Economic Accounts for Agriculture (aact)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4.Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E1: Agriculture and fisheries

1.5. Contact mail address

Postal address: Rue Alcide de Gasperi L-2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 22/08/2014
2.2. Metadata last posted 22/08/2014
2.3. Metadata last update 22/08/2014

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The Economic Accounts for Agriculture (EAA) provide detailed information on income in the agricultural sector. The purpose is to analyse the production process of the agricultural industry and the primary income generated by this production. The accounts are therefore based on the industry concept.

The EAA accounts are detailed data on value of output (producer prices and basic prices), intermediate consumption, subsidies and taxes, consumption of fixed capital, rent and interests, capital formation etc. The values are in current as well as in constant prices.

Agricultural Labour Input (ALI) and Unit Values (UV) are an integrated part of the overall concept of Economic Accounts for Agriculture.

The Economic accounts for agriculture (EAA) are a satellite account of the European System of Accounts (ESA2010), providing complementary information and concepts adapted to the particular nature of the agricultural industry. Although their structure very closely matches that of the national accounts, their compilation requires the formulation of appropriate rules and methods.

National Statistical Institutes or Ministries of Agriculture are responsible for data collection and calculation of national EAA, in accordance with EC Regulations. Eurostat is responsible for the EU aggregations.

Regional data

EAA accounts are compiled at regional level (NUTS2), but only in values in current prices. The labour input data and Unit values are not broken down to regional level.

Please note that for paragraphs where no metadata for regional data has been specified, the regional metadata is identical to the metadata provided for the national data.

Frequency of data collection for data under Regulation (EC) 138/2004 and gentlemen's agreement, deadline for transmission for years 2015-2016.


Reg. CE 138/2004

Gentlemen's agreement

Web Form in eDamis

Excel SDTT file in CIRCA

Transmission date via eDamis

Edamis DATASET to use


EAA Second Estimates 2015






31 January 2016


EAA Constant N-1 prices Final - 2014






30 September 2015



EAA at current prices Final - 2014








UV (unit Values) 2014








EAA Regional data 2013








ALI (Labour Input) final 2014








ALI (Labour Input)1st estimates 2015






30 November 2015



ALI (Labour Input) 2nd estimates 2015






31 January 2016



EAA First Estimates 2015






30 November 2015


3.2. Classification system

The EAA is an integral part of the European system of accounts and therefore for their compilation the Eurostat's general classification of economic activities, NACE Rev. 2, is used. The list of activities which defines the agricultural industry corresponds to division 01 of that classification: Crop and animal production, hunting and related service activities. The list of products collected is enclosed in annex.

The data are collected for BE, BG, CZ, DK, DE, EE, IE, EL, ES, FR, HR, IT, CY, LV, LT, LU, HU, MT, NL, AT, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK, FI, SE, UK and CH, NO, MK

Regional data

The territorial classification of regional data is broken down according to the NUTS classification.

For most countries the regional data is available at NUTS 2 level.

3.3. Coverage - sector

The sector covers the income of all units involved in agricultural production, also if the units have more economic important activities as well and if the purpose of the units is not commercial. Kitchen garden (producing for own consumption only) is not included.

Division 01 of NACE Rev. 2 comprises:

  • Group 01.1: Growing of non-perennial crops;
  • Group 01.2: Growing of perennial crops;
  • Group 01.3: Plant propagation;
  • Group 01.4: Animal production;
  • Group 01.5: Mixed farming;
  • Group 01.6: Support activities to agriculture and post-harvest crop activities;
  • Group 01.7: Hunting, trapping and related service activities.

The list of characteristic agricultural activities of the EAA corresponds to these seven groups of activities (01.1to 01.7), but with the following differences:

- inclusion of the production of wine and olive oil (exclusively using grapes and olives grown by the same holding),

- exclusion of activities relating to the production of seeds upstream and downstream of multiplication and certain activities which, in NACE Rev. 2, are considered as agricultural services (e.g. the operation of irrigation systems - only agricultural contract work is taken into account here).

The EAA agricultural industry differs in some respects from the branch as defined for National Accounts purposes. The differences relate to the definition of both characteristic activities and units. They can be summarised as follows:

EAA agricultural industry =

NA agricultural branch

- Units engaged in seed production (for research or certification)

- Production units providing associated agricultural services other than agricultural contract work (i.e. the operation of irrigation systems)

- units for which the agricultural activity represents solely a leisure activity

+ Agricultural activities of units whose principal activity is not agricultural

The NACE-classification (rev2) has been implemented by September 2011 in the EAA and in National Accounts.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

A detailed methodology can be found in Annex I of the EAA Regulation and in the Manual on the economic accounts for Agriculture and Forestry EAA/EAF 97 (Rev.1.1). A detailed methodology on agricultural labour input can be consulted in Target methodology for agricultural labour input (ALI) statistics (Rev.1). All these documents can be found in the annexes.

When differences between the Manuals and the Annex in the regulation are found, pre-eminence should be given to the Annex.

The EAA are satellite accounts of the European System of Accounts (ESA2010) providing complementary information and concepts adapted to the particular nature of the agricultural industry.

The EAA accounts consist of a sequence of inter-related accounts. As the EAA are based on the industry concept, the sequence of accounts in accordance with the ESA 95 has to be limited to the first accounts of the current accounts:

- the production account and

- the generation-of-income account

whose balancing items are value added and operating surplus, respectively.

Nevertheless, it is thought that, given the specific features of agriculture, it should be possible to compile other accounts, at least in part, in so far as the relevant flows can be clearly attributed to them. The accounts in question are the following:

- the entrepreneurial income account (one of the current accounts) and

- the capital account (one of the accumulation accounts).

The Economic Accounts for Agriculture provide a wide range of indicators on the economic activities in the agricultural sector: Output, Intermediate consumption, Gross and net value added, Compensation of employees, Other taxes and subsidies on production, Net operating surplus or net mixed income, Property income, Net entrepreneurial income, etc. at current and at constant prices.

Labour indicators are also obtained, where the Annual work units (AWUs) are the most important. AWUs are defined as full-time equivalent employment (corresponding to the number of full-time equivalent jobs), i.e. as total hours worked divided by the average annual number of hours worked in full-time jobs within the economic territory. A distinction is drawn between non-salaried and salaried AWUs, which together make up total AWUs.

One person cannot represent more than one AWU. This constraint holds even if someone is working in the agricultural industry for more than the number of hours defining full time. The agricultural labour input of persons who work less than full time on agricultural holdings is calculated as the quotient of the number of hours actually worked (per week or per year) and the number of hours actually worked (per week or per year) in a full-time job. Total hours worked do not cover work for the private household of the holder or manager.

Unit values refer to the concept of the output of agricultural activity. They are obtained by dividing current values (in producer prices and in basic prices) by the corresponding physical quantities. They differ from prices in that variation in unit values includes any variation in quantity. The following equations illustrate these relationships:

Unit value statistics:     unit value  =  (current value) / ( physical quantity)
EAA in general:            unit value  =  ("pure" price) / (volume

Three synthetic indicators are defined in the EAA:

  • Indicator A: Index of the real income of factors in agricultural per annual work unit. This yardstick corresponds to the real net value added at factor cost of agriculture per total AWU
  • Indicator B: Index of real net agricultural entrepreneurial income per unpaid annual work unit. This indicator presents the changes in net entrepreneurial income over time, per non-salaried AWU.
  • Indicator C: Net entrepreneurial income of agriculture. This income aggregate is presented as an absolute value (or in the form of an index in real terms). It allows comparability over time of the income of the agricultural industry between Member States.

Regional data

The concept for compiling of EAA at regional level is described in chapter 7 in the Manual and the definition of unit values is described in chapter 6 in the Manual. The providing of these data is based on a gentlemen's agreement and not on legal base.

Not all national tables are necessarily available at regional level. To consult the list of available national- and regional- datasets, please consult the annex.

3.5. Statistical unit

The overall unit is the agricultural sector; However, in order to provide more detailed information and to analyse flows generated by the production process and the use of goods and services, it is necessary to select units which emphasise relationships of a technico-economic kind. This requirement means that, as a rule, institutional units must be broken-down into smaller and more homogeneous units with regard to the kind of production. Local kind-of-activity units (local KAUs) are intended to meet this requirement as a first but practically oriented operational approach (ESA 95, 2.105).

The local KAU is defined as the part of a KAU which corresponds to a local unit. The KAU groups all the parts of an institutional unit in its capacity as producer contributing to the performance of an activity at class level (four digits) in NACE Rev. 2 (the reference classification for economic activities) and corresponds to one or more operational subdivisions of the institutional unit. The institutional unit's information system must be capable of indicating or calculating for each local KAU at least the value of output, intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, the operating surplus and employment and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (ESA 95, 2.106).

The agricultural holding, which is the unit currently used for statistical studies of agriculture (censuses, surveys of the structure of agricultural holdings), is the local KAU most appropriate to the agricultural industry (even though certain other units, such as wine or olive oil cooperatives, or units performing contract work, etc., have to be included in it). Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that the variety of agricultural activities that can be performed on agricultural holdings makes them a special type of local KAU. The strict application of the ESA rule to units and their group should in fact result in a division of the agricultural holding into several separate local KAUs in cases where several activities of the NACE Rev. 2 four-digit class are performed on the same holding. The adoption of the agricultural holding as the local KAU of the agricultural industry in the national accounts and EAA is based on a statistical approach.

3.6. Statistical population

Although the ESA gives pre-eminence to local KAUs, the unit best suited to analyse the production process is the unit of homogeneous production. This unit is used to analyse inputs and outputs, since it corresponds exactly to a type of activity. Institutional units are thus divided into as many UHPs as there are activities (other than ancillary). By grouping these units of homogeneous production it is possible to break down the economy into "pure" (homogeneous) branches. A UHP cannot, as a rule, be directly observed. Therefore, the accounts of homogeneous branches cannot be compiled on the basis of groups of UHPs. The ESA describes a method for compiling these accounts. It involves attributing secondary production and the corresponding costs of activity branches to the appropriate homogeneous branches (ESA, 9.53. to 9.61.)

The use of the local KAU as the basic unit for the agricultural industry entails recording non-agricultural secondary activities where they cannot be distinguished from the main agricultural activity. Inseparable non-agricultural secondary activities of local agricultural KAUs are defined as activities closely linked to agricultural production for which information on any of output, intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, labour input or GFCF cannot be separated from information on the main agricultural activity during the period of statistical observation. Only that part of a specific non-agricultural secondary activity which is inseparable must be included. As a consequence, a given non-agricultural activity will be included in the agricultural industry if it is impossible to separate it from the main agricultural activity of a local KAU, but will be excluded if it can be separated from the main agricultural activity, in which case the secondary activity gives rise to a non-agricultural local KAU. The selection criterion for inseparable non-agricultural secondary activities is not so much the nature of the product as the type of activity. For example, agro-tourism services provided by a farm must only be included if they cannot be separated from its agricultural activities. This would probably not be the case when these activities become important. Thus, non-agricultural products accounted for in the production of the agricultural industry may vary geographically and over time.

3.7. Reference area

Data are collected for European Union: BE, BG, CZ, DK, DE, EE, IE, EL, ES, FR, HR, IT, CY, LV, LT, LU, HU, MT, NL, AT, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK, FI, SE, UK , Candidate countries: MK and TR and EFTA countries: and CH, NO

We publish into Eurobase aggregates for EU 15, 25, 27 and 28.

The regional EAA refers to NUTS2 as the most detailled level in the countries mentioned.

3.8. Coverage - Time

For EEA accounts, the availability is in general as below:

For EU-15 data are available from 1993

For EU-27 data are available for certain years as from 1998.

For EU-28 data are available since 2005 for Croatia

Data are also available for Switzerland (since 1985), Norway (since 1995), for several countries the data go back to 1973 (Denmark, France and United Kingdom)

Regional data

Regional data are in most cases available for fewer years than the series for the whole country.

3.9. Base period

Accounts for year n are calculated at current prices, at prices of year n-1 and at prices of year 2005. Value, volume and price indices are also obtained for reference years: n-1=100 and 2005=100.

Labour input data are shown as total annual work units and as indices 2005=100

4. Unit of measure Top

Accounts data are given in:

  • Millions of euro (from 1.1.1999)/Millions of ECU (up to 31.12.1998),
  • Millions of national currency (including 'euro fixed' series for euro area countries)
  • MIO_PPS Millions of PPS (Purchasing Power Standard)

Furthermore, the core data and the indicators are expressed using indices. The reference years is 2005 = 100 and n-1 = 100, respectively

Agricultural labour input data are given in

  • Thousands of annual work units (AWU) 
  • Indices related to 2005=100

Unit value statistics are given in

  • 1000 tonnes (Quantities) 
  • Euro per tonnes (unit value)
  • National currency per tonnes (unit values)

5. Reference Period Top

The reference period is the calendar year.

The reference year is related to the time for production and use, not necessary corresponding to the time for sale and purchase.

In example cereals produced (harvested) in year n has to be valuated in EAA year n, also taking into account the value of part sold or used in year n+1

Regional data

The reference period is the calendar year.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Regulation (EC) No 138/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 on the economic accounts for agriculture in the Community (OJ L33, 05.02.2004) sets the legal basis for establishing a harmonized methodology for the compilation of the EAA. The regulation has been amended by regulations 306/2005; 909/2006 and 212/2008 (212/2008 relates to data from 2010).

Provision of unit values is based on Gentlemen's agreement.

Regional data

Provision of regional data is based on Gentlemen's agreement.

Regions are defined according the NUTS specification as specified in Regulation (EC) N° 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

The is no data sharing

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Only non-confidential data are received. Data can be subject to agreed embargoes caused by national publishing.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No release calendar.

The results of first estimates of accounts and labour input are normally published 2-3 weeks after the deadline (30 November) via News Release and online database.

The results of second estimates of accounts and labour input are published via Statistics in Focus and online database 5-6 weeks after the deadline (31 January).

Final/complete data are published via the online database 3-4 weeks after deadline (30 September).

Unit values are uploaded in the database upon receiving and validation. 

Regional data

Regional data are uploaded in the database upon receiving and validation. 

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

In line with this protocol and on a strictly regulated basis, summary data on Economic accounts for agriculture first and second estimates are sent for quality assurance to the European Commission Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development  (DG AGRI) under embargo 5 working days before data dissemination and Press releases for information the evening before release.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual - updates occur as there are more deadlines during the year.

Regional data


10. Dissemination format Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line for first estimates.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

News release for first estimates 2013 and Facts and figures on agriculture in the European Union, February 2015

Statistics explained on Agriculturual accounts and prices is an article part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics pocketbook. It gives an overview of indicators on agricultural output, agricultural income and of agricultural prices in the European Union (EU). The data are extracted from Eurostat collections of agricultural statistics: economic accounts for agriculture (EAA), agricultural price indices (API) and absolute agricultural prices.

Statistics explained on Agricultural income per annual work unit presents recent statistics on agricultural income per annual work unit (AWU) (Indicator A) in the European Union (EU) and EFTA countries.

Results are also published in Agricultural Statistics pocketbook and Statistical yearbooks.
DG Agri publishes several data in the annual report for agriculture - 1st estimates for latest year.

Regional data

See chapter on agriculture in Eurostat Regional Yearbook 2013

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line (Internet address: or refer to contact details

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

No micro-data.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

11. Accessibility of documentation Top
11.1. Documentation on methodology

The Manual on the economic accounts for Agriculture and Forestry EAA/EAF 97 (Rev.1.1) and the  Target methodology for agricultural labour input (ALI) statistics (Rev.1) were published in 2000.

Annex 1 of the EAA Regulation is an updated handbook/manual for the elaboration of the EAA accounts and agricultural labour input.

When differences between the original manuals and the Annex are found, pre-eminence should be given to the Annex.

The Member States have submitted inventories about sources and compilation methods used for the calculation of the EAA at national level.

The Manual, the Target Methodology (ALI) and the EAA Regulation 138/2004 can be found in the annexes.

11.2. Quality management - documentation

The inventories from the Member States contribute significantly to the documentation of quality. Dialog related to the inventories improves the quality of data as the descriptions can be compared to the common methodology.

Cross-checking analyses of data are discussed with the Member States at every annual working party. Examples on issues raised are available at CIRCABC (registration needed to enter into CircaBc).

12. Quality management Top
12.1. Quality assurance

The consistency of account data received are checked by routine.

The comparability with account data from previous year and/or delivery is checked and Member States are asked for clarifications if needed.

The quality of upload to databases are checked.

The figures used in News Releases and SIFs are checked before release.

Checks are carried out to ensure he concistency between national and regional EAA data.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

The overall quality of the EAA statistics is considered to be good. The concept is well consolidated in most countries.

The comparisons between development based on first estimates and on the final data for Indicator A, the accounts and labour input  input shows quite good reliability of the first estimates for most Member States in most years.

The development in labour input compared to previous year is monitored by comparing the figures in first estimates with final figures. Furthermore, the ALI-data is compared with labour input figures in the bi-annual Farm Structure Survey statistics

The comparability of data between countries can be improved. Discussions with the Member States are ongoing or planned for example on

- valuation of crop output (not all MS use the marketing year approach)

- valuation of forage, in particular intra-unit production and use

- valuation of Other Goods and Services.

13. Relevance Top
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

The main users are DG Agri and Agricultural Ministries as the main objective of the EAA is to provide data for monitoring and assessment of the Common Agricultural Policy.

Politicians, Associations of farmers, agricultural researchers, journalists within the field etc. are important users as well.

DG Agri is consulted about plans for changes and revisions. DG Agri has pre-access to data before publishing according to a Memorandum of Understanding.

Users may request EAA-data broken down by type of farming, type of management, etc. This request can not be met without further increasing the statistical burden, and most of the sources for EAA are not suitable for such break-downs. Furthermore, comparisons between farm types are a purpose of the Farm Accountancy Data Network statistics.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Feedback from users who had asked for data and/or explanations is positive.

The press coverage of News Releases, SIF etc indicates relevance of the information provided.

Regarding agricultural statistics in general; the user satisfaction is dealt within the Standing Committee on Agricultural Statistics. The EAA seem to satisfy the users needs quite good.

13.3. Completeness

EAA-account data at national level exists for all Member States plus Norway and Switzerland. Only data from Iceland is missing for countries where the regulation apply.

The data sets consist of more than a hundred information per country. For most countries the data-sets are quite complete, as the account is a comprehensive structure where no important element can be missing without severe consequences.

Gaps in the data are in most cases related to the completeness of specifications. The most serious gaps in the data are due to lack of information in constant prices regarding capital formation.

The data on labour input - only three items per country per year - is complete except Iceland.

Member States are currently informed about gaps and asked to improve the situation.

The regional Economic Agricultural Accounts data is less complete. Few countries are not yet submitting data while few other countries show gaps in the information.

14. Accuracy Top
14.1. Accuracy - overall

Due to the multi-source character of the EAA accounts, is not possible to provide an overall indicator. The labour input data are normally based on Farm Structure Survey, where the accuracy is high.

The differences for the main indicator from first estimates to final data are monitored and indicate in most cases (years, countries) high reliability of the first estimates.

The accuracy of regional EAA data is considered to be lower than for country level data as the regional data are break-downs of national data - for several items based on top-down approach.

14.2. Sampling error

Not possible to measure a figure in this context.

For most of the source statistics (Farm Structure Survey, crops statistics, milk statistics etc.) sampling errors are compiled.

14.3. Non-sampling error

There may be errors in most of the sources used for accounts and labour input for the countries. The errors can derive from

- problems to identify the sector coverage exactly

- limited information about the activities in the units below thresholds

- difficulties to measure the output and use of forage

- lack of prices for several product qualities

- difficulties to allocate output, subsidies etc according to the accrual principle 

15. Timeliness and punctuality Top
15.1. Timeliness

EAA-accounts data and agricultural labour input data:

First forecast: received in November of the reference year (N); published in December N.

Second forecast: received in January of N+1; published in March N+1

Final data: received in September of N+1 and published in October N+1

Unit value data are normally received at the same time as provisional account data. Revised and definitive data are received parallel with revised/definitive accounts data.

The situation regarding the timetable for the first revision and the definitive data is different from country to country.

Regional data

Regional data for year N is received in September N+2 and revisions received in September N+3.

15.2. Punctuality

The countries are in almost all cases submitting the data under regulation according to the deadlines. Delays of more than few days are rare.

Regarding the data under Gentelemen's agreement, the delays can be somewhat longer.

16. Comparability Top
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Due to the different sources, data will hardly become fully comparable across countries. However, for items depending on consolidated data sources (agricultural production statistics and price statistics) the comparability is considered to be high.

Regarding the harmonisation of the implementation of the methodology, there are still areas where the situation can be improved.

Furthermore, it can be difficult to compare meaningfully the net factor income between countries with high capital input and low labour input in agriculture with countries having the opposite profile.

The comparability of agricultural labour input is considered to be high. However, the number of working hours per Annual Work Unit can differ from country to country. Furthermore it can be difficult to measure the input related to small farms.

16.2. Comparability - over time

The comparability over time can be considered as good, in particular for old Member States. For newer Member States the compiling is better consolidated now than in the first years of data providing.

It should be noted that the significant changes in EU subsidy regimes have impact on the comparability over time as the recording of subsidies depend on the type.

The shift in subsidies also impacted the comparisons of unit value prices.

Regional data

Comparability of regional data over time will be affected by breaks in the NUTS classification. 

17. Coherence Top
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

The development in figures in the EAA is to a large extent coherent with the development in agricultural production statistics combined with the agricultural price statistics. The EAA validation includes comparison with these statistics.

The main indicators (output, intermediate consumption, GVA, etc) in EAA are with respect to different sector definitions comparable with National Accounts figures for the agricultural sector (NACE 01). Major deviations are communicated to the Member States for investigation.

Results in the EAA are compared with results in the Farm Accountancy Data Network (micro-economic statistics) within the limitations of this comparability.

The differences for the main indicators (Factor Income, Labour Input and Factor income per labour input (Indicator A)) between first estimates and final data are monitored currently.

The unit values can to some extent be compared with absolute prices. However, the unit values show prices for average quality for the year, while absolute prices follow a specific defined quality.

17.2. Coherence - internal

The EAA data set can from an overall perspective be considered as consistent and the indicators for development provide reliable statistical results.

However, there is still room to improve the level of harmonisation.

18. Cost and Burden Top

The response burden related to data collection for EAA is low, as the EAA are mainly compiled by using other statistics plus administrative information.

19. Data revision Top
19.1. Data revision - policy

From the point of view of a new set of data which is received from a country, calculations are made to obtain the new set of accounts.

From the point of view of the timetable for disseminating the data, ALI and EAA timetables are identical:

  • First forecast: received in November of the reference year (N); published in December N.
  • Second forecast: received in January of N+1; published in March N+1
  • Final data: received in September of N+1 and published in October N+1
19.2. Data revision - practice

The EAA are under a process of continuous revision which depends on the data available in each country. Changes in methodology may intervene as a result of implementing EC Regulations published in the Official Journal. Substantial changes in the methodology are also subject of comments together with the first release of data affected by such changes.

Revisions of data considered as final according to 19.1 can happen as an outcome of initiatives to improve the comparability. 

20. Statistical processing Top
20.1. Source data

Main sources for the EAA are agricultural statistics plus administrative information. 

The evaluation of crop output can normally be based on resources, i.e. the estimate of quantities produced (harvested) based on estimates of areas under crops and yields, or on uses, i.e. on estimates of purchases by the user branches of agricultural products, exports net of imports, to which should be added certain quantities used for intermediate consumption by the agricultural industry, changes in producer stocks and use for own account (much of which is own final consumption). The latter approach can be proved highly appropriate in cases where the buyers of these agricultural products are readily identifiable and the four other components of uses are limited (for example, products requiring preliminary processing before they can be used, such as sugar beet, tobacco, etc.). Nevertheless, a physical balance sheet is necessary in order to verify the consistency and reliability of the data.

Statistics on slaughterings, exports/imports of live animals and the size of herds are the main sources of data for measuring the output of animals. The output of animal products (mainly milk) is generally estimated using sales to user branches (dairies, packers) because of the specific uses to which they are put.

Agricultural Price Statistics is a main source for the valuation of the output as well as the intermediate consumption. Prices and price indices are also an important source for compiling values in constant prices.

Most intermediate goods can basically only be used in agriculture (seeds and planting stock, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). In this case purchases by agriculture are based on the data relating to sales by branches which supply these intermediate goods (after inclusion of external trade).

The Farm Structure Survey is normally the main source for agricultural labour input data. In years when this EU Farm Structure Survey is not carried out, there is often some part of the structure survey on agricultural holdings carried out for national purposes (for example, often specific to labour). In some Member States these are sample surveys, in others exhaustive surveys. The scope and the substance of these (national) surveys are (partly) the same as for the EU Farm Structure Survey.

The Farm Accountancy Data Network can contribute to valuate the intermediate consumption and the elements in the income account.

Administrative information on, for example, subsidies and taxes is also an important source.

Expert estimates are also used in some cases - often for adjusting to correct sector coverage.

Unit value only build upon existing data.

Regional data

It is different from country to country if specific data collection is organised for compiling the regional EAA or if the regional EAA only is a break down from the national one. 

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Data collection specifically for EAA is implemented annually.

Data collection related to other domains is defined by the specific regulations/decisions. 

20.3. Data collection

Data is collected in line with Eurostat policies and procedures via eDAMIS using webforms or Excel files.

20.4. Data validation

EAA incoming data is validated according to logical data rules including mandatory data items, incorrect data formats and data out of range. For ALI and UV, data is validated according to the rules built into the electronic form templates.

20.5. Data compilation

The countries compile EAA accounts data (national level) in current prices and in constant prices (last year prices for the product).
Data in constant prices n = 2005 are compiled based on account data in current and constant prices (n-1).
Data are compiled into real values (2005 and n-1 values using general GDP-deflators)
The indicators A, B and C are compiled using data in real values and labour input data.
Indices for volumes, prices and values, nominal and real, are compiled based on current values,  constant price values and real values.

Aggregation: EU aggregates for EAA are constructed by Eurostat by adding up the national EAA after applying, if necessary, the annual exchange rate. The EU aggregates for labour input is constructed by adding up the absolute annual work units. Due to the nature of unit values, there is no aggregation.

Regional data 

Regional data are received in current prices only and are not further compiled except converting into euro for countries using other currencies.

20.6. Adjustment

No adjustments are applied. 

21. Comment Top

Not defined.

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top