Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion

Practices by name

A

  1. List item

    1. A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)

    United Kingdom, 2001 - still operating

    A Stop Smoking in School Trial (ASSIST) is an intervention aimed at spreading and sustaining non-smoking behaviours through school social networks that targets children in grade 8 (12-13 years old). ASSIST was first pilot tested in 1996 in six schools in South Wales. Early Adopters started rolling out the programme in 2007 and in 2010, DECIPHer Impact Ltd, a non-profit spinout company was set up by the University of Bristol and Cardiff University to distribute ASSIST more widely. It is currently being implemented in 27 Local Authority areas across the United Kingdom including the whole of Wales, England and the Channel Islands. Scotland has recently announced that they are going to be setting up a pilot of ASSIST starting in 2014.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  2. List item

    2. Adaptive Word Retrieval Programme

    Netherlands, Unknown - Unknown

    The Adaptive Word Retrieval programme is a school based study that aims to enhance children’s vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. The programme builds on previous research findings suggesting that active retrieval might help with the consolidation of words from episodic (based on experiences) to semantic (language) memory by translating context-specific information to people’s existing knowledge. Children that were assigned to the experimental condition received extra word retrieval activities such as semantic feedback for words the children did not learn during the classroom vocabulary programme. The study was implemented in the Netherlands across different regions with wide range of economic backgrounds. Study findings indicate that children participating in the programme have higher growth in knowledge of target words.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  3. List item

    3. AKTION GLASKLAR

    Germany, 2006 - still operating

    Aktion Glasklar is an intervention program to combat youth drinking in Germany. It was first implemented in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in early 2006 and has since been continued under the leadership of Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) all throughout Germany. The focus of the program is to interact with students and to actively deter them from consuming alcohol at a young age.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  4. List item

    4. Aprender em Parceria (A PAR)

    Portugal, 2007 - still operating

    The Aprender em Parceria (A PAR) Programme is an early childhood intervention and parenting support programme (complementing crèche or nursery education). A PAR uses parents as a starting point to develop and recognise their own skills and potential, so as to contribute to the process of adult empowerment.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  5. B

  6. List item

    5. Bright Start

    Belgium, United Kingdom, Finland, Switzerland, Germany, France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, 1993 - still operating

    Bright Start is a programme for cognitive education for children aged 3-6 years old, especially those at high risk of school failure based on social circumstances such as ethnic minority, inner city residence, and low socio-economic status (SES) group. The programme supplements traditional preschool and kindergarten curricula.  The curriculum is designed to promote a set of cognitive functions including self-regulation in response to instructions, comparison, verbal labelling, precision and accuracy in data-gathering, systematic exploratory behaviour, and spatial referents (such as ‘left’ and ‘right’) through eight units of 20-25 small-group lessons each on the topics of self-regulation, number concepts, comparison, role-taking, classification, patterns and sequences, letter-shape concepts, and (recently added) transformation (Brooks & Haywood, 2003; Paour & Cèbe, 2000).

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  7. C

  8. List item

    6. Catch Up® Literacy

    United Kingdom, 2000 - still operating

    Catch Up®  Literacy is a UK-based, structured, book-based, one-to-one literacy intervention for learners in aged 6 to 14 who experience reading difficulties. Its main objective is to improve word recognition and language comprehension skills for children who have been struggling to learn to read. The intervention is based on providing children who are facing reading challenges with one-to-one (individual support) 15-minute sessions twice a week.

    The Catch Up Literacy intervention is divided into four stages. In the first stage, assessments for learning are conducted in order to identify the focus for intervention and thus target it to the needs of the individual child. In the second stage, a book with the appropriate level of difficulty is chosen; the choice is informed by the outcomes of the assessment conducted in stage one.  In the third stage, the child attends two 15-minute individual sessions per week, during which the child reads the chosen book and then undertakes a related writing activity which addresses one of he identified miscues. Finally, in the fourth stage, the child’s progress is continuously monitored to ensure that the intervention keeps on fulfilling the child’s changing needs.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  9. List item

    7. Catch Up® Numeracy

    United Kingdom, 2007 - still operating

    Catch Up® Numeracy is a fairly non-intensive intervention (consisting of two 15-minute sessions delivered twice a week by classroom assistants who have undergone three half-days training sessions). The intervention is designed to address relatively mild persistent numeracy difficulties; in different words, the intervention is intended for children who already have some knowledge and understanding of numbers but are below the attainment level expected of their age cohort. The intervention was launched in 2007 by the not-for-profit UK charity, Catch Up®, and since then it has been implemented in over 47 local authorities across England and Wales.

    The intervention largely builds upon the Numeracy Recovery research while also combining some elements from the Catch Up® Literacy intervention. Namely, from the former, the intervention designers have adopted a simplified version of the componential view of arithmetic - which assumes that mathematical development involves potentially independent and separately developing skills and processes; thus, the intervention divides arithmetical ability into various components, which children are assessed against, and then tailors intervention according to the outcomes of the assessment - while the structure of the intervention has been based on the latter. Similarly to Catch Up Literacy,
    Catch Up Numeracy consists of four stages and is delivered through three-part 15-minute individual sessions taking place twice a week. It also has the same levels of attainment.

    The children’s progress throughout the intervention is scaffolded on two dimensions:  individual components of numeracy and the levels of attainment.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  10. List item

    8. Classroom-based cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent anxiety (FRIENDS programme)

    United Kingdom, 2011 - Still operating

    The FRIENDS protocol is designed to be delivered in both clinical and educational settings by teachers, psychologists, and allied health professionals. The programme is a manualised cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention. It is based on the principles of CBT and aims to help children develop skills to counter the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of anxiety. It seeks to teach children to develop emotional awareness and regulation skills, identify and replace cognitions that increase anxiety with more balanced and functional ways of thinking, and to develop problem-solving skills to confront and cope with situations and events that provoke anxiety.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  11. List item

    9. Comet / Komet

    Sweden, 2003 - still operating

    Comet (COMmunication METhod; Komet in Swedish) is a standardized programme designed for parents of children age 3-11 whose children display negative behaviours, such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD), or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comet combines components from other evidence based parent-training practices for oppositional defiance (Barkley, R., 1997; Webster-Stratton, 1996; and Bloomquist and Schnell, 2002). The programme is delivered in eleven weekly 2.5 hour sessions and one follow-up session, each facilitated by two trained group leaders. In Kling, et al., 2010, there were between 3 and 10 parents participating in each group. The sessions include instruction from the facilitators, short video segments showing parent-child interactions, role-playing, and assignment of homework to practice specific concepts with their child for the next week.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  12. List item

    10. Community Mothers

    Ireland, 1989 - still operating

    The Community Mothers’ Programme was first started in 1988 in Dublin by the Health Service Executive, a public organisation responsible for the provision of healthcare and personal social services for everyone living in Ireland.

    The programme targets first-time parents living in disadvantaged areas and is aimed at providing support and encouragement to first-time parents through home visits from “community mothers”.

    It focuses on promoting parent capacity and parent empowerment, specifically by developing of parenting skills and enhancing parents’ self-esteem. Some of the methods used include the promotion of parents’ potential through a behavioural approach in which parents are encouraged to stimulate, breast-feed, and praise their children, as well as ensure their safety. The Community Mothers Programme also uses illustrated sequences to trigger discussions on healthy and developmentally appropriate means of coping with various child-rearing challenges.

    Community mothers are volunteers who were first identified by local public health nurses. They are then interviewed by a regional family development nurse to assess their suitability. After being identified as suitable candidates, community mothers undergo four weeks of training before starting to work under the guidance of a family development nurse. This training focuses on health care, nutritional improvement and overall child development. The work of community mothers consists in monitoring between five and fifteen families during monthly home visits during the first year of the child’s life (Johnson, Z., Howell, F., and Molloy, B., 1993).

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  13. List item

    11. Connect

    Sweden, 2004 - still operating

    Connect (Moretti, Holland, Moore, & McKay, 2004) is a manual-based education programme for parents and alternate caregivers of pre-teens (ages 8 – 12) and teens (ages 13 – 17) with mental health issues and significant behaviour problems. Connect aims to improve caregivers’ ability to interpret the unique meaning of problematic and disruptive behaviours, within the context of the parent-child relationship.

    Connect has been implemented in over 40 communities in British Columbia and throughout other communities in Canada and Sweden. The Connect Parent Group manual has been translated into Swedish and a French manual will be released in the near future.  Information about the programme and trainings is available on the programme website: http://connectparentgroup.org/.  Trainings are available in Canada.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  14. List item

    12. Curriculum-based Anti-bullying Programme

    Greece, 2003 - Still operating

    The practice described here is an anti-bullying intervention based on a set of curricular activities embedded within the wider curriculum. The curriculum is well planned with 3 axes: awareness raising; self-reflection and the all-important commitment to new behaviours. The intervention project was developed in response to the problem of bullying at schools. The main aims of the programme were to i) decrease overall bullying and victimization ii) enhance the number of children helping the victims in bullying (defenders) and reduce the number of children who remain separate from the bullying situation (outsiders) and iii) to enhance students’ self-efficacy beliefs for intervening and iv) to promote positive interactions with peers. The programme was implemented in 13 different classrooms from fourth- to sixth-grade across 10 primary schools in Greece. The core of the programme consisted of eight instructional hours implemented over a one-month period. The practice was developed by the researchers and it was implemented by school teachers who received specific after-school training from the researchers. All teachers who were willing to participate received the training. The training was delivered with the expectation to engage teachers in the programme and raise their knowledge about implementing particular anti-bullying curricular activities. There are no available materials that document the teacher training, the eight curricular activities, and the programme implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was not evaluated. The programme was implemented in the school year 2003-04. There is no information on whether the intervention or something similar was implemented again.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  15. D

  16. List item

    13. Disordered Eating Prevention Programme

    Spain, 2012  - 2014

    This programme was implemented in 13 publicly funded schools in Terrassa, a city in the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for students aged 13. The programme consisted of one 90 minute ML session discussing media literacy, critical thinking about the feminine Aesthetic-Beauty Model of extreme thinness, and awareness of historical, cross-cultural and media conceptions of beauty. Some classes also participated in a 90 minute NUT session discussing nutrition and balanced eating. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  17. E

  18. List item

    14. Early home-based intervention for children at familial risk of dyslexia

    Netherlands, 1997 - still operating

    The intervention attempts to reduce familial risk of dyslexia (severe reading disability that cannot be explained by factors such as intelligence, insufficient schooling, or sensory deficits) for 5 and 6 years old children through home-based intervention consisting of 10-minute sessions 5 days a week for 14 weeks focusing on phoneme awareness and letter knowledge in the year prior to formal reading instruction. The earlier studies (Hallgren 1950) estimated that the probability that a child, with one dyslectic parent, will become dyslectic can be as high as 41%; the intervention is therefore aimed specifically at children at higher familiar risk of reading disability. The intervention was a translation and adaptation of a Danish school-based kindergarten phoneme awareness and letter programme, ‘Towards initial reading: Phonological awareness’ (Borstrøm & Petersen, 1996) with several additions such as use of mirror and writing exercises.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  19. List item

    15. Early years

    United Kingdom, 1999  - 2000

    The Early Years program is an integrated daycare facility that delivers flexible daycare services for children younger than 5 years of age, the age at which they can enroll in school. The intervention aimed to facilitate an increase in family earnings by supporting child daycare services for families. The program did not have a set curriculum, but emphasized the incorporation of qualified teachers and a formal education component into the services.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  20. List item

    16. Education Maintenance Allowance

    United Kingdom, 1999 - still operating

    The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) is a means-tested conditional cash transfer programme which pays a cash benefit to each student in families with annual incomes of £30,000 or below who remain in school beyond age 16. The programme is intended to encourage participation in full-time education.  

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  21. List item

    17. European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap)

    Belgium, Greece, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, 2003 - still operating

    The European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap) is an experimental evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention programme conducted in seven EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Sweden).

    The programme, Unplugged, uses a comprehensive social-influence approach to reduce use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among 12-14 year old students. In the literature, this approach has been repeatedly shown to “reduce onset of use or significantly reduce cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana consumption” among young people (Sussman 2004). Specifically, the Unplugged programme consists of 12 one-hour units taught by classroom teachers who have previously received a 2.5 day training course on the programme material.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  22. F

  23. List item

    18. FearNot!: a computer based anti-bulling programme designed to foster peer intervention

    United Kingdom, Germany, 2007 - Unknown

    The practice FearNot! is a virtual learning anti-bullying intervention. The main aim of the practice is to help victims escape victimization, reduce overall bullying by reducing the number of bullies and at the same time increase the number of new defenders.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  24. List item

    19. Functional Family Therapy

    Belgium, Ireland, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, 2007 - still operating

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based treatment based on recognition of risk and protective factors involved in the development of conduct problems by children and teenagers. It was founded in the 1970s by James F. Alexander and other researchers at the University of Utah, U.S. FFT is a relatively inexpensive three-phased approach drawing on a multisystemic perspective, starting with engagement and motivation phase aimed at enhancing the perception that change is possible, followed by behaviour change phase improving communication within family and parent behaviour, and concluding by generalisation phase, in which the family learns to utilise the new skills in other situations. The effectiveness of FFT is fairly well established in the U.S. where the treatment led to reduction in typical recidivism rates by 20-30 percent compared to control groups.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


G

  • List item

    20. Gesunde Kitas – starke Kinder

    Germany, 2008 - still operating

    The gesunde KITAs – starke Kinder, or Healthy Nursery Centers - Strong Children program’s goal is to fight the childhood obesity epidemic in Germany by prevention, particularly among pre-school children. In order to do so, the programme teaches children a mix of balanced nutrition, movement, and relaxation, and also fosters an ongoing health dialogue with parents. As opposed to previous anti-obesity programmes, Healthy Nurseries puts a strong emphasis on ex-ante prevention and teaching of a healthy way of living, by connecting and integrating the four project components outlined above. After an initial introductory phase of 12-15 months, the components become part of the center’s daily routine. Final implementation is at the discretion of the programme staff at a particular site.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • H

  • List item

    21. Home-Start

    Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Norway, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Czech Republic, France, Denmark, Malta, Greece, Romania, Poland, Latvia, 1973 - still operating

    The Home-Start program is a home visiting intervention in which volunteers with child care experience give support to struggling families with children younger than five years of age. Home-Start targets families and mothers with little experience or social support network, who may have minor but not serious physical or mental health issues. Entry and exit to the Home-Start programme is entirely voluntary and all visits are at the convenience of participating families. It aims to reduce the stress of parenting and encourage families, especially families at risk for child abuse and neglect, so that a nurturing environment for their children may be created.

    Evidence level:  Best Practice


  • I

  • List item

    22. Incredible Years

    Ireland, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Portugal, 2001 - still operating

    The Incredible Years Preschool Basic parent programme consists of eight to twelve weeks of 2-2.5 hour parenting sessions designed to teach parents how to recognise and treat their child’s emotional and behavioural problems through positive parenting. This programme can be used for parents of preschool children who already have or are at-risk to develop conduct problems (including antisocial behaviour, frequent anger, and a propensity towards violence).

    Evidence level:  Best Practice


  • K

  • List item

    23. Kiva Antibullying Programme

    Finland, 2007 - still operating

    The KiVa programme is a school-wide approach to decreasing the incidence and negative effects of bullying on student well-being at school.  The programme’s impact is measured through self and peer-rated reports of bullying, victimization, defending victims, feeling empathy towards victims, bystanders reinforcing bullying behaviour, anxiety, self-esteem, depression, liking school, and academic motivation and performance, among other factors.  The programme is based on the idea that how peer bystanders behave when witnessing bullying plays a critical role in perpetuating or ending the incident.  As a result, the intervention is designed to modify peer attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of bullying.  The programme specifically encourages students to support victimised peers rather than embolden bullying behaviour and, furthermore, provides teachers and parents with information about how to prevent and address the incidence of bullying.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • L

  • List item

    24. Lifestart Parental Programme

    Ireland, United Kingdom, 2008 - still operating

    Lifestart is a structured child-centred programme of information and practical activity for parents of children aged from birth to five years of age, conceived by the Lifestart Foundation. It is delivered to parents in their own homes by trained, paid Family Visitors and it is offered to parents regardless of social, economic or other circumstances.  

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • N

  • List item

    25. New forest parenting programme

    United Kingdom, 1995 - still operating

    The New Forest Parenting Programme offers training for parents of children under the age of 3 exhibiting ADHD symptoms. The programme consists of 8 weekly two-hour, one-on-one in-home training sessions for parents to learn about ADHD and how to manage their child’s behaviour. Half of the sessions are for the parent and child together and the rest are for the parent alone.  The programme was originally developed and implemented in Southampton, United Kingdom.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    26. Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Programme

    Belgium, Sweden, United Kingdom, Netherlands, 1980 - still operating

    The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Programme (NIDCAP) offers an individualized and nurturing approach to the care of infants in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and special care nurseries (SCN). It is a relationship-based, family-centered approach that promotes the idea that infants and their families are collaborators in developing an individualized program of support to maximize physical, mental, and emotional growth and health and to improve long-term outcomes for preterm and high medical risk newborns.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    27. North Karelia Youth Project

    Finland, 1978 - still operating

    The North Karelia Youth Project offered a community and school-based educational intervention for seventh graders (students aged 13) to decrease the social desirability of smoking and coach them to resist peer, adult, and media pressure to smoke. The goal of the programme was to decrease the number of children who would start smoking for the first time and reduce all the lifetime exposure to tobacco for all children in the programme area. Two versions of the intervention were each implemented at an urban and a rural school in North Karelia County in Finland.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    28. Nuffield Early Language Intervention

    United Kingdom, 2004 - Still operating

    The Nuffield Early Language Intervention (NELI) is an intensive language support programme delivered by teaching assistants and designed to improve the spoken language ability of young children with relatively poor spoken language skills. The sessions focus on improving children’s vocabulary, listening, narrative skills and phonological awareness.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • O

  • List item

    29. Online parenting support: Positive parents (Educar en positivo)

    Spain, Unknown - Still operating

    The ‘Positive parents’ platform is an online parenting programme that seeks to help parents improve their parenting skills and their relationship with their children. This practice has been implemented and evaluated in Spain.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    30. Oral Health Education Programme

    United Kingdom, 1995  - 1999

    The oral health education programme attempted to reduce caries incidence in infants through better diet and oral hygiene. The mothers were given an interview and counselling for at least 15 minutes at home every 3 months for the first 2 years and twice a year in the third year. This education was given through home visits, commencing at or soon after the time of the eruption of the first deciduous teeth. The focus on diet and oral hygiene varied among treatment groups and the advices mainly consisted of suggesting substituting bottle with feeder cup, brushing child’s teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, and visiting a dentist regularly. The evaluation took place in the UK from 1995 to 1999 on the sample of 228 mothers with children born between 1st January and 30th September 1995 from low socio-economic/high caries suburbs of Leeds.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    31. Oral Health Outreach

    Sweden, 2012 - still operating

    This programme consisted of an invitation for 2-5 year old children and their parents to visit an outreach facility in a local shopping area for individualised dietary advice and oral health maintenance instructions, including tooth brushing. Parents were instructed to brush their child’s teeth with fluoridated toothpaste twice daily. The programme operated as a supplement to the local public dental service, so that children received normal preventative and restorative measures according to their individual needs. In Sweden, all normal dental care for children younger than 19 is free from the Public Dental Service. This oral health outreach programme operated originally in the low socioeconomic, multicultural suburban area of Rosengård in Malmö, Sweden where the water had low fluoride content, between 2000 and 2004. It continues to operate in the Rosengård area and three other districts of Malmö as well as several other towns in Sweden.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    32. Outcomes of parental leave policy changes in Austria

    Austria, 1990 - present

    Three changes in parental leave relating to the length of leave and the length of time to which parents were entitled to benefits were implemented in Austria in 1990, 1996 and 2000. The first policy change, implemented on July 1, 1990, extended the maximum duration of both cash benefits and job protection from the child’s first to the child’s second birthday. The second policy change, implemented on July 1, 1996, reduced the maximum duration of cash benefits to the date when the child turns 18 months old, keeping job protection unchanged. The third policy change, implemented on July 1, 2000, increased the maximum duration of cash benefits to the date when the child turns 30 months old, again keeping job protection unchanged.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    33. Outcomes of the 2006-2007 parental leave policy change in Germany

    Germany, 2007 - still operating

    This study investigates how a 2007 change in parental leave policy in Germany has affected return- to-work and labour market outcomes of mothers of new-born children. In January 2007 the German parental leave benefit system changed from being means tested to earnings-tested. In practice this meant that before the reform families received a means tested transfer of 300 euro/month for a maximum of 24 months; after the reform this amount depended on the earnings of the parent prior to birth, and was paid of a maximum of 12 to 14 months. The study described here investigates the outcome of this change by comparing 993 families who fell under the new system because their child was born in the first quarter of 2007, with 851 families who did not fall under the new system because their child was born in the last quarter of 2006. All families were selected from of a random 1% sample of the population living in Germany (the German Microsensus). The two groups were compared on the employment status of the mothers in the first and second year after birth. An additional analysis estimated what the effect would have been if additional child care for very young children would have been available at low costs.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • P

  • List item

    34. Parent Early Education Partnership

    Ireland, United Kingdom, 1995 - still operating

    The “Foundation” Parents Early Education Partnership (PEEP) programme (also called the Peers Early Education Partnership) is intended to boost the numeracy, literacy, pro-social behaviour and self-esteem of disadvantaged children for ages 3-4. The larger PEEP programme is designed for children from infancy to 5 years, including separate curricula for different ages. It consists of a series of curricula for different ages.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    35. Parenting Skills Program (PSP)

    Spain, 2011 - Still operating

    PSP is a group-based parenting programme that aims to improve parenting skills and parent social support, reduce parenting stress and children’s problem behaviours. To achieve this, the programme provides parents with support to develop assertive communication and conflict resolution skills, strengthen empathy, emotional self-regulation and parental confidence, and improve parents’ understanding of child development and child behaviour management.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    36. Parenting UR Teen

    United Kingdom, 2010 - 2012

    'Parenting UR Teen' is a group-based parenting programme that aims to enhance family relationships, parental wellbeing and teen social functioning by promoting authoritative parenting style. The programme built on previous research findings suggesting that authoritative parenting practices, such as use of firm control and rational discipline, are associated with a number of positive outcomes: for example, better school performance, less delinquent behavior and enhanced emotional and social competence. The programme was delivered in eight weeks and incorporated weekly sessions on various topics including: parenting styles, teen development, self-esteem, conflict, problem solving. Evidence on the effectiveness of the 'Parenting UR Teen’ programme comes from one randomised controlled study that was run in Northern Ireland with 145 parents from a wide range of economic backgrounds. The evaluation results indicate that the programme is beneficial for parents in terms of improved overall well-being and that it also had positive impact on their child’s behavior and their family functioning as a whole.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    37. Parents Plus - Parenting when Separated Programme

    Ireland, 2015 - still operating

    The Parents Plus – Parenting when Separated Programme (PP-PWS) aims to help separated and divorced parents solve co-parenting problems, better communicate with their co-parent and children, and develop techniques to manage the stress and emotional impact of separation on parents and children. The programme targets separated parents in Ireland, including both mothers and fathers and both custodial and noncustodial parents. 

    PP-PWS is part of a suite of programs designed by Parents Plus, a registered charity in Dublin, Ireland.  Since 1998, Parents Plus has been developing parenting and mental health courses grounded in developmental psychology.  To design the PP-PWS programme, the programme authors conducted focus groups with separated parents, reviewed research on the effects of divorce on children and adults, and consulted curricula from effective psychoeducational skills-training programs and material from other Parents Plus programmes.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    38. Parents Plus Children’s Programme

    Ireland, 2003 - still operating

    The Parents Plus Children’s Programme (PPCP) is an 8-week course for parents of 6 to 11 year old children with behavioural problems.  The course consists of eight, two-hour group meetings with a group of parents and 2 facilitators.  The group meetings consist of watching a set of videos of parent-child interactions, discussions, practice exercises, role-plays, homework and hand-outs.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    39. Parents Plus Early Years Programme

    Ireland, 2003 - still operating

    The Parents Plus Early Years Programme (PPEY) is a 12-week parenting course for parents of 1 to 6 year old children, especially designed for parents to learn to manage their child’s behavioural problems or mild developmental disabilities. The course consists of seven, two-hour group meetings with 8-12 parents and 1-2 facilitators, and five individual sessions with parents, child and a therapist. 

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    40. Parents under Pressure (PuP)

    United Kingdom, 2012 - Still operating

    Parents under Pressure (PuP) is a programme for parents who face multiple adversities, including dependence on psychoactive drugs or alcohol. PuP contains 12 modules delivered over 20 weeks, including one-to-one sessions with the PUP therapist at family’s home and additional support, e.g., housing or legal advice, based on family needs. PuP aims to develop a safe and nurturing relationship between child and caregiver and thus reduce likelihood of child abuse.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    41. Parents' Briefcase

    France, 2008 - still operating

    La Mallette des parents' [the parents' briefcase] is an ongoing project that aims to involve parents more in their children's education in around 80 schools in France. It is run by the Academie de Creteil, which comes under the direct authority of the France's Ministry for Education. The programme was set up to improve relations between parents and teachers and to help parents understand more about how their child is taught so that they can contribute to their child's success at school.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    42. Prevention of Smoking in adolescents with Lower Education

    Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

    This intervention was based on peer group pressure and social influence to prevent smoking.  The intervention is similar to the Smokefree Class Competition programme implemented across 22 European countries. The authors added some lessons on attitude and social influence. The Dutch National Institute against Smoking (Stivoro) and The Dutch National Institute on mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute) developed and conducted the intervention together with the schools. Stivoro looked at the adherence of schools to the intervention protocol, and collected the registration forms and other documents.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    43. Pro Children Intervention

    Netherlands, Spain, Norway, 2003  - 2005

    Pro Children intervention combined fruit and vegetable (FV) curriculum with efforts to improve FV availability at schools and at home. The intervention consisted of a classroom component including a set of sixteen worksheets with guided activities and a web-based computer-tailored feedback tools; school component including provision of fruit and vegetables either for free, by means of a subscription programme, or as part of school meals; family component encouraging parents to be involved through their children’s homework assignments, parental newsletters, and a parent version of the web-based tool; and optional component aiming to encourage community participation in the Pro Children project, e.g. raising awareness through local media.

    The intervention was a part of a broader programme consisting of eight major work packages funded under the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission (more information available at http://www.prochildren.org/). The aim of the programme was to increase fruit and vegetable intake as a result of previously empirically proven positive effect of FV intake on health. The intervention was implemented in the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain and aimed at fifth and sixth graders, aged 10-13 years in 2003-2005.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    44. Programa Juego

    Spain, 1992 - still operating

    Programa Juego (Play Programme) for preschool children is a cooperative-creative play programme designed to support creative thinking in children 4 to 6 years old.  The programme consists of a once-weekly 75-minute play session which is directed by the children’s regular teacher. During the session, the teacher promotes creative thinking, cooperation among children, and the importance of experimentation. The 24-session programme is manualised with defined games, instructions for the teacher, and suggested questions to promote debate after the games conclude. There are a total of four Play programmes, additionally including the Play programme for children 6-8 years, 8-10 years, and 10-12 years, however only the preschool programme is described here. The programme has been in operation since 1992 in various regions of Spain.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    45. Promoting Parental Leave

    Sweden, 2002 - still operating

    Sweden has implemented several reforms to their parental leave policy, with the aim of increasing the sharing of parental leave among mothers and fathers. Since 1974, Swedish parents have been able to take up to six months of paid leave after the birth of a child under the country’s parental leave insurance. The pay was equivalent to 90-percent of the parent’s earnings or was set at a flat rate if the parent had no prior earnings. Initially, parents could share this leave time as they preferred (i.e., one parent could take six months leave, both parents could take three months leave, or some other combination adding up to six months). By the 1990s, the allotted time had been extended to twelve months paid leave based on earnings and an additional three months paid at a flat rate. From the mid-nineties through 2008, Sweden enacted several additional reforms to parental leave insurance aimed at encouraging more gender equality in leave time among fathers and mothers. In 1995, one month of leave was reserved for each parent (i.e., if a given parent chose not to use his or her month of leave, that month was forfeited and the other parent could take only eleven months of leave). In 2002, this reserved leave was extended to two months per parent. Also in 2002, however, the full amount of leave time was increased to sixteen months (thirteen months at the earnings-related rate plus three months at a flat rate). This implied that although an additional month was reserved for each parent, the other parent could still take up to fourteen months of leave (Duvander and Johansson, 2010).

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • R

  • List item

    46. Raising the Achievement of Bilingual Learners in Primary Schools

    United Kingdom, 2004 - Still operating

    The practice was implemented in primary schools across the UK and consists in embedding and strengthening well-established English as Additional Language (EAL) pedagogy with the aim of raising achievement of bilingual learners, and increasing teacher confidence in meeting the needs of bilingual pupils. The practice consists of a wide range of teaching approaches that can be tailored to the needs of the school or teacher. It is not a new practice, although it is innovative in emphasising certain existing elements of EAL practice which are not common, such as enabling children to use their first language to learn.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    47. Risk Watch

    United Kingdom, 2012 - still operating

    Risk Watch is an injury prevention and safety education programme aimed at children ages three to 14 (the evaluation which studied the effects of the programme assessed the impact of the programme on children between the ages of 7 and 10 only). Developed by the National Fire Protection Association in the USA and adapted for use in the UK, the programme aims to develop children’s risk-assessment and injury-reduction skills. The curriculum varies by age based on developmental stages as well as the risks faced by different age groups. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • S

  • List item

    48. School-based Alcohol Education Programme

    Germany, 2006 -

    The school-based alcohol education was designed to change knowledge, attitudes and intentions toward underage alcohol use and abuse in middle school students. The programme was implemented in seventh grade classes of students between 12 and 15 years old at 16 secondary schools near Hamburg in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany in 2006. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    49. School-based intervention for obesity prevention: the children study

    Greece, 2004 - 2006

    The programme builds on prior findings that school-based prevention against obesity using awareness raising can lead to significant reduction in obesity through better self-discipline in the long-run. At the same time, the study acknowledges that understanding the social and environmental factors that influence children’s behaviour is important.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    50. School-based massage and mental training programme

    Sweden, 2003  - 2004

    This intervention was developed to maintain wellbeing amongst school pupils aged 12-15 in two Swedish secondary schools. The intervention introduced a weekly lesson into the school curriculum to focus on various activities designed to prevent stress and maintain well-being at school. The programme comprised both theoretical components which discussed techniques for massage, mental relaxation and general stress reduction, and practical stress reduction exercises. The practical exercises included a ‘mate-to-mate’ massage exercise, in which pupils delivered massages to one another; basic mental training, in which pupils were guided through a series of muscle relaxation exercises; and autogenic training, in which visualisation techniques were used to lead pupils through muscle tensing-relaxing states.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    51. School-Comet

    Sweden, 2005 - still operating

    School-Comet (COMmunication METhod; Skol-Komet in Swedish) for teachers is a standardized behaviour management training programme to help manage individual students with externalizing behaviours and general classroom behaviour management (Forster & Karlberg, 2005).  School-Comet is based on the principles of behaviour management strategies (BM), including functional behavioural assessment (FBA) which is a set of procedures developed to ascertain the reasons behind problem behaviours. School-Comet is designed for teachers of elementary school levels whose students display negative behaviours.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    52. Screening for language delay in toddlers

    Netherlands, 1995  - 1996

    This National Department of Health screening program in the Netherlands applied a diagnostic questionnaire (the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument; VTO) for language delays to parents and their toddlers aged 15-18 months and again at 24 months. Children with positive screening indications were sent to speech and hearing centres for further assessment. The speech and hearing centres then referred children to standard early treatment services as necessary. 55 child health centres in six geographic regions participated. The child health centres provide free services from the Department of Health and are available to all Dutch children.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    53. Second Step Violence Prevention Programme

    Norway, 1992 - 2011

    "Second Step: A Violence Prevention Programme" is a classroom-based social skills curriculum for students from preschool through middle school. The curriculum aims to reduce impulsive and aggressive behaviours and increase protective factors and social-emotional competence. Organised by grade level, the programme teaches children empathy, problem-solving skills, risk assessment, decision-making, and goal-setting skills. The Second Step programme is classified as a universal intervention, meaning that it is appropriate for whole classrooms of children and not just those at risk. In Norway, this programme has been translated and implemented as Steg for Steg.

    Second Step lessons are organised into three skill-building units that focus on empathy, impulse control and problem solving, and anger management. Lessons are sequential, developmentally appropriate, and provide opportunities for modeling, practice, and skills reinforcement. The lessons are designed to be taught in the classroom setting twice a week (Holsen et al., 2008).

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    54. Smoke-free public places

    United Kingdom, 2005 - still operating

    In March of 2006, Scotland introduced legislation that prohibited smoking in most enclosed public places. Enclosed public places are those that are more than 50% covered, including for example bars, restaurants, offices and sports stadiums. Businesses covered by the smoking ban were required to have a smoke-free policy and to display a non-smoking sign at the building’s entrance. The effects of this ban on smoking in public places on schildren’s secondhand smoke expoure were evaluated in two longitudinal studies. Study authors examined whether children’s secondhand smoke exposure decreased subsequent to the legislation. They also examined whether the ban was associated with a displacement of smoking from public places into the home, an effect which would have deleterious consequences for children’s secondhand smoke exposure. Authors found a reduction in secondhand smoke exposure and did not find a concomitant increase in smoking in the home.

     

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    55. Smokefree Class Competition

    Switzerland, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Norway, Italy, Czech Republic, 1989 - still operating

    The Smokefree Class Competition programme began in Finland in 1989 and has been initiated in 22 European countries between 1997 and 2008.  The programme gives classes of pupils aged 11-14 years old the choice to become a ‘nonsmoking class’ for six months, in return for being entered in a lottery to win a class trip if at least 90% of the class remains smoke-free in each month of the competition period. The students monitor and report their own participation on a weekly basis. In some of the countries they also receive health education lessons about the effects of smoking. The rules and prizes of the competition vary slightly by country but are generally similar. 

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    56. Smoking Cessation Counselling by Midwives

    Netherlands, 1996 - unknown

    This smoking cessation program was available to pregnant women smokers in two provinces of the Netherlands. Midwives were trained on how to approach the subject of smoking and smoking cessation with their clients and supplied with a brief manual and intervention card explaining the seven-step protocol for effective counselling.  

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    57. Social Influence Decision-Making Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, 1990  - 2013

    The Social Influence Decision-Making (SI-DM) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself.  The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.  

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    58. Social Influence Plus Boosters Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

    The Social Influence Plus Boosters (SI+) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself. The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    59. Social Influence Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, Romania, 1990  - 2013

    The Social Influence (SI) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself. The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    60. Social-Emotional Prevention Programme (SEP)

    Romania, 2009 - 2009

    Social-Emotional Prevention (SEP) is a multifaceted practice (including children, parents and teachers) aimed at improving social and emotional competencies. It is a hybrid programme, combining the delivery of targeted (for high risk children) and universal (for all children) elements within the prevention programme. This group-based programme comprises three components: a classroom curriculum, teacher training and parent training. The evidence of its effectiveness comes from a trial implemented in Romania.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    61. SolSano

    Spain, 1999 - still operating

    SolSano is a health education programme for sun safety implemented in primary schools in Spain. The programme has been in operation since 1999. It targets children in grades 1 and 2 (aged 6-8). The overall aim of the programme is to educate children about sun safety in order to teach children to enjoy the sun while reducing its harmful effects. The programme consists of a guide for teachers, an activity notebook for students, and a pamphlet with information on sun protection activities for children directed to their parents.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    62. SPELL: Structured Preschool Efforts in Language and Literacy

    Denmark, 2012 - 2015

    Structured Preschool Efforts in Language and Literacy (SPELL) is a 20-week small-group intervention which uses storybook reading and provides an explicit scope and sequence of language and literacy education. SPELL is an adapted version of a previously studied programme, Read It Again-PreK! (RIA, Justice & McGinty, 2013). The curriculum implemented in RIA was adapted into SPELL a version that is specific to the Danish context and language. The goal of SPELL is to increases children’s language and preliteracy skills.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    63. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)

    United Kingdom, 2011 - Still operating

    Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP) is a universal school-based intervention aiming to reduce alcohol use by adolescents – in particular, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related harms. The programme consists of a ten-lesson classroom-based curriculum and an information session for parents and carers, followed by information leaflets.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    64. Sun Healthy Habits

    Spain, 2009  - 2009

    The ‘Sun healthy habits’ study aimed to evaluate the effects of using an Internet-based school intervention programme to improve sun exposure knowledge and behaviour among Spanish adolescent population. The ‘Sun healthy habits’ website was developed by the Study Committee (dermatologists, epidemiologists and specialists in education) and was structured in six sections: (i) the sun and its characteristics; (ii) sun without danger; (iii) seven sun commandments; (iv) games; (v) visits to other Webs and (vi) Who are we? The selection of content was informed by knowledge gained in a previously conducted cross-sectional study on incorrect sun habits in the population.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • T

  • List item

    65. Talk About Alcohol

    United Kingdom, 2010- still operating

    Talk About Alcohol is an intervention developed in the UK for helping children age 11-18 make informed decisions about alcohol.  It carries the same name as a pilot website developed in 2005 by the European Association of Communication Agencies (EACA) with the European Forum for Responsible Drinking), which was based on a programme originally developed in Sweden, however the UK Talk About Alcohol programme, developed by The Alcohol Education trust Charity is fundamentally different from the European initiative.  The programme is inspired by SHARHP (Australia) and EUDAP Unplugged (EU), social norms approaches and life skills education. Talk About Alcohol is provided through schools in the United Kingdom by the Alcohol Education Trust, who support teachers, students, and their parents with resources on line and in print. 

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    66. The Community Parent Education Programme (COPE)

    Sweden, 1995 - still operating

    The Community Parent Education Programme (COPE; Cunningham, 2005) is a manual-based education programme for parents of children with externalising behaviour problems with a background of different diagnoses such as hyperactivity, inattention, and/or conduct problems. COPE aims to help parents develop skills that will enable them to deal in a positive way with difficult behaviours and to improve their communications and relationships with their children. The programme consists of group sessions of 15 to 25 parents. There are ten sessions, which occur weekly and are one hour long. COPE leaders use readings, videotapes, demonstrations, homework projects, small group exercises, and large group exercises to help parents develop problem solving skills and parental confidence. At each session, leaders teach a new strategy (e.g., strategies for ignoring minor disruptions, giving attention to positive behaviour, reward systems, planning ahead, managing transitions, and balancing time and attention between siblings). COPE is designed to be conducted in schools, recreation centres, other community locations and psychiatric clinics for children and adolescents. Because the programme can be organised within the community rather than  in a psychiatric clinic, also economically disadvantaged families and families with children who have more severe behavioural problems are more likely to be supported beyond what parents and children can already obtain in the normal health care system (Cunningham, Bremnar, and Boyle 1995). In addition, the community based application of COPE has according to Cunningham et al (1995) a better cost-effectiveness ratio. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    67. Theraplay

    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, 1980 - Still operating

    Theraplay is an interactive, directive, short-term, developmental play therapy that emphasises parental involvement through structured, attachment-based play, guided challenge, social engagement, playful regulation of affect, and high levels of nurture. Theraplay relies on four interactive principles: structure by the therapist, social engagement and regulation, nurture and safety, and regulated challenges.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    68. TigerKids

    Germany, 2014 - still operating

    The ‘‘TigerKids’’ intervention programme was developed to enhance regular physical activity and to modify habits of food and drink consumption in preschool children. The objectives of the programme are threefold: a) to increase physical activity games at the Kindergarten setting to at least 30 min/day; b) to replace high energy density snack foods with fresh fruit and vegetables and establish consumption of at least two portions/day of vegetables and fruits as a habit; c) to replace sugared beverages with water or other non-sugared drinks (e.g. non-sugared fruit tea) in the day care and reaching a habitual consumption of not more than one glass/day of sugared drinks and juices.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • List item

    69. Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents

    Norway, United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

    The Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO-A, formerly named Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC), known as the Intensive Fostering programme in England, is designed for youth age 10-17 who are at risk of going into residential care or being incarcerated due to their serious emotional or behavioural problems. The TFCO-A programme consists of a daily routine of positive reinforcement through mentoring and encouragement within a clear structure, specified boundaries and consequences for behaviour, and close supervision. 

    The programme model was first implemented in Oregon in the USA in 1983 by Patricia Chamberlain, and it is currently also operating in the UK since 2002, Sweden since 2001, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands since the early-mid 2000’s. The programme founders are incorporated as TFC Consultants, Inc.  

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • List item

    70. Triple P - Positive Parenting Programme

    Belgium, Switzerland, Netherlands, Germany, 1999 - still operating

    The Triple P—Positive Parenting Programme is a multilevel system of family intervention that aims to prevent severe emotional and behavioral disturbances in children by promoting positive and nurturing relationships between parent and child.  According to the Triple P developers, apart from improving parenting skills, "the programme aims to increase parents' sense of competence in their parenting abilities, improve couples' communication about parenting, and reduce parenting stress. The acquisition of specific parenting competencies results in improved family communication and reduced conflict that in turn reduces the risk that children will develop a variety of behavioral and emotional problems" (Sanders, Turner, et al., 2002).

    Evidence level:  Best Practice


  • V

  • List item

    71. VoorZorg

    Netherlands, 2004 - still operating

    VoorZorg is a home visitation programme in the Netherlands which has been adapted for the Dutch health context from the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) programme in the United States (Olds et al. 1986). It is designed to assist young pregnant women of low socio-economic status in reducing risk factors for foetal and child development as well as reduce risk of child abuse. The programme consists of approximately 10 home visits of 60-90 minutes delivered to the young mothers during pregnancy, 20 visits during the child’s first year of life and 20 visits during the child’s second year of life. Home visits are delivered by a specially trained and certified VoorZorg nurse.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • W

  • List item

    72. Working Families Tax Credit

    United Kingdom, 1999  - 2003

    Since 1971 the United Kingdom has had a system called the Family Credit, which is designed to alleviate the tax burden on working families. Policy makers desired to strengthen the link between this income support and working, as well as to make the benefit more generous, so in 1999, the Working Families’ Tax Credit (WFTC) replaced the Family Credit. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • Z

  • List item

    73. Zippy’s Friends

    United Kingdom, Lithuania, Denmark, Ireland, 2006 - still operating

    Zippy’s Friends is a 24-week-long, universal school-based programme designed to help children (between six and eight years of age) to cope better with everyday adversities. In other words, the main goal of the programme is to prevent psychological problems by increasing children’s range of coping skills. The programme is distributed globally through the non-profit organisation Partnership for Children and currently operates in 29 countries.

    The programme is based on six stories about three characters, their families and friends and an imaginary stick insect named Zippy; through their everyday joys, problems and sorrows the children explore themes related to communication, relations, emotions, friendships, conflict and conflict resolution.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


  • Ö

  • List item

    74. Örebro Prevention Programme

    Sweden, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

    The Örebro Prevention Programme (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  • Share this page