Energy statistics - quantities (nrg_quant)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
National metadata



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy

L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 30/01/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 30/01/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 30/01/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

ANNUAL

Annual data on quantities for crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas and manufactures gases, electricity and derived heat, solid fossil fuels, renewables and wastes covering the full spectrum of the energy sector from supply through transformation to final consumption oby sector and fuel type.

Also, annual imports and exports data of various energy carriers by country of origin and destination, as well as infrastructure information.

Data on annual statistics are collected by standard questionnaires according to Annex B of the Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics

 

MONTHLY

The monthly energy data collections cover the most important energy commodities:

  • Crude oil & Petroleum products
  • Natural gas
  • Solid fuels
  • Electricity

For each of the above mentioned commodities the inflowing data are delivered by the reporting countries to Eurostat via separate dedicated questionnaires.

Data on monthly statistics are collected by standard questionnaires according to Annex C of the Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics

 

SHORT-TERM MONTHLY

Short-term monthly energy data collections cover the most important energy commodities:

  • Oil & petroleum products
  • Natural gas
  • Electricity

Short-term monthly data provides information on main flows (quantities) on the supply side.

Data on monthly short term statistics are collected by standard questionnaires according to Annex D of the Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European system of statistics. Therefore, they also rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

The classification of the economic activities both in carrying out the surveys and in presenting the results is in accordance to NACE Rev.2.

Classification of energy products (commodities/carriers) is in general highly consistent with the UN’s International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (especially its chapter 3: “Standard International Energy Product Classification”).

3.3. Coverage - sector

Energy statistics data covers all major sectors of the economy that are involved in the production, trade, energy transformation or energy consumption (e.g. energy sector, industrial sector, transport, commercial and public services, agricultural/forestry/fishing and households, for annual data).

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

For further detail information on divisions, groups or class please consult the annual reporting instructions or monthly reporting instructions.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

For energy statistics, definitions, concepts and methodology are harmonised at international level. The methodology is described in the Energy Statistics Manual. Definitions of Annex A of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics apply.

3.5. Statistical unit

The statistical unit may vary in the annual energy statistics. A statistical unit in energy statistics can be for example: enterprises, local units, establishment or household.

Reporting units in energy statistics might be: producers, importers, exporters of oil and petroleum products, households.  

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Not available - not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports

3.7. Reference area

All Member States of the European Union, EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway), EU candidate countries (Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey) and potential candidate countries (Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/99)). Data for Energy Community Contracting Parties are also available (in addition to countries listed before this covers Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia). The EU and Eurozone aggregates are also shown.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Annual data are available from 1990 for the vast majority of countries, while monthly and short-term monthly from 2008 onwards.

3.9. Base period

The concept of base period is not applicable for energy statistics as there is no “index number” or a “constant series”.


4. Unit of measure Top

Basic data on energy quantities are given in fuel specific units e.g. solid and liquid fuels in thousand tonnes, electricity in Gigawatt-hours, heat and gases in terajoules (TJ). The basic energy quantities data are converted to energy units, i.e. in Terajoules and Tonnes of oil equivalent to allow comparison of different fuel types.

Units in which countries provide data to Eurostat are defined in Annex B of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Until reference year 2016 all figures reported are rounded to the nearest whole number. As of reference year 2017, reporting countries can provide data up to 3 decimal places. Some countries provided more decimal places as part of the revision of their historic time series. Some countries opted for continuing reporting with zero decimal places. 


5. Reference Period Top

Annual energy statistics refer to the calendar year (January - December) and monthly and short-term monthly statistics refer to calendar months.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The Energy Statistics Regulation (ESR) [Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L304, 14.11.2008, p. 1-62] laid down in its Annexes B, C and D the scope, units, reported period, frequency, deadline and transmission modalities for the annual, monthly and short-term monthly collections of energy statistics.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable. Eurostat does not have any agreements or procedures in place for data sharing of annual energy statistics. Eurostat copyright rules applies: free re-use, both for non-commercial and commercial purposes.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recitals 23-27, 31-32 and Articles 20-26) applies also to energy statistics. It stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data are not shown. The most common approach is to present only aggregation of the confidential data point with the non-confidential data that is the nearest suitable data point.

For annual data, confidentiality is applied by reporting countries before transmission of the annual energy questionnaires to Eurostat, as this helps reporting countries to ensure all confidentiality aspects vis-à-vis the release of their national data and ensures the aspects of secondary confidentiality.

For monthly data, countries can flag the data points as confidential in the questionnaire.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section. According to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics, annual energy statistics need to be published by 31 January of the year Y+2 (Y being the reference year of data) and monthly and short-term monthly data around the 12th of each month.

8.2. Release calendar access

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users. Eurostat grants DG Energy of the European Commission pre-release access to energy data for quality assurance reasons.

Energy data - database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

Energy data - main tables: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables

Energy data - energy balances in MS Excel format: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/energy-balances

Energy flow charts (Sankey diagrams): http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/sankey/sankey.html 


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

For annual data, data are disseminated on annual basis. For monthly and short-term monthly, data are disseminated on a monthly basis.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics explained and selected statistical info in the Energy Dedicated Section.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Energy data on quantities is published in Eurobase:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

The concept of microdata is not applicable for energy statistics. No micro data are transmitted to Eurostat for data collected under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. All micro data are available only at the level of reporting countries.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Eurostat has developed an interactive tool to visualise energy data by means of energy flow charts (also called Sankey diagrams). Please note that the Sankey dataset is an auxiliary dataset to make the Sankey tool more efficient. Therefore its scope is limited and it is not recommended to use this dataset for a purpose which is not in relation to the Sankey tool.

The digital publication Shedding light on energy in the EU – A guided tour of energy statistics. This publication aims to answer questions on energy most frequently asked by citizens in an original way. Answers are provided through short texts, dynamic infographics, maps, videos, graphs, photos etc. This digital publication provides the statistical background which helps to better understand the challenges faced by the Energy Union. Both those not so familiar with the energy sector and experts in the domain should find something of interest.

The Energy dedicated section in Eurostat website contains methodological information, publications and also energy balances in MS Excel format.

Several articles in the Energy theme of the Statistics Explained section exist for the energy domain.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The methodology is described in the Energy Statistics Manual.

The Energy dedicated section on Eurostat's website has additional methodological information. In general, the energy statistics transmitted to Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

See "10.6. Documentation on methodology" and consult the quality documentation on energy statistics website - section "QUALITY REPORTS".


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Eurostat carries out quality tests, mainly on the coherency of the provided information. In addition, the questionnaires used for data transmission also have built-in coherency tests.

This dataset is a part of the energy statistics defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. It is considered as European statistics and consequently the ESS framework for quality applies. In addition, they are integrated in the Quality Reporting cycle that takes place every five years. Quality reports for energy statistics are based on Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and other checks corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts reporting countries to provide necessary justifications or corrections.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Energy quantities statistics are collected and published by Eurostat in order to:

  • Provide the Commission with harmonised, reliable and relevant statistical information needed to define, implement, monitor and evaluate Commission policies in the energy sector.
  • Provide the EU institutions, national administrations, enterprises, professional associations and EU citizens with high quality statistical services and products in the field of energy.
12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat conducts two types of evaluations that assess Eurostat's performance in general:

  • Evaluations of the Community Statistical Programmes
  • User Satisfaction Surveys

Please see more details on the Eurostat website.

12.3. Completeness

Not available.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Data on energy is submitted on the basis of energy questionnaires employing an standardised methodology. Eurostat receives disaggregated data which are used to countercheck the results and to ensure consistency with the total amount of energy consumption. The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. Eurostat checks each data collection against analog elements in other data collection (e.g. short-term monthly against monthly or monthly against annual).

In several countries and for most energy commodities data provision by the companies is required by law. However, emerging liberalisation process in some countries may to some extent negatively affect accuracy in some cases. From time to time detailed surveys targeted to single sub- items (e.g. Wood consumption in households) are carried out to improve the methodology.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Data is transmitted to Eurostat according to Regulation 1099/2008

  1. Annual energy data are transmitted from countries to Eurostat 11 months after the end of the reference year.
  2. For monthly energy data:
    1. M-2 → 55 days after the reference month
    2. M-3 → 3 months after the reference period
  3. For short-term monthly data:
    1. for oil and petroleum products (JODI-Oil): within 25 days following the reported month
    2. for gas and for electricity (SEG-GAS and SEG-ELE): within one month following the reported month.
14.2. Punctuality

The legal deadline for disseminating annual energy statistics is the 31 of January. In recent years, Eurostat disseminated complete energy balances always before the legal deadline and datasets in Eurobase were gradually updated around the legal deadline. For monthly and short-term monthly datasets there is no legal deadline for dissemination. Eurostat generally disseminates these data on the 12th of each month.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Energy domain provides highly comparable annual energy statistics. Eurostat verifies, to the extent possible, if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however the responsibility of the reporting countries. The methodology for reporting energy statistics is harmonised for all European countries (EU Member States, EFTA countries, EU Candidate Countries, Energy Community Contracting Parties) and also with the OECD energy statistics. In general, the energy statistics compiled by Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology harmonised on international level that is stable over long periods. Occasional breaks in time series are present due to the developments of statistical systems on national level and the level of detailed information (micro data) available at national level.

In general comparability is very high in last 10 years and for older periods slowly decreasing. In addition, introduction of new statistical information in the most recent data collections can lead to breaks in series until information is compiled and provided by reporting countries.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not available - information not produced by Eurostat.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the consistency of time series, detection of outliers, efficiency of energy transformation processes and also checks on utilization factors.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available - information not produced by Eurostat.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

The Revision Policy for energy statistics and the revision pre-announcement form are implemented on the basis of a gentlemen's agreement (October 2015). It might be followed by the future amendment of the relevant legislation once the revision policy has been incorporated into national practice.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Data are updated when an error is identified, if a Member State transmits more up-to-date figures or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones.

Revisions of entire time series can be made by reporting countries due to their national specific circumstances. These revisions are then implemented by Eurostat in due time.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are obtained from the National Administrations competent for energy statistics. Depending on the reporting country and the specific monthly process, the data providers can be:

  • National Statistical Institutes
  • Ministries
  • Energy Agencies
  • Professional Associations

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual or monthly.

18.3. Data collection

All data transfers to Eurostat come via Single Entry Point of data, which is currently implemented by EDAMIS.

For national practices:

National competent authorities collect the data by using census, surveys, administrative data, association's data, customs data and also by modelling including interpolation and extrapolation. Even estimates are occasionally submitted if real data is not available. The mixture of sources differs between countries. More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

For Eurostat:

The annual data cycle starts in July-August for the previous year's data by sending to reporting countries pre-filled annual energy questionnaires (email with MS Excel files attached). Starting in September, countries provide new data for the latest reference year and possible revisions for historical time periods. The legal deadline is 30 November. Data corrections and data revisions can arrive until April due to ongoing discussions on data validation issues and this might result in changes in disseminated data.

The monthly and short-term monthly cycles repeat every month, from reception (3, 2, or 1 month after the end of the reference period) to publication (on the 12th of the next month).

18.4. Data validation

Energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

18.5. Data compilation

Countries report to Eurostat basic data in the relevant units as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Country aggregations, such as European Union or Euro Area are formed by the aggregation of data from individual countries.

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments of data are performed in a systematic way, because energy statistics are collected according to internationally harmonised methodology and standards.


19. Comment Top

More information can be found in the related metadata and in the national quality reports.


Related metadata Top
nrg_10_esms - Energy statistics - supply, transformation and consumption
nrg_10m_esms - Energy statistics - supply, transformation, consumption (monthly) (nrg_10m)
nrg_quantstm_esms - Energy statistics - quantities, short-term monthly data


Annexes Top