Research and innovation statistics at regional level

Data extracted in January 2017. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: September 2018.

Maps can be explored interactively using Eurostat’s Statistical Atlas (see user manual).

Figure 1: Gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD) relative to gross domestic product (GDP), by sector of performance, EU-28, 2005–2015
(%)
Source: Eurostat (rd_e_gerdfund)
Map 1: R & D intensity — gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD) relative to gross domestic product (GDP), by NUTS 2 regions, 2014
(%)
Source: Eurostat (rd_e_gerdreg)
Figure 2: R & D intensity — gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD) relative to gross domestic product (GDP), by NUTS 2 regions, 2014
(%)
Source: Eurostat (rd_e_gerdreg)
Map 2: Share of R & D researchers in the total number of persons employed, by NUTS 2 regions, 2014
(%)
Source: Eurostat (rd_p_persreg)
Map 3: Share of human resources in science and technology (HRST) within the economically active population, by NUTS 2 regions, 2015
(%)
Source: Eurostat (hrst_st_rcat)
Figure 3: Top 20 regions with the highest share of human resources in science and technology (HRST) within the economically active population, by sex and by NUTS 1 regions, 2015
(%)
Source: Eurostat (hrst_st_rsex)
Map 4: Share of human resources in science and technology core (HRSTC) within the economically active population, by NUTS 2 regions, 2015
(%)
Source: Eurostat (hrst_st_rcat)
Figure 4: Top 20 regions with the highest share of human resources in science and technology core (HRSTC) within the economically active population, by sex and by NUTS 1 regions, 2015
(%)
Source: Eurostat (hrst_st_rsex)
Table 1: Top 10 regions for EU trademarks and Community designs, by NUTS 3 regions, 2015
Source: Eurostat (ipr_ta_reg), (ipr_tr_reg), (ipr_da_reg), (ipr_dfa_reg) and (demo_r_pjanaggr3)

This article forms part of Eurostat’s annual flagship publication, the Eurostat regional yearbook. It presents statistical information analysing regional developments for a range of research and innovation-related indicators within the European Union (EU), including the following topics: research and development (R & D) expenditure, the number of R & D researchers, human resources in science and technology (HRST), employment in high technology sectors and intellectual property rights.

Main statistical findings

  • A total of 30 European regions surpassed the Europe 2020 target of 3.00 % R & D intensity in 2014 (see Map 1). Regions with higher R & D expenditure relative to gross domestic product (GDP) were mostly concentrated in or around capital city regions, with notable exceptions such as the Midi-Pyrénées (in France) or East Anglia (in the United Kingdom).
  • Most regions with low R & D intensity were located in eastern and southern Europe, although there were some regions in these areas with higher intensities, for example País Vasco (in Spain), Piemonte (in Italy) and Jihovýchod (in the Czech Republic).
  • Some regions with very high R & D intensity were located next to regions with relatively low intensity. For example, Trier (in Germany) was among the 30 regions in the EU with an R & D intensity over 3.00 % while one of its neighbouring regions, Koblenz (also in Germany), had a ratio that was less than 1.00 %; a similar situation was observed for Piemonte and Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste in northern Italy.
  • Some EU Member States with high national R & D intensity display large regional disparities, as was the case, for example, in Belgium (see Figure 2).
  • There was a concentration of HRST in several parts of the United Kingdom, around the Belgian and Dutch capital city regions and in south-western Sweden (see Map 3). HRST were seen to be generally concentrated in urban areas, with capital city regions often reporting comparatively high shares of HRST.

R & D intensity in the EU-28 stable over recent years

Gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD) includes expenditure on R & D by business enterprises, higher education institutions, as well as government and private non-profit organisations. It was estimated to be EUR 298.8 billion across the EU-28 in 2015; this equated to an average of EUR 588 of R & D expenditure per inhabitant.

Innovation union — a flagship Europe 2020 initiative

The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU’s growth strategy to become a ‘smart, sustainable and inclusive economy’. In 2010, the European Commission adopted a Communication launching a flagship Europe 2020 initiative, the ‘innovation union’ (COM(2010) 546 final); this sets out a strategic approach to a range of challenges like climate change, energy and food security, health and an ageing population. It is hoped that the promotion of innovation in these areas will lead to innovative ideas being transformed into new economic activities and products, which in turn will generate jobs, green growth and social progress. The innovation union seeks to use public sector intervention to stimulate the private sector, removing bottlenecks which may prevent ideas from reaching market, such as access to finance, a lack of venture capital, fragmented research systems, the under-use of public procurement for innovation, and speeding-up harmonised standards and technical specifications. To promote the innovation union, more than 30 separate actions have been identified, including a range of European innovation partnerships (EIPs), designed to act as a framework to address major societal challenges.

The Europe 2020 strategy and its predecessor the Lisbon agenda (launched in 2000) set similar targets in relation to R & D intensity, namely that expenditure on R & D should be equivalent to at least 3.00 % of the EU’s GDP. This target for the EU as a whole is reflected in national targets, based on the position of each EU Member State and commitments agreed between the European Commission and national administrations. These national targets for R & D intensity range from 0.50 % of GDP in Cyprus to 3.76 % of GDP in Austria and 4.00 % of GDP in the traditionally R & D-intensive Member States of Finland and Sweden; there is no national target for the United Kingdom.

The innovation union scoreboard tracks a broad range of innovation indicators, including educational standards, R & D expenditure, patent production and business innovation. The results are used in the annual growth survey, helping EU Member States to determine their strengths and the areas they need to focus more on.

CH-8 R&D-intensitys RYB17.png
R & D expenditure was equivalent to 1.77 % of GDP in 2000 (which is the start of the series for the EU-28) and there was little or no change in the EU’s R & D intensity during the period 2000–2007. In 2008, there was a modest increase, as R & D expenditure relative to GDP rose to 1.84 % and this was followed by a further increase to 1.93 % in 2009 (resulting from the level of R & D expenditure falling at a slower pace than GDP as the full impact of the financial and economic crisis was felt). There was a rebound in economic growth and R & D expenditure in the following years, with further modest gains in the EU-28’s R & D intensity, which reached 2.04 % in 2014, a level that was nearly maintained in 2015 (2.03 %). In value terms, not adjusted for inflation, EU-28-wide R & D expenditure rose from EUR 172 billion in 2000 to EUR 299 billion in 2015, an average annual increase of 3.8 %.

Due to its nature, R & D tends to be concentrated physically, such that there are clusters of regions with relatively high R & D intensity. These clusters are often situated around academic institutions or specific high-technology industrial activities and knowledge-based services, which foster a favourable environment, thereby attracting new start-ups and highly qualified personnel such that the competitive advantage of these regions is further intensified.

Map 1 presents the regional distribution of R & D intensity for NUTS level 2 regions for 2014; it shows the most concentrated areas of research activity. The Europe 2020 target of 3.00 % for the EU-28 has not been set at a regional level and each EU Member State may choose how to reach their national target (either by general measures across the territory or by encouraging specific regional concentrations/clusters of research activity). Just over 1 in 10 (11.1 %) of the 270 NUTS level 2 regions in the EU for which data are available reported R & D intensity that had reached the Europe 2020 target of at least 3.00 % (as shown by the darkest shade of orange in Map 1); together these regions accounted for more than one third (34.1 %) of the EU-28’s total R & D expenditure in 2014.

Prov. Brabant Wallon had the highest R & D intensity in the EU

There were three NUTS level 2 regions in the EU where the level of R & D intensity was particularly pronounced. Two of these were in Germany, Stuttgart and Braunschweig, where R & D expenditure relative to GDP rose to 6.00 % and 7.33 % respectively in 2013. However, R & D intensity peaked in the Belgian region of Prov. Brabant Wallon, at 11.36 % (also 2013); as such, its research intensity was almost six times as high as the EU-28 average.

Elsewhere, research activity was often focussed in or around capital city regions, for example, the Nordic regions of Hovedstaden, Helsinki-Uusimaa and Stockholm, with Länsi-Suomi and Pohjois- ja Itä-Suomi (both in Finland) and three Swedish regions also recording R & D intensity of more than 3.00 %. The German and Austrian capital city regions of Berlin and Wien were among those with high R & D intensity, as were seven more German regions and three more Austrian regions. There were also a number of other regions with R & D intensity of at least 3.00 %, many of which have a tradition of research excellence, including: Provincie Vlaams-Brabant in Belgium; Midi-Pyrénées in France; East Anglia and four other regions in the United Kingdom.

Most southern and eastern regions had relatively low levels of R & D intensity

Outside of these clusters, R & D expenditure relative to GDP was generally modest in the remaining western and northern regions of the EU and low in most southern and eastern regions of the EU. Indeed, the Spanish region of País Vasco (2.06 %) and the Italian region of Piemonte (2.27 %) were the only southern EU regions to report R & D intensity above 2.00 % in 2014, while the only eastern regions to record intensities above 2.00 % were: the Czech regions of Jihovýchod (2.91 %), the capital city region of Praha (2.86 %) and Střední Čechy (2.01 %), as well as the Slovenian capital city region of Zahodna Slovenija (2.72 %).

High regional disparities within many EU Member States

One of the most striking aspects of R & D expenditure is the way that it is scattered over the EU territory. Indeed, there are considerable regional disparities (see Figure 2), with a small number of regions recording very high levels of R & D intensity and a larger number of regions having relatively low levels of intensity. The biggest regional disparity was observed in Belgium which, as noted above, had a particularly high R & D intensity in one region (Prov. Brabant Wallon).

In some EU Member States, regional disparities reflected a relatively high R & D intensity in the capital city region and below (national) average intensities in other regions, as can be seen clearly in Bulgaria as well as in Denmark, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Finland; this was also the case in Croatia and Slovenia which each have only two regions at NUTS level 2. Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (Inner London – East) were somewhat atypical insofar as their capital city regions recorded levels of R & D intensity that were below their national averages (note there are two capital city regions in the United Kingdom and that the R & D intensity of Inner London – West was slightly above the national average.

R & D researchers

Researchers are directly employed within R & D activities and are defined as ‘professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and in the management of the projects concerned’.

There were an estimated 2.71 million researchers active across the EU-28 in 2013. Their number has grown at a steady pace in recent years, rising from 1.85 million in 2003 (equivalent to an average increase of 3.9 % per annum). An alternative unit of measure for labour input adjusts the number of researchers to take account of different working hours and working patterns. Based on this measure, there were 1.73 million full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in the EU-28 in 2013, a figure which rose to 1.76 million in 2014 and to 1.82 million in 2015.

The distribution of researchers across the EU was particularly concentrated in capital city regions

Like R & D intensity, the share of researchers among persons employed was skewed, as only 3 in 10 (29.6 %) of the regions shown in Map 2 reported a share of researchers that was above the EU-28 value of 0.83 %, while the median share across all NUTS level 2 regions was 0.57%. The distribution of researchers was relatively concentrated in a few regions, principally in those regions where R & D intensity was high. The main difference compared with R & D intensity is that the share of researchers tended to be somewhat higher in regions characterised as having higher education establishments and research institutes, often capital city regions, although Berlin (Germany) was a notable exception. Equally, the share of researchers was relatively low in Trier (Germany), in Cheshire and in Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire (both in the United Kingdom), despite relatively high R & D intensity in these regions.

The draw of capital city regions is underlined by the fact that in more than two thirds of the multi-regional EU Member States the share of researchers among persons employed in the capital city region was higher than in any other region, the exceptions being Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands.

Looking at all EU regions, only 17 reported that researchers made-up at least 1.75 % of their total number of persons employed in 2014 (the darkest shade of orange in Map 2), the highest share being 5.0 % in the British capital city region of Inner London - West. Half of the other 16 regions with high shares of researchers were also capital city regions, the most prominent exceptions being Prov. Brabant Wallon (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). By contrast, 29 regions reported shares that were below 0.25 %, with the lowest shares (below 0.10 %) in the Spanish autonomous cities of Melilla and Ceuta, the Scottish Highlands and Islands (the United Kingdom), Prov. Luxembourg (Belgium) and the Romanian region of Sud-Est.

Human resources in science and technology (HRST)

HRST contributed 123 million persons to the EU-28 workforce in 2015, of which 49 million were categorised as core HRST. In 2009, HRST accounted for more than one quarter (27.9 %) of the EU-28’s population aged 15–74 (hereafter referred to as the working-age population); this share rose in successive years to reach nearly one third (32.4 %) by 2015.

Defining human resources in science and technology (HRST)

HRST are defined as those persons who fulfil at least one of the following two criteria:

A more restricted definition, based on persons employed who meet both the educational and occupational criteria is referred to as human resources in science and technology — core (HRSTC).

Map 3 shows the regional distribution of HRST for NUTS level 2 regions, with the darkest shade of orange highlighting those regions where the share of HRST in the working-age economically active population (persons employed or unemployed) was at least 50 %. Approximately one in six (15.6 %) of the 276 regions in the EU-28 for which data are available in 2015 met this criterion, in other words where at least half of the economically active population was classified as HRST.

Many of the regions with high shares of HRST were also characterised as having a high degree of R & D intensity and a high share of researchers (see above) and the reverse was also generally true. However, there were some notable differences, for example some of the London regions reported relatively low R & D intensity and a low share of researchers, but a high proportion of HRST within the economically active population; this was also the case to a lesser extent in Prov. Luxembourg, Corse (France), Cyprus (one region at NUTS level 2) and the Scottish Highlands and Islands. By contrast, in Kriti (Greece), the share of HRST in the economically active population was low, despite a relatively high share of R & D researchers.

At least two thirds of the working-age economically active population in the Inner London regions were classified as HRST

Once more, capital city regions or regions close to capital city regions often reported the highest share of HRST within the economically active population. Among the 30 regions with a majority of their economically active workforce classified as HRST, almost half — 14 of them — were capital city regions; among these were both Inner London regions which reported the highest values among EU regions, with more than two thirds of their economically active workforces classified as HRST.

Other regions where HRST accounted for a majority of the economically active workforce included clusters around the Belgian and Dutch capital city regions, as well as the neighbouring regions of Sydsverige and Västsverige in south-western Sweden. The large cluster of regions around the British capital extended across southern England as far as East Wales while there were further clusters in the United Kingdom along the east coast of Scotland and in the North West of England. Aside from capital city regions, some individual regions recorded relatively high values setting them apart from their neighbours, such as País Vasco (Spain), Midi-Pyrénées and Rhône-Alpes (southern France), the German regions of Hamburg, Oberbayern and Darmstadt, and the British region of North Yorkshire.

For 36 NUTS level 2 regions, HRST accounted for less than 30.0 % of their working-age economically active population in 2015 (as shown by the lightest shade of orange in Map 3), with two Romanian regions — Sud - Muntenia and Nord-Est — reporting values below 20.0 %. With the exception of the French overseas region of Mayotte, these 36 regions were all located in southern and eastern parts of the EU, with eight from Greece, seven from Romania, six from Italy (of which five from the south) and Portugal, and between one and three regions each from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia.

Figure 3 looks at the same indicator, namely the share of HRST within the economically active population aged 15 to 74, but for NUTS level 1 regions and is supplemented by an analysis by gender. Across the EU-28 as a whole, 39.7 % of men in the economically active population in 2015 were classified as HRST with this share rising to 47.5 % for women. In all 20 of the regions with the highest overall shares (from among regions in the EU-28, Norway or Switzerland), a majority of women were classified as HRST, as were a majority of men in 11 regions. Apart from in Switzerland (one region at NUTS level 1), the proportion of HRST within the economically active population of women was higher than the corresponding share recorded among men, with the largest gender gap in Ireland (also one region at NUTS level 1).

The share of core HRST in the working-age economically active population was more than twice as high as the EU-28 average in Inner London - West

Map 4 focuses on core HRST, in other words the subset of HRST that concerns persons with a tertiary level of education and who were persons employed in a science and technology occupation; these statistics are again presented as a share of the economically active population aged 15–74.

Compared with Map 3, which looked at the wider concept of HRST in general, core HRST as a share of the economically active population was relatively low in several British regions (for example, East Wales and South Western Scotland), as well as in Darmstadt (Germany), Southern and Eastern (Ireland), Rhône-Alpes (France) and Zuid-Holland (the Netherlands).

Core HRST accounted for 30.0 % or more of the workforce in 13 of the 276 regions in the EU-28 for which data are available, of which seven were capital city regions — those of the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, the three Nordic Member States and the United Kingdom (both Inner London regions). Five additional regions were located within close proximity of the Belgian and British capital city regions (although it should be noted that the Belgian capital city region itself reported a share that was marginally under 30.0 %) and the final region was Utrecht (the Netherlands).

CH-8 hr-in-science RYB17.png
The highest share of core HRST was 45.0 % in Inner London - West, where the ratio was more than twice the EU-28 average of 20.1 %. As with the other indicators presented in this article, a regional analysis for this indicator has a skewed distribution, with more regions (166 of them) having a value below the EU-28 average than above it (108 regions). Among the 68 regions that had shares of core HRST in the economically active population that were below 15.0 % (the two lightest orange shades in Map 4), the vast majority were in eastern or southern EU Member States; they were joined by two overseas regions in France (Guadeloupe and Mayotte) and two German regions (Niederbayern and Weser-Ems).

In a similar manner to Figure 3, Figure 4 presents a supplementary analysis by gender, again based on NUTS level 1 regions. As for HRST in general, there is a clear gender gap for core HRST, with the share of women within the economically active population classified as core HRST standing at 23.0 % in 2015, compared with a ratio of 17.7 % for men. Among the 20 level 1 regions in the EU-28, Norway and Switzerland with the highest overall shares of core HRST only one — Switzerland — reported a higher share of core HRST in its workforce for men than for women. The largest gender gap among these top 20 regions was in Region Centralny (Poland). The highest shares of core HRST for both men and for women were recorded in Luxembourg (one region at NUTS level 1), followed by London for men and by Norway (also one region at NUTS level 1) and Östra Sverige (Sweden) for women.

Intellectual property rights

The term intellectual property rights is used to cover the granting of different kinds of protection through the issuing of patents, copyrights and trademarks. The protection of intellectual property allows the holder to exercise a monopoly on the use of the item in question for a set period, as imitation and duplication are restricted. By doing so, enterprises may be encouraged to invest more in research and creative activity.

Defining trademarks and Community designs

Regulation (EU) No 2015/2424 of the European Parliament and the Council amending the Community trade mark regulation entered into force on 23 March 2016. Among other changes, are the renaming of the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) and the European Union trade mark (EUTM).

Data on EU trademarks and designs refer to trademark and design protections throughout the EU. Since the implementation of the new legal framework adopted in 2015 (Regulation (EU) No 2015/2424 and Directive (EU) 2015/2436) trademarks no longer need to be represented graphically making it possible to protect colours and non-visual signs, such as sounds. Trademarks can be an essential part of the identity of goods and services, as they help to deliver brand recognition and play a role in marketing and communication.

A Community design is ‘the appearance of the whole or a part of a product resulting from the features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture and/or materials of the product itself and/or its ornamentation’, as defined by Council Regulation (EC) No 6/2002 on Community designs.

The French capital city region of Paris had the highest number of EU trademark applications and registrations and the highest number of Community design applications and designs

Table 1 provides information on the application for and granting of EU trademarks and Community designs. The top 10 regions in 2015 are shown for each of these, with the highest number of applications and registrations of EU trademarks and the highest number of Community design applications and Community designs in the French capital city region of Paris. For each part of Table 1, the top 10 regions accounted for a 12–18 % share of the EU-28 total, with each ranking dominated by some of the most populous regions in the EU, either capital city regions or other regions with large cities. Along with Paris, Barcelona (Spain), Milano (Italy) and München, Kreisfreie Stadt (Germany) also appear in all four of the top 10 rankings shown, while Berlin (Germany), Luxembourg (a single region at this level of detail) and Stockholms län (Sweden) each appear in three of the four rankings. The top 10 list for Community design applications stands out as it includes the Polish region of Miasto Warszawa which is the only region from the eastern EU Member States to feature in any of the rankings.

As the criterion for inclusion in Table 1 is the absolute number of applications or registrations, NUTS level 3 regions that make up large cities are favoured, whereas large cities that cover many NUTS level 3 regions are less likely to figure. An analysis of the number of applications or registrations relative to population size standardises the presentation of this indicator to some extent. From Table 1 it can be seen that, among the top 10 regions in absolute numbers, the largest number of trademark applications and registrations relative to population size were in regions of Inner London, whereas the highest number of Community design applications relative to population size was recorded in the Dutch region of Zuidoost-Noord-Brabant and the highest number of Community designs relative to population size were in the German region of Stuttgart, Stadtkreis.

Data sources and availability

Legal basis and sources

Commission Regulation (EU) No 995/2012 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology provides the legal requirements and determines the datasets, analysis (breakdowns), frequency and transmission delays to be respected by the EU Member States for these statistics.

Many of the remaining statistics that are used to analyse research and innovation are derived from other statistical domains within Eurostat or from a range of international databases provided by other organisations:

Methodology

The methodology for R & D statistics is laid down in the ‘Frascati manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development’ (OECD, 2002), which is also used by many non-member countries. A new edition of the Frascati manual was published in 2015 and will be used for future data collection.

The methodology for statistics on HRST is laid down in the Canberra manual (OECD, 1995), which lists all HRST concepts.

NUTS

The data presented in this article are based exclusively on the 2013 version of NUTS. The data concerning R & D intensity and R & D researchers presented for NUTS level 2 are not available for the French départements d’outre-mer which are therefore shown at NUTS level 1.

Indicator definitions

Glossary entries on Statistics Explained are available for a wide range of concepts/indicators relating to research and innovation, including: innovation, gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD), R & D intensity, researchers, HRST, and intellectual property rights.

For more information:
Dedicated section on science, technology and innovation

Context

Regional research, knowledge and innovative capacity depends on a range of factors — business culture, workforce skills, education and training institutions, innovation support services, technology transfer mechanisms, regional infrastructure, the mobility of researchers, sources of finance and creative potential.

Policy initiatives

A Communication from the European Commission on ‘Regional policy contributing to smart growth in Europe 2020’ (COM(2010) 553 final) explores ways in which regional policy can be used to unlock the growth potential of the EU through identifying activities that offer the best chance of strengthening a region’s competitiveness, while encouraging interaction between businesses, research centres and universities on the one hand and local, regional and national administrations on the other.

In 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication on ‘Research and innovation as sources of renewed growth’ (COM(2014) 339 final) which proposed that EU Member States should seek to actively support growth enhancing policies, notably through research and innovation, so as to benefit from the largest internal market in the world, many of the world’s leading innovative companies and the highly-educated European workforce.

In order to pool talent and achieve a necessary scale, policymakers seek to encourage transnational cooperation within the European research area (ERA). The ERA was launched at the Lisbon European Council in March 2000 and aims to ensure open and transparent trade in scientific and technical skills, ideas and know-how; it sets out to create a unified research area that is open to the world; it promotes the free movement of researchers, knowledge and technology. In July 2012, the European Commission adopted a Communication titled ‘A reinforced European research area partnership for excellence and growth’ (COM(2012) 392 final), focusing on five key priority areas for reforming/completing the ERA: more effective national research systems; optimal transnational cooperation and competition; an open labour market for researchers; gender equality and gender mainstreaming in research; and optimal circulation and transfer of scientific knowledge. A second progress report on ERA (COM(2014) 575 final) was released in September 2014. It concluded that while there were still big differences between EU Member States in the way research funding was allocated, virtually all had adopted a national strategy on research and innovation. In May 2015 the ERA Roadmap 2015–2020 was adopted. Its purpose is to identify a limited number of key implementation priorities which are likely to have the biggest impact on Europe’s science, research and innovation systems, including: effective national research systems; addressing grand challenges; making optimal use of public investments in research infrastructures; an open labour market for researchers; gender equality and gender mainstreaming in research; optimal circulation and transfer of scientific knowledge; international cooperation. In 2015, a core set of 24 indicators were agreed upon in order to measure the progress of ERA and these are presented in ERA progress reports.

The EU’s framework programmes for research have, since their launch in 1984, played a leading role in multidisciplinary research activities. Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council established Horizon 2020 — the Framework Programme for research and innovation (2014–2020). The goal is to ensure Europe produces world-class science, removes barriers to innovation and makes it easier for the public and private sectors to work together to deliver innovation. Horizon 2020 has a budget of almost EUR 80 billion, in addition to the private expenditure that it is expected this funding will attract. Work programmes cover two years: the current work programme is for 2016 and 2017.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Data visualisation

Publications

Main tables

Regional science and technology statistics (t_reg_sct)
Human resources in science and technology (HRST) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00038)
Employment in high-tech sectors by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00039)
Patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) by priority year by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00040)
High-tech patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) by priority year by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00041)
Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00042)
Researchers, all sectors by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00043)
Research and development (t_research)
Statistics on research and development (t_rd)
Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00042)
Researchers, all sectors by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00043)
High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services (t_htec)
Employment in high-tech sectors by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00039)
Human Resources in Science & Technology (t_hrst)
Human resources in science and technology (HRST) by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00038)
Intellectual property rights (t_ipr)
Patent (t_pat)
Patent applications to the European patent office (EPO) by priority year by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00040)
High-tech patent applications to the European patent office (EPO) by priority year by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00041)

Database

Regional science and technology statistics (reg_sct)
R&D expenditure and personnel (reg_rd)
Employment in high technology sectors (reg_htec)
Human resources in science and technology (HRST) (reg_hrst)
Research and development (research)
Statistics on research and development (rd)
R&D expenditure at national and regional level (rd_e)
R&D personnel at national and regional level (rd_p)
High-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services (htec)
Employment in high-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services (HTEC) (htec_emp)
Science and technology in high-tech industry and knowledge-intensive services (HTEC) (htec_sti)
Human Resources in Science & Technology (hrst)
Stocks of HRST at national and regional levels (hrst_st)
Intellectual property rights (ipr)
Patent (pat)
Community trade marks (CTM) (ipr_t)
Community design (CD) (ipr_d)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Source data for tables, figures and maps (MS Excel)

Other information

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 753/2004 of 22 April 2004 implementing Decision 1608/2003/EC as regards statistics on science and technology
  • Report (COM(2011) 184 final) from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on science and technology statistics

External links