Industrial production statistics
Data extracted in July 2021.
Planned article update: July 2022.
Evolution of value of sold industrial production (EU), 2010 - 2020
This article analyses recent data on industrial production in the European Union (EU), as well as in some EFTA and candidate countries, based on results of industrial production (PRODCOM) statistics. Cyprus, Malta and Luxembourg are exempt from collecting PRODCOM data and therefore no data is available. Data presented in this article are collected under the industrial production regulation and cover the activities under sections B and C (Mining and quarrying and Manufacturing) of the NACE Rev. 2 classification and since 2019 the activity 38.32 Recovery of sorted materials.
In 2020, the value of sold production in the European Union amounted to EUR 4 599 billion. Figure 1 presents the evolution of EU's value of sold production from 2010 to 2020. In the period from 2010 to 2014, the value generated by EU production remained relatively stable. From 2014, there is a constant annual increase when comparing to the previous year until 2018. The results of 2019 show the consolidation of the growth in production with the value of sold production in the European Union amounting to EUR 4 943 billion. The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus and consequent containment measures widely introduced by Member States had a significant impact on the EU’s industrial production in 2020. The value of sold production in the European Union in 2020 decreased by 7 % compared to 2019. This decrease was mainly due to the decrease in the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers & semi-trailers and other transport equipment, in the manufacturing of furniture and other manufacturing, in the manufacturing of machinery and equipment n.e.c. and manufacturing of basic metals and fabricated metal products.
Industrial production by country
Figure 2 shows the share of the EU's value of sold production, by individual EU Member States in 2020. Six EU Member States generated three-quarters of the EU’s value of sold production (76 %). Germany recorded the highest value of sold production, equivalent to 29 % of the EU total, followed by Italy (18 %), France (12 %), Spain (9 %), Poland (5 %) and the Netherlands (3%). The other 21 EU Member States contributed with smaller shares (up to 3 %).
Looking in detail at the manufacturing sectors, Slovakia stood out with the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers and of other transport equipment, which represented 53 % of the country's total value of sold production in 2020. Hungary and Czechia closely followed it with 30 %. The manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco activities generated over 43 % of the value of sold production in Greece. The Netherlands was close to this share with 36 % and Spain with 30 %, followed by Bulgaria, Croatia, France and Belgium with shares between 26 % and 28 %. On the contrary, Czechia and Slovakia are the least specialised countries in food manufacturing, with the lowest share in sold production of 10 % and 6 % respectively. Germany is a substantial producer of both groups of divisions mentioned above (EUR 164 billion and EUR 151 billion respectively) in the EU.
Industrial production by sector
The analysis that follows refers to the division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE). In some cases, the results are presented as a group of divisions, i.e. food, beverages and tobacco (Divisions 10, 11 and 12 of NACE Rev.2). Figure 3 shows the share of the manufacturing activities in the EU's value of sold production for 2010 and 2020. The EU's value of sold production is concentrated in fourteen groups of activities; six of these groups account for almost three-quarters of the total for both reference years. The sectors manufacture of food, beverages & tobacco products, manufacture of motor vehicles and other transport equipment and manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products accounted for 46 % of the value of the sold production in 2020. The value of sold production in most of the other manufacturing activities increased between 10 % and 41 % from 2010 to 2020. Looking into the smaller contributing activities, the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations had the highest increase in value of sold production (41 %) in 2020, compared with all activities at division level in 2010. Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. increased by 21 % over the same period.
The five largest manufacturing activities
The analysis refers to the top five manufacturing activities presented at division breakdown (first 2-digit level) of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Figure 4 shows the evolution of the value of sold production for the five largest manufacturing activities in the EU, over the period 2010 - 2020. Between 2010 and 2020, the manufacture of food products was the most volatile activity among the top five manufacturing activities. In terms of reported value of the sold production, this activity increased the most compared with 2010 (with 21 % or EUR 143 billion). The manufacturing of machinery and equipment n.e.c. increased in 2020 by EUR 79 billion (17 %) compared with 2010. Analysis based on constant prices ref. 2015, the manufacture of the four largest manufacturing activities increased in 2020 from 7 % to 9 % comparing to 2010, while the manufacture of chemicals and chemical products was almost at the same level (decreased by 0.3 %).
Results for some examples of products or group of products sold
The results are detailed at four-digit level of the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Production of motor vehicles accounted for three fifths of the EU's value of sold production of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Figure 5 analyses the share of the value of sold production for the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (Division 29 of NACE Rev.2) in 2020.
The overall value of sold production generated by the manufacturing of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers in 2020 was EUR 588 billion; this value represents 13 % of the total EU's value of sold production. In 2020, the value of sold production for this manufacturing sector is comparable with 2010, despite it dropping down by 14 % compared with 2019. The manufacturing of motor vehicles represented approximately EUR 356 billion, which is three fifths of the sold production value for this group. The manufacturing of other parts and accessories, bodies (coachwork), electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers accounted for the rest of the sold production in this activity.
On average, one kilogram of fresh bread produced in the EU was sold for 1.57 Euro
Figure 6 presents the value of production sold for 1 kilogram of fresh bread, in the EU over the period 2010 - 2020 and in each country for 2020.
The value of sold production started to increase again from 2010 onwards, reaching an average increase of 1% per year over the period 2010-2020. The quantity slightly increased by 7 % between 2019 and 2020. The average value of production sold for one kilogram of fresh bread increased by 18 % between 2010 and 2019 but went down by 5% between 2019 and 2020. The price has been fluctuating in the last decade between EUR 1.39 and EUR 1.66 per kilogram. Finland was the country where one kilogram of fresh bread produced was sold at the highest price, over EUR 2.6. In Austria, Italy and Germany the price was between EUR 1.8 and 2.3. Rather low prices, of under EUR 1 per kg, were observed in Czechia, Lithuania, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgaria is the country with the lowest value per kilogram of bread sold, slightly below 60 cents/kg.
EU's production of pharmaceutical products increased in the last year
Figure 7 provides an overview of the value of sold production of basic pharmaceutical products produced in the EU, during the period 2010-2020. Throughout the period 2010-2014, the sold production value of pharmaceutical products fluctuated between EUR 17 and 23 billion. For the period 2014 - 2019 the EU’s pharmaceutical production remained quite constant. However due to the COVID-19 pandemic it grew to EUR 30.4 billion in 2020. Within the pharmaceutical sector, the production of antibiotics remain more or less at the same level during the last 10 years with a total sold production value of EUR 3 billion in 2020. The pro-vitamins and vitamins hit the highest point recorded in 2018, nevertheless the sold value dropped almost by half in 2020. The antibiotics and vitamins represented 10 % and 7 % respectively of the total basic pharmaceutical production.
A look into the EU's production of wind turbines
Figure 8 provides an overview of the number of wind turbines produced in the EU between 2010 and 2020. During this period, the average production of wind turbines amounted to 11 000 pieces. In 2013, the production of wind generating sets hit the lowest point recorded. Despite this drop of the produced quantity from 2010 to 2013, the production of wind turbines boosted again in 2014. In 2015, the production of wind turbines decreased again and remained relatively constant until 2019. In 2020, the sold quantity decreased to 6 000 wind turbines. The value of the sold production, however, remained quite similar over the last 10 years, with an average of EUR 8 billion. There were several producers of wind generating sets that provided data to Eurostat, i.e. Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Italy and Portugal.
The production of wearing apparel decreased across EU
The EU produced over 3.7 billion items of wearing apparel in 2020, and sold production for a value of EUR 28.9 billion. The value of this product sold decreased by 3% in the period 2010 - 2020. Although, the value of sold production stepped up by over 21 % between 2010 and 2019, the sold production rapidly declined by 19 % in 2020 because of COVID-19. The average price of the wearing apparel decreased by 14 %. Spanish and Portuguese production of wearing apparel together accounted for almost 20 % of the quantity produced at EU level, which amounted to over EUR 5 billion. Spain, Portugal and Romania were the three Member States contributing most to the manufacturing of these products, with France, Germany and Poland completing the top 6 EU producers. These six countries together accounted for 35 % of the total production within the EU. Figure 9 analyses the 2020 production of wearing apparel (Division 14 of NACE Rev.2) in the EU.
Source data for tables and graphs
The Prodcom list is linked to the activity classification NACE and to the classification of products by activity (CPA): the first four digits of each Prodcom code refer to a NACE class, the fifth and sixth digits relate to a CPA sub-category, and the seventh and eighth digits are specific to the Prodcom list. Most headings correspond to one or more codes from the combined nomenclature (CN), a classification used for statistics on international trade in goods: some headings (mostly industrial services) do not correspond to a CN heading at all. The relationship with CN makes it possible to calculate apparent consumption by linking production statistics to international trade statistics.
The production surveyed covers only the production actually carried out on the territory of the reporting country. This means that the production of subsidiaries, which takes place outside an enterprise’s territory, is not included in the survey results for that country. As a general principle, when a production process takes as an input a material that does not match the description of the product, and produces as an output something that does, then production of the product should be recorded. If the processing of a product does not change the heading under which it is listed, it should not be recorded, since this would result in double-counting. This means that the link to turnover data is tenuous, since some activities do not result in new products and should not be recorded in Prodcom statistics.
Prodcom data are available for the EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Eurostat produces aggregates for the EU. According to the terms of the Prodcom Regulation, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta have derogations not to provide Prodcom data to Eurostat because of their size; as such there is no data for these three Member States in the database.
Data are available during the year following the reference year, with the first release of information usually taking place in July. As more complete and revised data become available, updates are released on a monthly basis.
Data in Excel files
The development of Prodcom dates back to 1985 when Eurostat organised a series of meetings on production statistics, whose objective was to harmonise the various ways industrial production statistics were collected in the EU Member States. Although statistics were collected on products in most countries, there was a varied selection of classifications in use reflecting national situations and a range of different survey methods were applied.
The Prodcom Regulation is designed to enable these national statistics to be compared and, where possible, aggregated to give a picture of the developments of an industry or product in the European context. This aim became more urgent with the creation of the single market in 1992 and the statistical system had to adapt.
Before data collection could begin, it was necessary to draw up a common list of products to be covered. Drawing up the Prodcom list was a unique opportunity for Eurostat, the national statistical authorities and the European trade associations to work together to produce a classification that would be understood by businesses and would be appropriate for national and European statistics. Industrial production statistics collected within PRODCOM serves as one of the data sources used in several policy areas of the European Commission and national administrations. Other users such as professional/trade associations and their members use PRODCOM statistics for information on industry. The use of the data in climate change statistics is increasing, as well as in other environmental statistics such as the analysis of material flows or chemicals production and consumption statistics.
- Business economy by sector - NACE Rev. 2 (online publication)
- Industrial production statistics introduced - PRODCOM — background article
- Chemicals production and consumption statistics
- Structural business statistics introduced — background article
- Material flow accounts and resource productivity
- Detailed data by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) (prom2) (Excel tables N2)
- Sold production, exports and imports by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066341)
- Total production by PRODCOM list (NACE Rev. 2) - annual data (DS_066342)
- Traditional international trade database access (ComExt) (comext)
- Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 of 19 December 1991 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production]
- Commission Regulation (EC) No 912/2004 of 29 April 2004 implementing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91 on the establishment of a Community survey of industrial production
- Regulation (EU) No 1933/2019 of 6 November 2019 establishing for 2019 the Prodcom list of industrial products provided for by Council Regulation (EEC) No 3924/91