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European Commission > Investing in European Research > Expert Group reports on the effectiveness of public support mechanisms

Expert group reports on the effectiveness of public support mechanisms

The reports, published in April 2003, offer a number of recommendations to policy makers in order to help industry spend up to 2% of the GDP on R&D.

  • The first report, Mix of Public Support Mechanisms English[ - 1,34Mb], outlines the importance of a mix of policies to increase R&D funding levels. It underlines the fact that financial and fiscal R&D policies need to be complemented by favourable framework conditions, associated policies and innovation activities.
  • The second report, Guarantee mechanisms English[ - 298 Kb], determines the specific contribution of Equity and Loan Guarantees, as well as other risk sharing mechanisms, to the 3% objective. It provides recommendations and specific guidelines to European, national and regional actors.
  • The third report, Risk capital Measures English[ - 328 Kb], identifies how and to what extent public support measures can effectively stimulate the contribution of risk capital (including seed and venture capital) to research investment.
  • The fourth report, Direct measures English[ - 1,07 Mb], investigates the effectiveness of direct public support measures in stimulating private R&D investment. Direct measures include subsidies and grants and are considered as a critical element to push companies to invest in R&D.
  • Finally, the last report, Fiscal measures English[ - 555 Kb], identifies the fiscal incentives needed to encourage business R&D and provides recommendations for their design, co-ordination and implementation.


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