Hospital discharges and length of stay statistics
Data extracted in August 2018.
Planned article update: August 2019.
Among the EU Member States, the highest discharge rate for all hospitalised patients in 2016 was in France.
In nearly all EU Member States, circulatory diseases were the most common main diagnosis for in-patients in 2016.
Average length of stay for hospital in-patients, 2016
This article presents an overview of European Union (EU) statistics related to the number and rate of hospital discharges and the average length of stay for patients in hospitals. It provides information relating to hospital discharges of in-patients and day care patients, providing analyses by the age and gender of patients and their diagnoses; this may be used as an indicator for the level of healthcare activity in hospitals. A similar collection of analyses is presented for the average length of stay for in-patients.
This article is one of a set of statistical articles concerning healthcare activities in the EU which forms part of an online publication on health statistics.
A hospital discharge occurs when a hospital patient is formally released after an episode of care. The reasons for discharge include finalisation of treatment, signing out against medical advice, transfer to another healthcare institution, or because of death. The data should cover all types of hospitals, including general hospitals, mental health hospitals and other specialised hospitals, as well as all types of diagnosis and treatment, including discharges of healthy new-borns. For reasons of comparability, discharges of healthy new-borns have been excluded from the data presented in this article.
In practice, data availability is more limited in some national statistics and a summary of the main deviations from the standard coverage is provided in the Data sources section below. In cases where national statistics exclude any types of hospitals this will understate, to a greater or lesser extent, the number and rate of discharges. This is particularly true for certain types of diagnoses if the exclusions are related specialisations, for example, the exclusion of psychiatric hospitals or mental health care institutions impacts on the data for discharges of patients diagnosed with mental and behavioural disorders.
Ireland, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and Portugal reported more day care patients than in-patients
Among the 24 EU Member States for which recent data are available for in-patients and day care patients (see Figures 1 and 2), only Ireland, the United Kingdom France, Belgium and Portugal (2015 data) reported more discharges of day care patients than in-patients in 2016. By contrast, there were around 10 times as many in-patient discharges as discharges of day care patients in Lithuania and Sweden and this ratio reached a level between 28 and 40 times as high in Czechia, Germany and Slovakia.
Relative to population size, discharge rates in 2016 for in-patients were generally in the range 9 600 to 20 400 per 100 000 inhabitants for most EU Member States (see Figure 1); Lithuania, Germany, Austria and Bulgaria reported higher rates (22 800 to 31 100 per 100 000 inhabitants); Portugal (2015 data) and Cyprus reported rates that were below 8 000 per 100 000 inhabitants. Comparing the highest and lowest values, the in-patient discharge rate in Bulgaria was 4.1 times as high as in Cyprus.
Turning to day care patients (see Figure 2), relative to population size, discharge rates among the EU Member States in 2016 were generally in the range 1 300 to 8 900 per 100 000 inhabitants. Romania, Croatia, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Ireland and France reported rates that were higher (13 900 to 24 200 per 100 000 inhabitants). Germany, Czechia and Slovakia reported much lower rates than the other Member States, at 692, 675 and 469 day care discharges per 100 000 inhabitants respectively.
The highest discharge rate for all hospitalised patients was in France
Combining discharge rates in 2016 for in-patients and day care patients, the highest discharge rate for all hospitalised patients was in France, which was the only EU Member State with a rate over 40 000 per 100 000 inhabitants. Ireland, Romania, Belgium, Austria and Croatia reported rates between 31 000 and 36 000 per 100 000 inhabitants, while all other Member States (for which data are available) reported rates below 30 000 per 100 000 inhabitants, with the lowest rate of all in Cyprus, 9 500 per 100 000 inhabitants.
Between 2011 and 2016, discharge rates for in-patients decreased for a small majority of the EU Member States. The highest relative increases were registered in Bulgaria and France. By contrast, nearly all EU Member States reported increased discharge rates for day care patients during this period, the exceptions being Lithuania, Sweden (2010-2016; note there is a break in series), Finland, Slovakia (2012-2016), Portugal (2011-2015), Italy and the Netherlands.
Hospital discharges by sex and age
Fewer discharges of male patients than of female patients in nearly all EU Member States
Among the EU Member States for which data are available, in all but one — Cyprus — there were more discharges of female in-patients than male in-patients in 2016, as was also the case in most of the non-member countries shown in Figure 3, Montenegro being the only exception. For day care patients, Cyprus, France and Germany reported more discharges of male patients than female patients.
Tables 1 and 2 provide an analysis of discharge rates in 2016 by age, distinguishing male and female patients, as well as in-patients and day care patients. Due to space constraints only a selection of age ranges is shown in these two tables, whereas the full set of data — available online — has been used for the following commentary.
Among in-patients, discharge rates were generally high for infants aged less than one year, then fell to a low between late teenage years or early adulthood for men, or later adulthood for women, before increasing again in old age. Discharge rates for infants aged less than one year exceeded 100 000 per 100 000 inhabitants in Romania for males and females and in Lithuania for males. Note that these data do not include discharges of healthy new-borns. The lowest discharge rates for infants aged less than one year — below 20 000 per 100 000 inhabitants — were recorded in Portugal (2015 data) for males and females and in Luxembourg for females,
Different age pattern to in-patient discharge rates for males and females, mainly characterised by high discharge rates for women in the typical child-bearing age range
Leaving aside the youngest age group and focusing on discharge rates of in-patients aged one year or over there were clearly different age patterns for males and females. For males, in-patient discharge rates generally fell from higher rates among very young males, to lower rates among men in their teens, twenties and early thirties, before rising again to peak amongst the oldest age groups. For females the in-patient discharge rates also fell from high rates among the youngest girls to low rates among girls in their early and late teens. In-patient discharge rates for women then increased again, to peak in women’s early thirties. Thereafter the discharge rates dropped back down to a relatively low rate for women in their early forties before increasing again in older age ranges in a similar manner to that observed for males, although with generally lower discharge rates for older females. The increase and subsequent decrease observed for females in early adult years is focused in the typical age ranges for child-bearing.
Discharge rates for day care patients quite similar for males and females
While for in-patients the highest discharge rates were normally recorded for infants aged less than one year, for day care patients this was only the case in Denmark, Slovakia and Sweden for males and females, and Germany and Croatia just for females. In fact, a quite large minority of EU Member States recorded their lowest discharge rates for day care patients among infants aged less than one year: Malta just for males, Belgium, Latvia and Slovenia just for females, and Spain, France, Luxembourg, Hungary (2015 data), Portugal (2015 data) and the Netherlands for males and females.
For males, day care discharge rates for many EU Member States fell from a high rate for infants aged less than one year through to their lowest level for one of the age groups between 10-14 and 35-39, and then gradually increased to their highest level for the age group 75-79 years (or a slightly older or slightly younger age group). Some exceptions to this pattern were Member States where the highest rates were recorded in an age group for much older people, as was the case in Czechia and Germany where the highest day care discharge rates for males were recorded for the 95 years and over age group. Other exceptions included Spain, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and Portugal, where the lowest day care discharge rates for males were recorded among infants aged less than one year. Denmark, Slovakia and Sweden were more notable exceptions in that the day care discharge rates for older generations of males never passed those for infants aged less than one year (which therefore had the highest rates), while in Lithuania the highest day care discharge rate for males was for those aged 1-4 years.
For females, the pattern was somewhat different. The lowest day care discharge rates for females were most often recorded in some of the youngest age groups, particularly aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years, or even through to 20-24. Atypically, the lowest rates were recorded for infants aged less than one year in France, Luxembourg, Hungary, the Netherlands and Portugal, and for the age group 95 years and over in Czechia, Croatia, Italy, Lithuania and Romania. There was an almost universal pattern for day care discharge rates for females to rise again from the age group 15-19 years. In line with what was observed for men, day care discharge rates for females most commonly peaked for the age group 75-79 years (or a slightly older or slightly younger age group) before dipping back down for the older age groups. A small number of Member States recorded their highest day care discharge rates for women among much younger age groups, for infants aged less than one year (Denmark, Slovakia and Sweden) or for the age groups 30-34 years or 35-39 years (Czechia, Italy, Lithuania and Slovenia). Germany was again an exception, recording the highest discharge rate for females within the age range of 95 years and older.
Hospital discharges by diagnosis
Discharges by diagnosis — as presented in Tables 3 and 4 as well as Figure 4 — refer to the principal diagnosis, in other words, the main condition diagnosed at the end of the hospitalisation. The main condition is the one primarily responsible for the patient’s need for treatment or investigation.
In nearly all EU Member States, circulatory diseases were the most common main diagnosis for in-patients
For in-patients, the main diagnosis in 2016 across EU Member States was circulatory diseases, as shown in Table 3 and Figure 4. The rare exceptions to this were: Ireland where pregnancy and childbirth was the most common; the United Kingdom where diseases of the respiratory system were the most common; Luxembourg where diseases of the musculo-skeletal system and connective tissue were the most common; Malta and Spain where diseases of the digestive were most common. In Spain, Luxembourg and Malta, circulatory diseases were the second most common diagnosis, whereas in the United Kingdom and Ireland they were only the third and fourth most common. Across all of the Member States other diagnoses that were also common included diseases of the digestive system, neoplasms (benign or malignant cancers), diseases of the respiratory system, injuries and other external causes, as well as pregnancy and childbirth.
The most common main diagnoses for day care patients were neoplasms and diseases of the digestive or genitourinary systems
For day care patients, the most common main diagnosis was less clear cut, with a majority of the EU Member States reporting their highest discharge rates for either neoplasms or for diseases of the genitourinary system, reflecting the use of day care for some cancer treatments (such as chemotherapy) and some kidney disease treatments (such as dialysis). Other common diagnoses included: diseases of the digestive system in Belgium, Ireland and Malta; diseases of the circulatory system in Denmark, Germany and Sweden; injuries and other external causes in Poland (2015 data) and Finland; and mental and behavioural disorders in France.
Average length of hospital stay for in-patients
The average length of stay for in-patients is calculated from the total number of nights spent in hospitals by in-patients divided by the total number of discharges. As such, the average length of stay may be less influenced by coverage issues (insofar as the average length of stay in the institutions excluded from the coverage can be assumed to be similar to that in the institutions that are covered). This is clearly not the case when only acute care institutions are covered but not those providing long-term care and in these cases the average length of stay is likely to be underestimated. A summary of the main deviations from the standard coverage is provided in the Data sources section below and highlights those national statistics where some of these issues can be found.
The average length of hospital stays fell in most EU Member States during the five years between 2011 and 2016
In 2016 (or latest year), the average length of a hospital stay for in-patients ranged from 5.3 days in Bulgaria to 9.6 days in Hungary (2015 data) and Czechia, with the Netherlands below this range with an average of 4.5 days (note the data for the Netherlands exclude all long-stay hospitals). Among the non-member countries for which data are available, Liechtenstein and Turkey also reported particularly low average lengths of stay.
Comparing the average length of stay in 2016 (or latest year — see Figure 5) with the situation in 2011, a majority of the EU Member States — 17 out of 27 (no data available for Greece) — observed a reduction in the average length of time that patients spent in hospital. By far the largest decrease was in Finland, where the average fell from 11.2 days to 8.6 days. By contrast, seven Member States recorded an increase during this period: Malta, Italy, Portugal (2011-2015), Cyprus, Spain, Luxembourg and France (note there is a break in series for France).
Males generally spent longer than females in hospital …
Although there were generally more female in-patients than male in-patients (see Figure 3), the average length of stay for male in-patients in 2016 was generally longer in most of the EU Member States. The main exceptions to this pattern, as can be seen from Figure 6, were Hungary (2015 data), Malta and Belgium where female in-patients recorded clearly longer hospital stays, while in Austria the average for female patients was only slightly higher than for male patients and in Finland they were the same.
… while the average length of in-patient stays tended to be shortest for children aged 1-9 years and highest for people aged 85 years or over
A detailed age group analysis of the average length of in-patient hospitals stays is presented in Table 5. The average length of stay in 2016 was generally lower for young children aged 1-4 years or 5-9 years than it was for the youngest age group, in other words infants aged less than one year. Between the age groups 5-9 years and 10-14 years there was an increase in the average length of stay in all EU Member States, but the average then remained relatively stable through to the age group 30-34 years. Thereafter, the average length of in-patient stays increased through to the age group 55-59 years after which it stabilised briefly. From the age group 65-69 years upwards the average length of stay tended to get higher with each age group until it peaked in most Member States in one of the higher age groups, specifically 85-89, 90-94, or 95 years and over. Nevertheless, in Germany and Croatia, the longest average stays were recorded for the age groups 55-59 years and 45-49 years; for Denmark, Cyprus and Sweden it was for infants aged less than one year. Hungary (2015 data) had the biggest difference in average length of stay between the age groups, with an average of 3.5 days for children aged 1-4 years rising up to an average of 34.9 days for people aged 95 years and over.
In-patients with mental and behavioural disorders generally spent the longest time in hospital per stay
Among the nine diagnoses presented in Table 6, the average length of stay for in-patients was notably longer for mental and behavioural disorders. Note that in several Member States, the data presented in Table 6 exclude discharges from some or all psychiatric hospitals or mental health care institutions. The longest average stays for in-patients with mental and behavioural disorders were reported for Czechia, Malta and the United Kingdom, between 38 and 41 days. Among the other diagnoses, the average lengths of stay were generally highest for patients being diagnosed or receiving treatment for diseases of the circulatory system or neoplasms.
For several of the diagnoses shown in Table 6 there was a relatively high degree of uniformity in the average length of stay reported by each EU Member State. For example, in-patients diagnosed with diseases of the digestive system spent on average between 4.4 days (in Bulgaria, Malta and the Netherlands) and 6.8 days (in Italy) in hospital; patients diagnosed with diseases of the respiratory system, those diagnosed with diseases of the genitourinary system and those diagnosed with neoplasms also reported quite similar average lengths of stay across the Member States. By contrast, for diseases of the circulatory system the average length of stay for in-patients ranged from 4.2 days in Bulgaria to 12.4 days in Hungary (2015 data). For mental and behavioural disorders the average length of stay varied even more, although this is influenced to some extent by the fact that patients in some or all psychiatric hospitals or mental health care institutions are excluded in several Member States.
Source data for tables and graphs
An in-patient is a patient who is formally admitted (or ‘hospitalised’) to an institution for diagnosis, treatment and/or care and stays for a minimum of one night or more than 24 hours in the hospital or other institution providing in-patient care.
In contrast to in-patient care, the intention for day care is to discharge the patient on the same day as admitted. In contrast to outpatient care, day care comprises planned medical and paramedical services delivered to patients who have been formally admitted for diagnosis, treatment or other types of health care.
An in-patient or day care patient is discharged from hospital when formally released after a procedure or course of treatment (episode of care). A discharge may occur because of the finalisation of treatment, signing out against medical advice, transfer to another healthcare institution, or because of death.
The average length of stay of in-patients in hospitals is computed by first calculating the number of hospital days (or bed-days or in-patient days) from the date of admission to an in-patient institution as the date of discharge minus date of admission, and then dividing this by the number of discharges during the year.
Healthcare resources and activities
Statistics on healthcare activities such as information on discharges and average length of stay are documented in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.
For country specific notes on this data collection, please refer to this background information document. Data do not always cover all hospitals, treatments or types of patients. The main exceptions noted for 2016 data (or the latest available year when 2016 data are not available) by EU Member States and non-member countries are listed below.
|Types of institutions||Main exception(s)|
|Belgium||Excludes long-stay hospitals (covers only acute care hospitals) and psychiatric/mental health hospitals|
|France||Excludes long-term care hospitals|
|Serbia||Excludes private hospitals, prison hospitals and military hospitals|
|Norway||Excludes private hospitals|
|Germany||Excludes prevention and rehabilitation facilities with less than 100 beds|
|Ireland||Excludes private hospitals, long-stay hospitals (covers only acute care hospitals) and psychiatric/mental health hospitals|
|Spain||Day cases: excludes psychiatric and long-stay hospitals unless they form a hospital complex|
|Switzerland||Excludes prison and military hospitals|
|Croatia and Latvia||Excludes prison hospitals|
|Italy and Poland||Excludes military hospitals|
|Cyprus||Excludes private hospitals and psychiatric/mental health hospitals|
|The Netherlands||Excludes private and semi-private hospitals, mental health and substance abuse hospitals, epilepsy clinics and long-stay hospitals (covers only acute care hospitals)|
|Portugal||Excludes hospitals not on the mainland and private hospitals|
|Slovenia and Iceland||Excludes rehabilitative care in specialised centres|
|The United Kingdom||Excludes private hospitals except insofar as they are providing services commissioned by the public sector (national health service)|
|Types of activity / treatment||Main exception(s)|
|The Netherlands||Excludes part-time psychiatric treatments in general or university hospitals with a psychiatric ward; rehabilitation day-treatment; day care admissions for normal deliveries of babies|
|Types of patient||Main exception(s)|
|France and Luxembourg||Excludes non-residents|
|Belgium (184 days), Italy (365 days) and Slovakia (700 days)||Excludes long-term patients|
The main diagnosis for discharges is based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). The diagnoses presented in this article include:
- C00-D48 Neoplasms
- F00-F99 Mental and behavioural disorders
- I00-I99 Diseases of the circulatory system
- J00-J99 Diseases of the respiratory system
- K00-K93 Diseases of the digestive system
- M00-M99 Diseases of the musculo-skeletal system and connective tissue
- N00-N99 Diseases of the genitourinary system
- O00-O99 Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
- S00-T98 Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
Note on tables: the symbol ':' is used to show where data are not available.
Statistics on hospital discharges and the average length of hospital stays reflect the balance between the demand for and supply of hospital services. They represent how many patients were actually admitted (as in-patients or day care patients) and how long they were treated; they can be complemented by other supply side statistics such as occupancy rates (see an article on hospital beds), the frequency of operations and procedures, healthcare expenditure, as well as demand side statistics (see the article on unmet medical needs).
The balance between in-patient and day care patient discharges, as well as the number of out-patients and the average length of hospital stays, reflect a number of factors, including:
- demographic changes such as an ageing population which pushes up demand for hospital services;
- budgetary pressures to keep costs down; and
- changes in practices and technology impacting on the length of acute care and/or the balance between in-patient care, day care and outpatient care.
The European core health indicators (ECHI) shortlist includes indicators on hospital in-patient discharges, hospital day cases and average length of stay in the chapter on health services.
Healthcare activities and expenditure
- Surgical operations and procedures
- Unmet needs for health care
- Healthcare expenditure
General health statistics articles
- Health care (t_hlth_care)
- Health care (hlth_care)
- Health care activities (hlth_act)
- Hospital discharges and length of stay for inpatient and curative care (hlth_co_dischls)
- Hospital discharges - national data (hlth_hosd)
- Hospital discharges by diagnosis, in-patients, total number (hlth_co_disch1)
- Hospital discharges by diagnosis, in-patients, per 100 000 inhabitants (hlth_co_disch2)
- Hospital discharges by diagnosis, day cases, total number (hlth_co_disch3)
- Hospital discharges by diagnosis, day cases, per 100 000 inhabitants (hlth_co_disch4)
- Length of stay in hospital (hlth_hostay)
- In-patient average length of stay (days) (hlth_co_inpst)
- Health care activities (hlth_act)
- Healthcare resources (ESMS metadata file — hlth_res_esms)