Statistics Explained

Agricultural production - crops


Data extracted in November 2021.

Planned article update: 14 November 2022.

Highlights

The EU produced 286.5 million tonnes of cereals in 2020.
In 2020, cereal production in the EU was 12.9 million tonnes less than in 2019, impacted by dry conditions and severe heatwaves in large parts of western and northern central Europe, eastern Romania and Bulgaria, and northern Greece.
The output price of cereals in the EU was an average 3.7 % higher in 2020 than in 2019.
[[File:Agricultural production - crops 2021.xlsx]]

Production of main cereals, EU, 2010-2020 (million tonnes)

Editorial note: Throughout this article, which deals with time periods when the United Kingdom was a Member State of the European Union, the acronym EU, however, refers to EU-27, the post-Brexit composition of the European Union as of 1 February 2020.

Crops can be broadly categorised into two groups: annual and perennial. Annual crops are those that do not last more than two growing seasons and typically only one. Perennial crops last for more than two growing seasons, either dying back after each season or growing continuously; these are also termed permanent crops. Annual crops can be subdivided in winter crops and spring and summer crops. Winter crops are sown in autumn and harvested in the summer of the following year. Spring and summer crops are sown and harvested in the same year. In the EU, rapeseed, wheat, rye and triticale are typically winter crops, whereas maize, sunflowers, rice, soybeans, potatoes, and sugar beet are summer crops. Barley is common in both its winter and spring varieties.

Crop production is particularly sensitive to prevailing weather and climatic conditions at key times of the growing season. For example, depending on a plant’s stage of development, heavy spring frosts can damage the growth of cereals and destroy fruit blossoms. Likewise, spring-to-summer droughts and heat waves can cause significant yield losses, while strong winds and heavy rainfall can make harvesting difficult and compromise quality.

When making decisions on which crops to sow every year, farmers have to think, among other issues, about crop rotations, anticipated profitability, whether there is a market for the crop, whether they have the right equipment and whether there have been policy changes. These decisions also have an impact on the level of production of specific crops from one year to the next.

Plants need sunlight, water, healthy soils, air and heat to grow; and farmers need suitable weather and soil moisture conditions to conduct the necessary field operations on time. Crop production is sensitive to weather conditions throughout the growing season and at harvest. For example, depending on a plant’s stage of development, heavy spring frosts can damage the growth of cereals and destroy fruit blossoms. Likewise, spring-to-summer droughts and heat waves can cause significant yield losses, while strong winds and heavy rainfall can cause harvest loses and compromise quality.

The important role of climatic and other natural conditions on the quantity and quality of harvests has a knock-on impact on prices, as the mechanism between supply and demand. It is for this reason that production levels and prices are brought together in this article. As the EU covers a large area with a wide range of climates, the impact of adverse weather conditions on production levels in one region may be offset by more favourable conditions in another. However, where the production of certain crops is concentrated in a few regions, EU production levels will be particularly susceptible to weather conditions as well as to pest attacks.

The statistics on crop production in this article are shown at an aggregated level and have been selected from over 100 different crop products for which official statistics are collected.

Full article

Agrometeorological review

Among meteorological factors, temperature and precipitation are of particular significance for yields and production levels. The 2020 crop year in the EU experienced extreme weather events in terms of both temperatures and rainfall. [1].

Autumn 2019

Unfavourable autumn weather conditions in large parts of western, central and southern Europe, caused delays to the sowing of winter crops to the extent that farmers could not sow part of the planned area. Plant emergence and early crop development were also impacted.

The sowing and emergence of winter rapeseed, for which the optimal sowing window closes in September, was hampered in France, Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Spain by the rain deficit observed in late summer and early autumn. In these countries, farmers did not sow part of the planned area, due to the dryness of soils.

The sowing of winter cereals was also hampered in eastern and south-eastern Europe because the dry (and exceptionally warm) conditions continued, whereas large parts of western Europe were impacted by excessive rainfall after mid-September. As a result, the area sown to winter cereals was also less than planned and those that were sown late were weak and underdeveloped as winter approached.

Winter 2019-2020

The 2019/2020 winter was one of the warmest on record. In most regions, the average mean daily temperature exceeded the long-term-average by 2 °C to 4 °C, with even greater temperature anomalies in eastern and northern Europe. There was a significant lack of precipitation in southern Europe (particularly, southern Italy, large parts of Spain, Greece, southern and eastern Romania, and northern Bulgaria), whereas north-western Europe experienced excessively wet conditions (particularly France, Ireland, the Benelux countries and Germany), which negatively affected winter crops, and caused delays to spring crop sowings or meant that they went ahead in unfavourable conditions.

It should be noted that pressure from pests and disease tends to be higher than usual following a mild winter, and that crops tend to be more vulnerable to frost damage if there is a cold snap in spring. Furthermore, when there are long-lasting wet conditions, crop establishment and the application of fertilisers and phyto-sanitary products are hampered.

Spring 2020

Spring temperatures were predominantly above-average, with the marked exception of the last week of March and the first half of April when three waves of severe cold air inflow caused sudden drops in air temperatures. These events slowed the development of winter crops and caused some delay to the sowing and emergence of spring and summer crops. However, overall, the negative impacts on annual crops were limited.

In north-western Europe, very wet conditions continued until mid March. This was followed by an exceptionally long period of below-average precipitation until the end of spring. Initially, this favoured the completion of the sowing of spring cereals, but upper soil layers quickly dried out, stifling the establishment of spring crops and the sowing and emergence of summer crops. Winter crops were also negatively affected by the dry conditions, particularly during the sensitive stages around flowering.

In eastern Romania and Bulgaria , the water deficit that had accumulated over the winter developed into a drought. Rainfall was just sufficient to allow for the sowing and emergence of summer crops, but winter crops entered the grain-filling phase much earlier than usual and under very poor conditions.

Other parts of central and southern Europe benefited from average to above-average precipitation.

Summer 2020

In large parts of western and northern central Europe, the limited water supply since early spring made summer crops particularly vulnerable to the heatwave of seven to ten consecutive days that occurred in the first half of August. Maize and sugarbeet crops in France were most severely impacted. In the case of sugarbeet, additional damage during summer and autumn was caused by virus yellows, a leaf disease transmitted by aphids, the propagation of which could occur unchecked due to the exceptionally mild winter and the ban on seed treated with neonicotinoids, a group of systemic insecticides. Winter crops and spring cereals were not significantly affected by this heatwave as they were already in the final stages of development.

In eastern Romania and Bulgaria, after a favourable start to summer, drought conditions returned in July, leading to the early senescence and reduced yield potentials of maize and sunflower crops. As summer progressed, the drought further deepened and expanded into north-eastern Greece.

By contrast, periods of abundant rainfall occurred in many other parts of central Europe, as well as in Ireland, Italy, and western Romania. For summer crops, the abundant rainfall was predominantly beneficial and contributed to improved yield outlooks. However, for winter crops and spring cereals, the effects were mixed, depending on the timing and preceding conditions. In Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary and western Romania, the overly-wet conditions negatively affected the grain quality of winter crops and/or reduced final yields, by causing lodging (the flattening of crops) , delays to harvesting and increased harvest losses.

Map 1 shows the contrasting conditions of summer crops as observed by satellite data during the month of August 2020. Green areas reflect good to excellent biomass growth, as beneficial rains contributed to a positive yield outlook. By contrast, the reddish areas reflect below-average biomass accumulation or early leaf senescence, which tend to result in yield constraints.

Map 1: Condition of summer crops as observed by satellite data during the month of August 2020
(% differences to the medium-term average of 2011-2020 of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index)
Source: JRC MARS remote sensing database / MODIS

Autumn 2020

Warm and dry summer weather continued during the first three weeks of September in most of Europe.

Abundant rainfall at the end of September and in October then caused delays to the harvesting of summer crops in western and south-western France, the Benelux countries, southern Poland, eastern Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece.

Cereals

The EU’s 2020 cereal harvest lower than in 2019

The harvested production of cereals (including rice) across the EU was 286.5 million tonnes in 2020. This was 12.9 million tonnes less than in 2019, the equivalent of a 4.3 % decline, and 21.4 million tonnes less than the record 307.9 million tonnes recorded in 2014 (see Figure 1).

France harvested 57.5 million tonnes of cereals in 2020, one fifth (20.1 %) of the EU’s total harvested production. Germany harvested 43.3 million tonnes (15.1 % of the EU total), Poland a further 35.5 million tonnes of cereals (12.4 % of the EU total) and Spain harvested 26.3 million tonnes (9.2 % of the EU total).

The overall EU decline in the harvested production of cereals in 2020 was underpinned by steep falls in France ( 19.2 %, or 13.7 million fewer tonnes) and Romania (-36.3 %, or 11.0 million fewer tonnes). However, there were much higher levels in Poland (up 22.5 %, or 6.5 million tonnes) and Spain (up 32.3 %, or 6.4 million tonnes).

Figure 1: Production of main cereals
(million tonnes, EU, 2010-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Lower harvests for wheat, barley and grain maize

The EU harvested 119.1 million tonnes of common wheat and spelt in 2020, the equivalent of 41.6 % of all cereal grains harvested (see Figure 2). This was 12.7 million tonnes less than in 2019, a decrease of 9.7 %. One reason for this was the weather and the other was the marked reduction in area harvested (down 5.9 % to 20.8 million hectares, in large part due to the adverse weather conditions in Autumn which hindered sowing).

Figure 2: Main cereals (%, EU, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

The EU’s harvested production of grain maize and corn-cob-mix was 67.8 million tonnes in 2020, 2.3 million tonnes less than in 2019. This was despite a 5.0 % rise in the area harvested to 9.4 million hectares. The overall EU decline was principally due to lower harvested production levels in Bulgaria (down 25.6 %, or 1.0 million tonnes less than in 2019) and Romania (down 37.2 %, or 6.5 million tonnes less than in 2019). This contrasted with higher harvest levels in many Member States and Poland in particular (up 82.7 %, or 3.1 million tonnes more than in 2019).

In 2020, the EU’s harvested production of barley was slightly lower (-1.6 %) than in 2019 at 54.7 million tonnes, in part reflecting the decline (-1.0 %) in the area cultivated. There were considerable contrasts among key producer Member States; there were sharp declines in the harvested production of barley in France (down 24.3 %, or 3.3 million tonnes less than in 2019), Germany (down 7.1 %, a decrease of 0.8 million tonnes) and Romania (down 38.6 %, a decrease of 0.7 million tonnes) but higher levels in Spain (up 48.1 %, an increase of 3.6 million tonnes) and Denmark (up 14.7 %, an increase of 0.5 million tonnes).

By contrast, the EU’s harvested production of rye and oats in 2020 was much higher than 2019. The harvested production of rye and maslin was 9.5 million tonnes, up 9.2 % on the level in 2019, despite a reduction in the area cultivated (down 3.6 %). Harvested production levels rose sharply in a number of Member States, particularly Germany (+8.5 %), Poland (+26.7 %) and Spain (+55.8 %). The harvested production of oats in the EU was 8.5 million tonnes, up 22.1 % on 2019. In part, this reflected a sharp rise in the area of oats cultivated (+7.2 % on 2019). This surge in harvested production was driven by increases in all the main producer countries, including Poland (+34.5 % to 1.7 million tonnes) and Spain (+63.8 % to 1.3 million tonnes).

Figure 3: Production of cereals by main producing Member States
(% of EU totals, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Prices for EU cereals higher in 2020

In 2020, the output price of cereals in the EU rose by an average 3.7 % (in nominal terms), in part reflecting the overall lower supply of cereals (compared with 2019). The provisional average price of wheat and spelt (+5.5 %) and grain maize (+6.3 %) were higher, but there were declines for barley (-3.4 %), oats and summer cereal mixtures (-5.0 %) and rye and maslin (-5.6 %).

Over the medium-term, there has been downward pressure on prices as a result of a series of successive and record global harvests. The average price of cereals fell back considerably from the relative highs recorded in 2012 for many Member States. That downward trend began to flatten out in 2016 and for a period between the third quarter of 2018 and the second quarter of 2019 prices rose sharply above the average of 2015 (see Figurenbsp;4).

Figure 4: Development of price indices for cereals
(2015 = 100, EU, 2015-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apri_pi15_outq)

Potatoes and sugar beet

Two main root crops are grown in the EU, namely sugar beet, grown on 1.5 million hectares across the EU in 2020, and potatoes, grown on another 1.5 million hectares. Other root crops like fodder beet, fodder kale, rutabaga, fodder carrot and turnips are specialist crops grown on a combined total of only an estimated 0.1 million hectares.

The EU is the world’s leading producer of sugar beet, accounting for about one half of global production. However, only 20 % of the world’s sugar production comes from sugar beet, the other 80% being produced from sugar cane [2].

The EU sugar market was regulated by production quotas until September 2017. The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural development then established a Sugar Market Observatory in order to provide the EU sugar sector with more transparency by means of disseminating market data and short-term analysis in a timely manner.

Sugar beet production fell sharply in 2020, moving further away from the post-quota high in 2017. Potato production in 2020 continued to rebound away from the low in 2018

Following the decision to end production quotas, the EU sugar sector — supported by the CAP — underwent a series of deep reforms to prepare it more effectively for the new challenges and opportunities this would bring. In 2017, EU farmers responded by sowing more sugar beet (the cultivated area across the EU was 16.5 % higher than in 2016). The harvested production in 2017 reached a high of 134.2 million tonnes.

The drought of 2018 and a slightly lower area cultivated (-1.5 %) resulted in EU production falling 22.3 million tonnes from the 2017 high. Although the cultivated area of sugar beet contracted more sharply in 2019 (-5.5 %), the harvested production was 1.2 million tonnes higher than in 2018, due to more favourable weather conditions. By contrast, the harvested production in 2020 fell sharply (-11.5 %), with a further reduction in the area cultivated (-2.9 %).

In 2020, the EU produced 100.1 million tonnes of sugar beet (see Figure 5), three quarters of which came from the four leading producers, Germany (with a 28.6 % share), France (26.2 %), Poland (14.2 %) and the Netherlands (6.7 %). Germany produced 28.6 million tonnes of sugar beet in 2020, which was 1.1 million tonnes less than in 2019. France experienced a sharper contraction in production (down 31.1 %, or 11.8 million tonnes) to 26.2 million tonnes in 2020 due to disease and the banning of certain pesticides. In both countries, there were contractions in the area harvested (-5.6 % and -5.8 % respectively).

Figure 5: Production of sugar beet by main producing EU Member States
(million tonnes, 2010-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

The EU produced 54.0 million tonnes of potatoes in 2020, which was 2.9 million tonnes more than in 2019 (an increase of 5.6 %). Most of the main potato producing Member States had higher harvests in 2020: the 11.7 million tonnes produced by Germany in 2020 represented a year-on-year increase of 10.5 %; the 8.7 million tonnes produced in France, a rise of 1.5 %; the 7.8 million tonnes produced in Poland, an increase of 21.1 %; and, the 7.0 million tonnes produced in the Netherlands, a rise of 0.8 %.

Figure 6: Production of potatoes and sugar beet
(million tonnes, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Continued fall in price for sugar beet, and sharp tumble for potatoes after a continued rebound in production levels
After the strong rebound in the level of harvested potato production for the EU in 2019 and further rise in 2020, the average price of potatoes in 2020 was about one fifth lower (a provisional -21.2 %) than in 2019 (see Figure 7). Despite the sharp fall in sugar beet production in 2020, the average price of sugar beet also declined further (a provisional -1.3 %), continuing the downward trend noted since 2013 when market realignment began.

Figure 7: Development of price indices for potatoes and sugar beet
(2015 = 100, EU, 2015-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apri_pi15_outq)

Oilseeds

Little change in overall oilseeds production in 2020, with higher rape and turnip rape production but lower sunflower production

The EU cultivates three types of oilseed crop; the main two are rape and turnip rape, and sunflower, although soya is increasingly grown. The EU harvested an estimated 29.6 million tonnes of oilseeds in 2020, which was about 4.3 million tonnes less than the relative peak in 2017.

The harvested production of rape and turnip rape seeds in the EU was 16.6 million tonnes in 2020, which was 1.3 million tonnes more than in 2019 (the equivalent of an 8.4 % increase) but well below the range of 18-22 million tonnes harvested between 2013 and 2017. In part, this upturn in production reflected a rise (+4.0 %) in the area of rape and turnip rape harvested to 5.3 million hectares, although it remained 1.0 million hectares less than the area harvested in 2018.

The harvested production of sunflower seeds across the EU in 2020 was 9.1 million tonnes, which represented a sharp fall (-11.5 %) on the level of production in 2019. This was despite a 2.6 % rise in the area harvested to 4.4 million hectares. Likewise, there was a fall in the production of soya in the EU (-4.3 %) despite an increase in the area harvested (+4.4 %). Nevertheless, the 2.7 million tonnes of soya produced in the EU in 2020 was 1.4 million tonnes more than was harvested a decade earlier (see Figure 8).

Figure 8: Production of rape and turnip rape seed, sunflower seeds and soya
(million tonnes, EU, 2010-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Prices of all main oilseeds rose in 2020

The output price of oilseeds that had fallen sharply and steadily in many Member States from relative peaks in 2012 flattened out in 2019. Average output prices in 2020 for all the main types of oilseed rose, particularly in the fourth quarter (see Figure 9). For the EU as a whole, the average price of rape and turnip rape across 2020 was 3.4 % higher than in 2019. There were even sharper rises in the average prices of soya (+13.0 %) and sunflower seeds (+15.5 %).

Figure 9: Development of price indices for oilseeds
(2015 = 100, EU, 2015-2020)
Source: Eurostat (apri_pi15_outq)

Fruit

The EU supports the fruit and vegetable sector through its market-management scheme, which has four broad goals:

  • a more competitive and market-oriented sector;
  • fewer crisis-related fluctuations in producers’ income;
  • greater consumption of fruit and vegetables in the EU; and
  • increased use of eco-friendly cultivation and production techniques.

The EU produces millions of tonnes of fruit every year

The EU produces a wide range of fruit, berries and nuts. An estimated 36.8 million tonnes were harvested in 2020, of which 14.3 million tonnes were pome fruit (apples and pears), 11.4 million tonnes were citrus fruit (such as oranges, satsumas and lemons), 6.5 million were stone fruit (such as peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries and plums), 2.7 million tonnes were sub-tropical and tropical fruit (such as figs, kiwis, avocadoes and bananas), 1.3 million tonnes were nuts and 0.7 million tonnes were berries.

Spain and Italy are the main EU producers of fruit, but for some specific fruit other Member States were key producers.

30% of EU apple production in Poland; just over one half of all EU oranges from Spain

Thousands of varieties of apple are grown worldwide, many of which have been created and selected to grow in varied climates. This has enabled commercial apple production to take place in all Member States. Broadly speaking, three in every ten apples produced in the EU (30.0 %) were harvested in Poland in 2020. The other principal apple-producing Member States were Italy (20.8 % of the EU total) and France (13.7 %). By contrast, orange production and peach production are much more restricted by climatic conditions (see Figure 10); over 90 % of all oranges and peaches produced in the EU came from Spain, Italy and Greece.

Figure 10: Production of selected fruit
(million tonnes, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Vegetables

Italy and Spain produced about two thirds of the EU’s tomatoes in 2020; Spain and the Netherlands produced a little less than one half of the EU’s onions

The EU’s harvested production of fresh vegetables (including melons and strawberries) was 62.9 million tonnes in 2020, about 0.3 million tonnes less than in 2019. Within the group of fresh vegetables, the harvested production of tomatoes was 16.5 million tonnes in 2020, that of onions was an estimated 6.6 million tonnes and that of carrots an estimated 4.7 million tonnes.

Almost two thirds of the EU tomato production in 2020 was harvested in Italy (6.2 million tonnes) and Spain (4.3 million tonnes). Despite a higher harvested production of tomatoes in Italy compared to 2019 (+8.1 %), the overall EU harvest was lower (-2.9 %), principally because of a sharp decline (-13.8 %) in Spain.

Figure 11: Production of selected vegetables
(million tonnes, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

In 2020, the harvested production of carrots in the EU was slightly lower (-0.9 %) than in 2019, principally due to falls in the Netherlands (-6.8 %) and Belgium (-19.8 %) and despite higher production in Portugal (+56.0 %) among others. The EU’s production of onions in 2020 was slightly higher (+0.7 %) than in 2019, with strong growth in Poland (+23.8 %) and Greece (+28.8 %) in particular offsetting smaller harvests in Spain (-9.6 %) and the Netherlands (-2.1 %) among others.

Grapes for wine

The EU is big player on the world’s wine market; between 2014 and 2018 it accounted for 65 % of global production, 60 % of consumption and 70 % of exports, with 45 % of the wine-growing areas in the world [3].

Harvested production in the main grape-producing countries rebounded in 2020

The total harvested production of grapes for wine in the EU was an estimated 24.1 million tonnes in 2020. This was 1.8 million tonnes more than in 2019, although still down on the 25.7 million tonnes in 2018. Each of the three largest wine grape-producing Member States recorded higher production levels: Italy (+4.4 %), Spain (+20.2 %) and France (+7.2 %).

Figure 12: Production of grapes for wine (% of EU total, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Olives for oil

The EU is the largest producer of olive oil in the world, accounting for around two thirds of global production. Most of the world’s production comes from southern Europe, northern Africa and the Near East, as 95 % of the olive trees in the world are cultivated in the Mediterranean region. With production concentrated in a relatively small area, the effects of a disease outbreak can have significant implications. For this reason, steps are being taken as a precautionary measure against the spread of the Xylella fastidiosa bacterium [4] which arrived in Italy in 2013.

Spain is by far the largest producer of olives for olive oil in the EU

Olives often follow a two-year cycle, with a large crop followed by a smaller one. Sometimes the weather can make these cycles more pronounced. Individual countries can have cycles that run counter to one another.

The total harvested production of olives for olive oil in the EU was 11.7 million tonnes in 2020. This was 2.0 million tonnes more than the production level in 2019 but still 1.2 million tonnes less than in 2018. The overall rise in 2020 was due to a higher harvested production in Spain, which accounted for about 66 % of all EU production in 2020. The production of olives for olive oil in Spain was 7.8 million tonnes in 2020, some 2.1 million tonnes more than in 2019. There was little change in the harvested production in Italy (+0.4 % at 2.1 million tonnes) but a moderate rise in Greece (+5.1 % to 1.0 million tonnes, albeit far below the 1.8 million tonnes produced in 2012). By contrast, there was a one fifth reduction (-22.0 %) in the production level of olives in Portugal in 2020.

Figure 13: Production of olives for olive oil (% of EU total, 2020)
Source: Eurostat (apro_cpnh1)

Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

Crops statistics

Statistics on crop products are collected under Regulation (EC) No 543/2009 and obtained by sample surveys, supplemented by administrative data and estimates based on expert observations. The sources vary from one EU Member State to another because of national conditions and statistical practices. National statistical institutes or Ministries of Agriculture are responsible for data collection in accordance with EU regulations. The finalised data sent to Eurostat are as harmonised as possible. Eurostat is responsible for establishing EU aggregates.

The statistics that are collected on agricultural products relate to more than 100 individual crop products. Information is collected for the area under cultivation (expressed in 1 000 hectares), the quantity harvested (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and the yield (expressed in tonnes per hectare). For some products, data at a national level may be supplemented by regional statistics at NUTS 1 or 2 level.

Agricultural price statistics

EU agricultural price statistics (APS) are based on voluntary agreements between Eurostat and the EU Member States.

National statistical institutes or Ministries of Agriculture are responsible for collecting absolute prices and calculating corresponding average prices for their country, as well as for calculating price indices and periodically updating the weights.

Price indices are reported quarterly and annually. Absolute prices are reported annually. The agricultural prices expressed in national currency are converted into euro by Eurostat using fixed exchange rates or financial market exchange rates, in order to allow comparisons between the EU Member States. Eurostat is responsible for calculating indices for the EU.

Context

There is a diverse range of natural environments, climates and farming practices across the EU, reflected in the broad array of food and drink products that are made available for human consumption and animal feed, as well as a range of inputs for non-food processes. Indeed, agricultural products form a major part of the cultural identity of the EU’s people and its regions.

Statistics on agricultural products may be used to analyse developments within agricultural markets in order to help distinguish between cycles and changing production patterns; they can also be used to study how markets respond to policy actions. Agricultural product data also provide supply-side information, furthering understanding as regards price developments which are of particular interest to agricultural commodity traders and policy analysts.

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Notes

  1. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission produces a series of monthly bulletins concerning weather conditions in relation to crop performance and expected yields in Europe. The analysis is conducted at the EU and Member State level.
  2. European Commission’s Directorate- General of Agriculture and Rural Development: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sugar/index_en.htm.
  3. For further information, see the overview of the wine market from the European Commission’s Directorate- General of Agriculture and Rural Development.
  4. For further information see the plant health and biosecurity products pages of the European Commission.