European Neighbourhood Policy - South - labour market statistics
Data extracted in December 2018.
Planned article update: January 2020.
With the exception of Israel, female activity rates across the European Neighbourhood Policy-South countries were lower than those in the EU.
The gender gap in employment rates was larger in the European Neighbourhood Policy-South countries than in the EU, except in Israel.
With the exception of Israel, agriculture, forestry and fishing as well as construction accounted for a higher share of the workforce in European Neighbourhood Policy-South countries than they did in the EU.
This article is part of an online publication and provides data on some key characteristics of labour markets in 8 of the 10 countries that form the European Neighbourhood Policy-South (ENP-South) region — Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine  and Tunisia; no recent data for Libya or Syria. The article presents, among others, indicators such as activity rates, employment rates, an analysis of employment by economic activity, and statistics in relation to unemployment for the ENP-South countries and the European Union (EU).
The participation of women in the labour force in the ENP-South countries is generally low, although some countries have a range of initiatives designed to promote, empower and mobilise women’s participation. It should also be noted that many women work within the family unit in these countries and there may be difficulties in measuring their labour input for official statistics, for example, when working in a family business or helping with agricultural activities.
In 2017, the EU-28 activity rate for women was 67.9 % (see Figure 1). Apart from Israel, where the female activity rate was 68.7 %, the female activity rate in the ENP-South countries was consistently much lower than in the EU-28. One third or fewer of all women of working age were active in the labour force in the remaining ENP-South countries as female activity rates ranged from 29.1 % in Tunisia (2015 data) to 14.5 % in Jordan (2015 data).
These differences were in stark contrast to the rates recorded for men. The EU-28 male activity rate stood at 78.9 % in 2017, while the latest rates among the ENP-South countries were — with the exception of Jordan where the rate was 65.0 % (2015 data) — within 10 percentage points of this. The highest male activity rate was recorded in Tunisia, 76.5 % (2015 data), with rates above 75.0 % also recorded in Israel and Morocco (2016 data).
There was a narrowing of the employment gender gap in the EU-28 between 2007 and 2017, from 14 percentage points to 11 points (see Figure 2). With the exception of Israel (where the gap between the sexes was narrower than in the EU-28), employment rates for women ranged from 46 to 52 points lower than those for men in the remaining ENP-South countries for which data are available: Egypt, Morocco (2016 data), Palestine and Algeria (2016 data).
Analysis of employment by economic activity
Table 1 shows an analysis of the structure of employment for 2007 and 2017. Within the EU-28, the services sector dominated the labour market and accounted for 71.7 % of those employed (aged 15 years and over) in 2017; its share of the total number of persons employed rose by 5.0 percentage points between 2007 and 2017. In Israel, 81.5 % of the workforce was employed in services, with the next highest share being considerably lower, 63.0 % in Palestine. Among the five ENP-South countries for which data are available, the lowest share of services in the workforce was recorded in Morocco, at two fifths (40.8 %; 2016 data).
All four of the ENP-South countries for which 2017 data are available reported shares for industry in their total workforces that were below the EU-28 average (17.3 %), with the 11.3 % share in Morocco (2016 data) the lowest of these and the 13.8 % share in Algeria the highest.
Consequently, the employment shares of construction as well as agriculture, forestry and fishing in the ENP-South countries were generally higher than in the EU-28; in 2017, the one exception was Israel which recorded smaller shares for both of these activities. Close to two fifths (38.0 %; 2016 data) of the workforce in Morocco and one quarter of the workforce in Egypt (25.0 %) were employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The highest shares of the workforce in construction were recorded for Palestine (17.2 %) and Algeria (17.0 %) and construction also employed more than one tenth of the workforce in Egypt.
The share of the workforce in agriculture, forestry and fishing fell between 2007 and 2017 in the EU-28 as it did between the years shown in Table 1 for Morocco, Algeria and most notably Palestine — these were the only ENP-South countries with a long time series available. The shares of the labour force employed in services expanded in all three of these countries, while there were diverging developments concerning developments for employment in industry and construction.
While the EU-28’s largest contraction in economic activity as a result of the global financial and economic crisis was recorded in 2009, labour markets often lag, and as a result it was not uncommon to see unemployment rates continuing to increase in 2010 and beyond. The unemployment rate for the EU-28 was almost unchanged between 2010 and 2011 (increasing from 9.5 % to 9.6 %), after which it increased to 10.4 % in 2012 and 10.8 % in 2013, before dropping back to 7.6 % by 2017.
Among the four ENP-South countries for which unemployment data are available, Egypt reported a broadly similar development, with its unemployment rate rising from 8.7 % in 2008 to 13.2 % by 2013, before dropping back to 11.8 % in 2017. In Palestine, the unemployment rate fell between 2008 and 2011 before increasing through to 2014, after which it followed an irregular development to reach 28.4 % in 2017: throughout this whole period the unemployment rate in Palestine remained high, always in excess of 20 %. In Morocco, the unemployment rate fell at a modest pace, down from 9.9 % in 2007 to 9.0 % in 2011, before increasing to 10.0 % by 2014 and then also falling back in 2015 and 2016. The time series for Israel is shorter but shows a clear downward pattern from a rate of 6.9 % in 2012 to 4.2 % in 2017. By the end of the time series available in Table 2, only Israel — among the ENP-South countries for which data are available — recorded a lower unemployment rate than the EU-28.
Long-term unemployment rates (as presented in Table 3 for persons aged 15-74) are often cited as a key concern for policymakers, affecting social cohesion and, ultimately, economic growth. By 2017, the long-term unemployment rate of the EU-28 had dropped back to 3.3 % for men and 3.5 % for women. Israel was the only ENP-South country (among the four for which recent comparable data are available) that did not have higher long-term unemployment rates than the EU-28 in 2016 or 2017. Note that the data presented in Table 3 for Morocco are not long-term unemployment rates, but the share of long-term unemployed people among all unemployed people.
In the EU-28, long-term unemployment rates were higher in 2017 than they had been in 2007 for men and for women. In Israel and Algeria the latest long-term unemployment rates for 2017 were clearly lower than those at the beginning of the series shown in Table 3, whereas in Egypt the rates had clearly increased. In Palestine, the situation was mixed, with lower rates for men in 2017 than in 2007 while the rates for women had increased substantially during the same period.
Unemployment rates analysed by educational attainment
In many developed world economies, including the EU-28, it is relatively common to find lower unemployment rates among the workforce with higher levels of educational attainment. In other words, an investment in education and training appears to reduce the risk of unemployment. A similar pattern was observed in Israel (see Table 4), where the unemployment rate in 2017 among those with a tertiary level of education was 3.1 %, considerably lower than the rate recorded for those with at most a primary level of education (4.7 %).
By contrast, unemployment rates for those with a tertiary level of education reached a level in excess of one tenth of the labour force in the remaining three ENP-South countries for which data are available. In Egypt, Morocco (2016 data) and Palestine the highest unemployment rates analysed by educational attainment were recorded for those with a tertiary level of education. These differences may, at least in part, be explained by the difficulties faced by educated women in finding work in some of these countries, but may also be compounded by a higher proportion of jobs being concentrated in areas of the economy that are characterised as having relatively low productivity or a low level of skills. The highest unemployment rate among people with a tertiary level of education was recorded in Palestine (29.1 %).
Source data for tables and graphs
The data for ENP-South countries are supplied by and under the responsibility of the national statistical authorities of each country on a voluntary basis. The data that are presented in this article result from an annual data collection cycle that has been established by Eurostat. No recent data are available from either Libya or Syria. These statistics are available free-of-charge on Eurostat’s website, together with a range of different indicators covering most socio-economic areas.
Tables in this article use the following notation:
|Value in italics||data value is forecasted, provisional or estimated and is therefore likely to change;|
|:||not available, confidential or unreliable value;|
Labour market statistics are increasingly used to support policymaking and to provide an opportunity to monitor participation in the labour market. In the aftermath of the global financial and economic crisis, these statistics have been used to monitor the knock-on effects of the crisis and subsequent recovery on labour markets which commonly lag behind fluctuations in economic output.
On 18 November 2015, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission jointly presented a review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (SWD(2015) 500 final) which underlined a new approach for the EU in relation to its eastern and southern neighbours, based on stabilising the region in political, economic, and security-related terms.
In cooperation with its ENP partners, Eurostat has the responsibility ‘to promote and implement the use of European and internationally recognised standards and methodology for the production of statistics, necessary for developing and monitoring policy achievements in all policy areas’. Eurostat undertakes the task of coordinating EU efforts to increase the statistical capacity of the ENP countries. Additional information on the policy context of the ENP is provided here.
- This designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the individual positions of the Member States on this issue.
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- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — South countries — 2018 edition
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — South countries — 2016 edition
- Labour force statistics for the Mediterranean region — 2016 edition
- Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy — South countries — 2015 edition
- Population and social conditions (med_ps)
- Employment (med_ps411)
- Economic activity (med_ps412)
- Employment characteristics (med_ps413)
- Employment and economic activity branches (med_ps414)
- Unemployment rate (med_ps421)
- Unemployment rate by education level (med_ps422)
- LFS main indicators (lfsi)
- Employment and activity - LFS adjusted series (lfsi_emp)
- Unemployment - LFS adjusted series (une)
- LFS series - detailed annual survey results (lfsa)
- Southern European Neighbourhood Policy countries (ENP-South) (med) (ESMS metadata file — med_esms)
- LFS main indicators (lfsi) (ESMS metadata file — lfsi_esms)
- LFS series - detailed annual survey results (lfsa) (ESMS metadata file — lfsa_esms)
- Unemployment - LFS adjusted series (une) (ESMS metadata file — une_esms)