Industrial production statistics
Data extracted in December 2020.
Planned article update: January 2022.
Evolution of value of sold industrial production (EU-27), 2009 - 2019
This article analyses recent data on industrial production in the European Union (EU), as well as in some EFTA and candidate countries, based on results of industrial production (PRODCOM) statistics. Cyprus, Malta and Luxembourg are exempt from collecting PRODCOM data and therefore not available. Data presented in this article are collected under the industrial production regulation and cover the activities under sections B and C (Mining and quarrying and Manufacturing) of the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
In 2019, the value of sold production covered by the sectors mining and quarrying and manufacturing amounted to EUR 4 938 billion. Figure 1 presents the evolution of EU-27's value of sold production from 2009 to 2019. After the economic crisis in 2008, the value generated by EU-27 production was reduced dramatically in 2009, with a sharp decrease of 19 %. However, there was a turn-around in 2010 when the value of sold production increased by 10 % and remained quite stable in the following five years. The results of 2019 show the consolidation of the growth in production, after the full recovery and surpassing the 2009 level. This upwards trend of the EU-27's industrial production was continued in 2019 and was mainly due to the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers & semi-trailers, other transport equipment and food beverages and tobacco.
Industrial production by country
Figure 2 shows the share of the EU-27's value of sold production, by individual EU Member States in 2019. Six EU Member States generated three-quarters of the EU-27's value of sold production (77 %). Germany recorded the highest value of sold production, equivalent to almost 30 % of the EU-27 total, followed by Italy (17 %), France (12 %), Spain (9 %), Poland (6 %) and The Netherlands (3 %). The other 21 EU Member States contributed with smaller shares (up to 3 %).
Looking more in detail to the manufacturing sectors, Slovakia stood out with the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers and of other transport equipment, which represented 54 % of the country's total value of sold production in 2019. Hungary (33%) and Czechia (31 %) closely followed it.
The manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco activities generated over 44 % of Greek's value of sold production. The Netherlands was close to this share with 31 %, followed by Croatia, Bulgaria, Spain, Latvia and Lithuania with shares between 26 and 29 %. On the contrary, Czechia and Slovakia are the least specialized countries in food manufacturing, with the lowest share in sold production of 9 % and 5 % respectively. In another way, Germany is the substantial producer of both groups of divisions mentioned above (EUR 185 billion and EUR 152 billion respectively) in the EU-27.
Industrial production by sector
The analysis that follows refers to the division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE). In some cases, the results are presented as a group of divisions, i.e. Food, beverages and tobacco (Divisions 10, 11 and 12 of NACE Rev.2).
Figure 3 shows the share of the manufacturing activities in the EU-27's value of sold production for 2009 and 2019 respectively. The EU-27's value of sold production is concentrated in fourteen groups of activities; six of these groups account for almost three-quarters of the total for both reference years. The sectors manufacture of motor vehicles and other transport equipment, manufacture of food, beverages & tobacco products and manufacture of basic metals & fabricated metal products accounted together for 46 % of the value of the sold production in 2019. The share of most of the other manufacturing activities in the EU-27's value of sold production raised up between 14% and 45% from 2009 to 2019.
Looking into the smaller contributing domains, the manufacture of pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations had the highest increase in 2019, of 45 % compared with the 2009 value of sold production and especially the manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products stepped up by 35%.
The five largest manufacturing activities
The analysis refers to the top five manufacturing activities presented at division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Figure 4 shows the evolution of the value of sold production for the five largest manufacturing activities in the EU-27, over the period 2009 - 2019. Between 2009 and 2019, the manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers was the most volatile activity among the top five manufacturing activities. In terms of reported value of the sold production, this activity increased the most compared with 2009 (with 42 % or EUR 288 billion). The Manufacture of food products increased in 2019 by EUR 163 billion (24 %) compared with 2009.
Analysis based on constant prices ref.2015, the manufacture of all five largest manufacturing activities increased over the period 2009-2019. Considerably the manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers raised by 63% and the manufacture and equipment increased by 32 %.
Results for some examples of products or group of products sold
The results are detailed at four-digit level of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Production of motor vehicles accounted for three fifths of EU-27's value of sold production of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Figure 5 analyses the share of the value of sold production for the Manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (Division 29 of NACE Rev.2) in 2019.
The overall value of sold production generated by the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers in 2019 was of EUR 684 billion; this value represents 14 % of the total EU-27's value of sold production. In 2019, the value of sold production for this manufacturing sector reached its peak, it raised by 73 % since 2009, however dropped down by 2 % compared with 2018. The manufacturing of motor vehicles represented approximately EUR 407 billion, which is three fifths of the sold production value, for this group. The manufacturing of other parts and accessories, bodies (coachwork), electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers accounted for the rest of the sold production in this activity.
On average, one kilogram of fresh bread produced in EU-27 was sold for 1.66 Euro
Figure 6 presents the value of production sold for 1 kilogram of fresh bread, in the EU-27 over the period 2009 - 2019 and in each country for 2019.
After the economic crisis, the value of sold production started to increase again from 2009 onwards, reaching 18 % upturn over the period 2009-2019, while the quantity slightly decreased by 1%.
The average value of production sold for one kilogram of fresh bread increased by 19 % between 2009 and 2019 and reached its peak for the last decade. The price has been slightly moving up and down from EUR 1.39 per kg to max. EUR 1.57 between 2009 and 2018.
Italy was the country where one kilogram of fresh bread produced was sold at the highest price, over EUR 2.9. In Finland, Austria and Germany the price was between EUR 2.1 and 2.7. Rather low prices, of under EUR 1 per kg, were observed in Lithuania, Hungary and Romania. Bulgaria is the country with the lowest value of production sold, slightly above 60 cents/kg.
EU-27's production of antibiotics is stable for the last 5 years
Figure 7 provides an overview of the value of sold production of basic pharmaceutical products produced in the EU-27, during the period 2009-2019. Throughout the period 2009-2014, the sold production value of pharmaceutical products fluctuated at between EUR 17 and 22.5 billion. For the last 5 years the EU-27’s pharmaceutical production remained quite constant and amounted to EUR 23 billion in 2019. The manufacturing of antibiotics decreased by 70 % in 2010, more than doubled in 2011 and continued at the steady pace with a total sold production value EUR 3 billion in 2019. The pro-vitamins and vitamins hit the highest point recorded in 2018, nevertheless the sold value dropped almost by half in 2019. The antibiotics and vitamins represented 13 % and 9 % respectively of the total basic pharmaceutical production.
A look into the EU-27's production of wind turbines
Figure 8 provides and overview of the number of wind turbines produced in the EU-27 between 2009 and 2019. During this period, the average production of wind turbines amounted to 12 thousand pieces. In 2013, the production of wind generating sets hit the lowest point recorded. Despite this drop of the produced quantity, the production of wind turbines boosted in 2014 and since the manufacture was observed quite constant over the following years. The sold production remained quite the same over the last 10 years, with an average of EUR 8.3 billion. The wind generating sets producers were quite a few, i.e. Denmark, Czechia, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
Half of the value of wearing apparel produced across EU-27 is made in Italy
The EU-27 produced over 4 billion items of wearing apparel in 2019, with a value of sold production of EUR 35.7 billion. The manufacturing of this product increased by 16 % since 2009 and reached the lowest drop in 2015. Since then the value of sold production has stepped up by over 12 % each year. Italy’s production of wearing apparels accounted for more than half of the quantity produced at the EU-27 level; this production was over EUR 18 billion. Italy, Spain and Portugal remained in the lead of the manifacturing of these products, and Romania, Germany and Poland completed the top 6 of EU producers. These six countries together counted for 82 % of the total production within the EU-27.
Figure 9 analyses the 2019 production of wearing apparels (Division 14 of NACE Rev.2) in the EU-27.
Source data for tables and graphs
The Prodcom list is linked to the activity classification NACE and to the classification of products by activity (CPA): the first four digits of each Prodcom code refer to a NACE class, the fifth and sixth digits relate to a CPA sub-category, and the seventh and eighth digits are specific to the Prodcom list. Most headings correspond to one or more codes from the combined nomenclature (CN), a classification used for statistics on international trade in goods: some headings (mostly industrial services) do not correspond to a CN heading at all. The relationship with CN makes it possible to calculate apparent consumption by linking production statistics to international trade statistics.
The production surveyed covers only the production actually carried out on the territory of the reporting country. This means that the production of subsidiaries, which takes place outside an enterprise’s territory, is not included in the survey results for that country. As a general principle, when a production process takes as an input a material that does not match the description of the product, and produces as an output something that does, then production of the product should be recorded. If the processing of a product does not change the heading under which it is listed, it should not be recorded, since this would result in double-counting. This means that the link to turnover data is tenuous, since some activities do not result in new products and should not be recorded in Prodcom statistics.
Prodcom data are available for the EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Eurostat produces aggregates for the EU-27. According to the terms of the Prodcom Regulation, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta have derogations not to provide Prodcom data to Eurostat because of their size; as such there is no data for these three Member States in the database.
Data are available during the year following the reference year, with the first release of information usually taking place in July. As more complete and revised data become available, updates are released on a monthly basis.
Data in Excel files
The development of Prodcom dates back to 1985 when Eurostat organised a series of meetings on production statistics, whose objective was to harmonise the various ways industrial production statistics were collected in the EU Member States. Although statistics were collected on products in most countries, there was a varied selection of classifications in use reflecting national situations and a range of different survey methods were applied.
The Prodcom Regulation is designed to enable these national statistics to be compared and, where possible, aggregated to give a picture of the developments of an industry or product in the European context. This aim became more urgent with the creation of the single market in 1992 and the statistical system had to adapt.
Before data collection could begin, it was necessary to draw up a common list of products to be covered. Drawing up the Prodcom list was a unique opportunity for Eurostat, the national statistical authorities and the European trade associations to work together to produce a classification that would be understood by businesses and would be appropriate for national and European statistics. Industrial production statistics collected within PRODCOM serves as one of the data sources used in several policy areas of the European Commission and national administrations. Other users such as professional/trade associations and their members use PRODCOM statistics for information on industry. The use of the data in climate change statistics is increasing, as well as in other environmental statistics such as the analysis of material flows or chemicals production and consumption statistics.
- Business economy by sector - NACE Rev. 2 (online publication)
- Industrial production statistics introduced - PRODCOM — background article
- Chemicals production and consumption statistics
- Structural business statistics introduced — background article
- Material flow accounts and resource productivity
- Detailed data by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) (prom2) (Excel tables N2)
- Sold production, exports and imports by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066341)
- Total production by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066342)
- Traditional international trade database access (ComExt) (comext)
- Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 of 19 December 1991 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production]
- Commission Regulation (EC) No 912/2004 of 29 April 2004 implementing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production
- Regulation 2119/2017 of 22 November 2017 establishing the "PRODCOM list" of industrial products provided for by Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 (Official Journal of the European Union No L 325 of 8.12.2017)