016.

Tables 2, 3 and 4:

  • Liquid bulk: liquefied gas, crude oil, oil products, other liquid bulk goods.
  • Dry bulk: ores, coal, agricultural products (e.g. grain, soya, tapioca), other dry bulk goods.
  • Large containers: 20 ft freight units, 40 ft freight units, freight units > 20 ft and < 40 ft, freight units > 40 ft.
  • Ro-Ro mobile units:

a) Mobile self-propelled units: road goods vehicles and accompanying trailers, passenger cars, motorcycles and accompanying trailers/caravans, passenger buses, trade vehicles (including import/export motor vehicles), live animals on the hoof, other mobile self-propelled units.

b) Mobile non-self-propelled units: unaccompanied road goods trailers and semi-trailers, unaccompanied caravans and other road, agricultural and industrial vehicles, rail wagons, shipborne port-to-port trailers and shipborne barges engaged in goods transport, other mobile non-self-propelled units

  • Other cargo: forestry products, iron and steel products, other general cargo.

The category “large containers” includes containers having a length of 20 feet or more. Smaller containers are included in the category “other cargo”. As a general rule, the container figures are limited to lift-on lift-off containers (Lo-Lo).

Data are not available for Iceland and Montenegro. French data for the period 2012-2016 have been partially estimated by Eurostat for a number of French ports.

Tables 5 and 8: Data are not available for Iceland and Montenegro. The figures for France in these tables contain Eurostat estimates. Please note that the recording of unknown port of loading or unloading may have influenced the transport figure calculations, as well as the shares of maritime transport allocated to intra-EU, extra-EU and National maritime transport. In order to estimate maritime transport of goods/passengers between ports, the issue of "double counting" (the transport of the same goods or passengers being declared by both the port of loading/embarking (as outward movements) and the port of unloading/ disembarking (as inward movements) has to be addressed. Generally, when both the port of loading/embarkation and the port of unloading/disembarkation are situated within the same statistical aggregate, only the incoming flows of goods/passengers declared by ports are summed up to determine the total maritime transport within the aggregate ("elimination of double counting"). The algorithm for the elimination of double counting is applied at statistical port level. Thus, the total maritime transport per country excludes the double counting of maritime transport within the country. Similarly, the total maritime transport for the EU-28 excludes the double counting of national and international intra-EU maritime transport (see metadata on the Eurostat website for more information).

Table 6: Data include (cruise and non-cruise) passengers starting and ending a voyage. Cruise passengers on excursion in ports (cruise transit) are excluded. Slovenia provided only the total number of passengers from 2004 to 2007. Starting from 2011, the figures for Spain include data for a number of minor regional ports outside the state-controlled port system. Netherlands only provide the number of non-cruise passengers (“ferry passengers”). The passenger figures for Portugal do not include cruise passengers until 2011. Passenger data for Norway cover international traffic only. Romania started reporting passenger data in 2007, Turkey in 2008 and Montenegro in 2012. Data for Icelandic ports are not available for 2007 and 2008. Data for Iceland exclude cruise passengers. French data for the period 2009-2016 contain Eurostat estimates.

Table 7: Data include (cruise and non-cruise) passengers starting and ending a voyage. Cruise passengers on excursion in ports (cruise transit) are excluded.

Table 8: See note for Table 5 above. French data for the period 2009-2016 contain Eurostat estimates. 2016 data for Spanish ports include cruise passengers. Passenger transport data for Malta do not include international transport to/from the port of Valletta. Passenger data for Norway cover international traffic only. Data are not available for Iceland.

Tables 9 and 10:

  • Liquid bulk: oil tanker, chemical tanker, LG tanker, tanker barge, other tanker.
  • Dry bulk: bulk/oil carrier, bulk carrier.
  • Container: full container.
  • Cargo, specialised: barge carrier, chemical carrier, irradiated fuel, livestock carrier, vehicle carrier, other specialised.
  • Cargo, non-specialised: reefer, Ro-Ro passenger, Ro-Ro container, other Ro-Ro cargo, combination carrier general cargo/passenger, combination carrier general cargo/container, single-decker, multi-decker.
  • Passenger: passenger (excluding cruise passenger vessels).
  • Cruise passenger: cruise ships only.
  • Offshore activities: offshore supply.
  • Other: dry cargo barges, tugs, miscellaneous, unknown type of vessel.

The figures for France contain Eurostat estimates based on partially available data.

Special symbols used in the tables

':' not available '-'  not applicable

Context

The content of this statistical article is based on data collected within the framework of the EU maritime transport statistics Directive, i.e. Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea (OJ L141 of 6.6.2009, page 29), which is a recast of the original Council Directive 95/64 (EC) of 8 December 1995.

The basic legal act (Directive 2009/42/EC) was amended by:

The following legal acts include respectively the last official version of the list of ports and some dissemination aspects:

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Maritime transport (mar)
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Maritime transport - vessel traffic (mar_tf)
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