Statistics Explained

Enlargement countries - international trade in goods statistics

Data extracted in March 2022.

Planned article update: May 2023.

Highlights

82 % of all goods exported from the candidate countries and potential candidates in 2021 originated from Turkey.

The seven candidate countries and potential candidates recorded a combined trade deficit for goods of €61.0 billion in 2021.

In 2021, more than three quarters (77.3 %) of all exports leaving North Macedonia were destined for the EU. The shares going to the EU were close to three quarters also for Bosnia and Herzegovina (72.8 %) and for Albania (72.2 %).

[[File:CPC22_International_trade_in_goods_with_the_EU_2021.xlsx]]

International trade in goods with the EU, 2021


This article is part of an online publication and provides information on a range of international trade statistics for the European Union (EU) candidate countries and potential candidates, in other words the enlargement countries. Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey currently have candidate status, while Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo* are potential candidates.

The article gives an overview over international trade developments for goods in the candidate countries and potential candidates, covering imports and exports as well as the trade balance. It also presents an analysis of international trade by selected product groups (based on the Standard international trade classification (SITC)) and with the EU. Other related articles cover the international trade of the Western Balkans and Turkey with the EU.

Full article

Value of exports and imports

International trade statistics track the value and quantity of goods traded between countries. They are the official source of information on imports, exports and the trade balance, the difference between imports and exports.

Long term global trends have seen trade increasing as a proportion of GDP in most countries. This has been an important element of globalisation, although far from the only one. Countries that are growing fast or are undergoing or recovering from economic difficulties may wish to run trade deficits, in which the value of imports is greater than that of exports. Countries that specialise in providing services to the rest of the world, such as tourism or business services, may also run consistent trade deficits, since services are not included in the statistics of exports and imports of goods. The balance of payments includes data on both trade in goods and in services.

Exports and imports as a percentage of GDP are often used as a measure of a country’s openness to world trade. Smaller countries tend to have higher levels of trade openness than larger ones, since there are fewer opportunities for buying and selling domestically produced goods. The relationship between trade openness and income (measured as GDP per capita) is more complicated, although low income countries generally tend to have low trade openness.

In 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic disrupted the growth in trade, with both exports and imports falling for most of the EU candidate countries and potential candidates. Exceptions were Kosovo, where the value of exports increased by 23.8 % from 2019 to 2020, and Turkey, where the value of imports increased by 0.7 % over the same year.

Figures 1, 2 and 3 present the exports, imports and trade balance of the candidate countries and potential candidates and the EU as a percentage of their respective GDP. This allows a focus on the relative importance of trade flows to the size of the economies concerned. Table 1 shows the basic data on trade of goods in million euro.

Figure 1: International exports of goods, 2010-2021
(% of GDP)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intertrd), (ext_lt_intercc) and (nama_10_gdp)

Exports and imports of the candidate countries and potential candidates have mostly increased as a percentage of GDP since 2010. The growing international trade of these countries have increasingly made their economies more open. However, this has not been a linear process. Following the worldwide financial and economic crisis 2008-2009, the economic rebound led to increasing trade for all EU candidate countries and potential candidates from 2010 to 2011, in euro terms. The subsequent international sovereign debt crisis had a negative impact on trade in most of these countries in 2012 and 2013, before an uneven growth in trade up to 2019. In 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic had a strong negative impact on both exports and imports of the candidate countries and potential candidates, with the exceptions of the exports of Kosovo and imports of Turkey. However, the economic recovery in 2021 led to rapidly expanding imports and exports for all these countries. Measured as share of GDP, these fluctuations have been of a smaller magnitude, as GDP generally has fallen and risen in parallel to trade.

In detail, North Macedonia’s exports corresponded to 53.7 % of GDP in 2020, down from 57.3 % the year before; in comparison, the figure was 35.7 % in 2010. Its imports were 70.5 % of GDP in 2020, falling from 75.5 % in 2019. In 2010, the imports corresponded to 58.2 % of its GDP. Serbia’s exports fell from 36.6 % of GDP in 2019 to 35.0 % in 2020, before rising to 39.0 % in 2021. In comparison, the ratio was 22.4 % in 2010. Serbia’s imports also declined before increasing again, from 48.3 % of GDP in 2019 to 45.6 % in 2020 and 50.6 % in 2021. In 2010, imports corresponded to 39.5 % of GDP in Serbia. Turkey’s exports were 26.3 % of GDP in 2021, having been 22.3 % in 2020, 22.6 % in 2019 and 14.6 % in 2010. Imports to Turkey were 32.0 % of its GDP in 2021, 29.1 % in 2020, 26.7 % in 2019 and 23.7 % in 2010. Exports from Albania were 16.8 % of its GDP in 2020, having been 17.6 % in 2019 and 13.0 % in 2010; imports were 37.2 % of GDP in 2020, 38.3 % in 2019 and 37.0 % in 2010.

Figure 2: International imports of goods, 2010-2021
(% of GDP)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intertrd), (ext_lt_intercc) and (nama_10_gdp)

Cases where trade flows declined as a percentage of GDP included Montenegro, where exports fell from 10.6 % of GDP in 2010 to 8.4 % in 2019 (-2.2 percentage points), before growing to 8.7 % in 2020; imports stood at 50.3 % of GDP in 2020 but at 53.0 % in 2010. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s imports were 49.3 % of GDP in 2020, having been 53.7 % in 2010. However, its exports of goods as percentage of GDP have grown, corresponding to 30.7 % of GDP in 2020, having been 28.0 % of GDP in 2010. In Kosovo both imports and exports as percentage of GDP decreased in 2020 compared to 2010. In 2019, exports were 5.4 % of GDP, when they had been 7.3 % in 2010. However, exports rapidly grew again, to 7.0 % of GDP in 2020 and 9.6 % in 2021. Its imports in 2020 corresponded to 48.7 % of GDP, having been 53.5 % in 2010; in 2021, imports skipped to 59.5 % of GDP. Nevertheless, Table 1 shows that all these trade flows were higher in 2021 than in 2010 in euro terms.

In the EU, exports to the rest of the world fell to 14.4 % of GDP in 2020, from 15.2 % in 2019; in 2021, they rebounded to 15.1 %. In comparison, they were 13.1 % in 2010. Imports from the rest of the world as a percentage of GDP were down from 2010 to 2020, from 13.4 to 12.8 %. In 2021, imports rose to 14.6 %.

Over the period 2010-2021, none of the candidate countries and potential candidates registered a trade surplus for goods. In detail, the size of the Turkish trade deficit varied over 2010-2019 between -4.1 % of GDP in 2019 and -12.7 % in 2011. In 2020, its trade deficit stood at -6.7 % of GDP, and, in 2021, at -5.7 %. Serbia’s smallest trade deficit in the period 2010-2021 occurred in 2016 at -6.8 % of GDP, its largest deficit in 2010 at -17.1 %. In 2021, the figure was -11.6 %. In North Macedonia, the trade deficit ranged between -16.8 % in 2018 and- 25.7 % in 2012; the 2020 figure was -16.9 %. In 2012, Bosnia and Herzegovina’s trade deficit was at its largest, at -28.2 % of GDP. The smallest deficit recorded during the period was -18.6 % in 2020. Between 2010 and 2020, the trade deficit of Albania ranged between -26.6 % of GDP in 2011 and -20.1 % in 2013, with the 2020 trade deficit at -20.4 %. Montenegro’s trade deficit moved between -41.5 % of GDP in 2020 and -46.2 % in 2018. In Kosovo the trade deficit was between 40.7 % of GDP in 2015 and -49.9 % in 2021.

The EU ran a small trade surplus with the rest of the world between 2012 and 2021, following a negative trade in 2010 and 2011 (-0.3 % and -0.4 % of GDP, respectively). The trade surplus was between 0.5 % of GDP in 2021 and 2.1 % in 2016.

Figure 3: Balance of international trade in goods, 2010-2021
(% of GDP)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intertrd), (ext_lt_intercc) and (nama_10_gdp)

In 2020, due to the effects on economies and the trade of the Covid-19 pandemic, exports fell from the previous year by 11.9 % in Montenegro, 10.1 % in North Macedonia, 9.7 % in Albania, 2.8 % in Serbia, 8.6 % in Turkey and 8.5 % in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In contrast, exports grew by 23.8 % in Kosovo. In 2021, a strong recovery followed: exports rose by 19.4 % in Montenegro, 19.8 % in North Macedonia, 37.6 % in Albania, 27.1 % in Serbia, 28.8 % in Turkey, 35.7 % in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 57.9 % in Kosovo. In the EU, exports dropped by 9.3 % from 2019 to 2020, but rebounded by 12.8 % from 2020 to 2021. The development of imports told a similar story to that of exports, with sharp falls in 2020 followed by strong recoveries in 2021. From 2019 to 2020, imports decreased by 19.1 % in Montenegro, 10.3 % in North Macedonia, 7.8 % in Albania, 3.8 % in Serbia, 13.4 % in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 5.7 % in Kosovo. The contrast was provided by Turkey, where the imports grew by 0.7 %. The recoveries in 2021 were generally stronger than the drops of the previous year, with increases by 19.0 % in Montenegro, 26.9 % in North Macedonia, 34.7 % in Albania, 26.4 % in Serbia, 20.2 % in Turkey, 27.9 % in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 41.1 % in Kosovo.

The total value of the goods imported to the EU from the rest of the world was 11.5 % lower in 2020 than in 2019, but 23.0 % higher in 2021 than in 2020. In total, the EU’s exports in euro were 34.7 % higher in 2020 than in 2010; in 2021, they were 51.9 % higher than in 2010. For imports, the situation was similar; the total value of EU imports from outside countries was 16.7 % higher in 2020 than in 2010, while over the period 2010-2021 the value increased by 43.6 %.

Table 1: International trade in goods, 2010 to 2021
(€ million)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intertrd) and (ext_lt_intercc)

Exports of goods from Turkey accounted for 82.1 % of the total value of exports from the seven candidate countries and potential candidates in 2021, down from 85.0 % in 2010. Serbia had the second highest level of exports at 9.5 % of the total in 2021, having been at 7.0 % in 2010. The third highest share was recorded in Bosnia and Herzegovina at 3.3 % in 2021 and 3.6 % in 2010. It was closely followed by North Macedonia, with a 3.2 % share in 2021 and 2.5 % in 2010. Albania was responsible for 1.4 % of the total exports in 2021 and 1.2 % in 2010. Kosovo and Montenegro represented less than 1 % of exports in 2021, with 0.3 % and 0.2 %, respectively, and similar shares in 2010 (both 0.3 %).

Altogether, the total value of exports from the seven candidate countries and potential candidates in 2021 was €220 billion, equivalent to 10.1 % of the EU's exports to the rest of the world that year. The total exports of these countries rebounded with an increase of 28.7 % in 2021 compared to 2020, when international trade was substantially slowed down by the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, the 2021 exports total for the candidate countries and potential candidates was substantially higher than in any other year in the period since 2010.

Turkey‘s share of imports in the total of the seven candidate countries and potential candidates was 78.1 % in 2021, compared to 81.9 % in 2010. Serbia accounted for 9.6 % of imports in 2021 and 7.4 % in 2010; Bosnia and Herzegovina for 3.9 % in 2021 and 4.1 % in 2010. North Macedonia received 3.4 % of the total imports in 2021 and 2.4 % in 2010; Albania 2.3 % in 2021 and 2.0 % in 2010; Kosovo 1.7 % in 2021 and 1.3 % in 2010. Montenegro represented 0.9 % of total imports in 2021 and 1.0 % in 2010. Altogether, the total value of imports to the seven candidate countries and potential candidates in 2021 was €281 billion, equivalent to 13.3 % of total EU imports from the rest of the world. Compared to 2020, the total imports to the candidate countries and potential candidates were 21.9 % higher in 2021, and reached its highest level in the period since 2010.

Trade between the candidate countries and potential candidates and the EU

Due to its close geographic proximity and size, it is not surprising to find that the EU is a main trading partner of the candidate countries and potential candidates. Figure 4 shows the relative importance of the EU as a trading partner to the candidate countries and potential candidates in 2010 and 2020.

Exports to the EU represented 77.3 % of all the goods exported from North Macedonia in 2021, while the share was 62.3 % in 2011. The goods destined for the EU accounted for 72.8 % of all goods exported by Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2021; in 2011 this share was 70.0 %. Albania recorded a share of 72.2 % of its total exports going to the EU in 2021, slightly down from 72.8 % in 2011. The goods exported from Serbia to the EU in 2021 made up 65.9 % of its exports; the figure was 61.3 % in 2011. Goods exported to the EU accounted for 41.1 % of all the exports from Turkey in 2021 and 40.3 % in 2011. A 31.4 % share of Kosovo’s exports were destined to the EU in 2021, compared to 43.3 % in 2011. In 2021, 31.1 % of exports from Montenegro were destined to the EU, substantially down from 59.2 % in 2011.

Figure 4: International trade in goods with the EU, 2011 and 2021
(% share of total exports/imports)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intercc)

In 2021, 58.9 % of all imported goods that arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina originated from the EU, similar to the share in 2011 (59.1 %). A share of 54.4 % of Albania’s imports were sourced from the EU in 2021, down from 64.2 % in 2011. The share of Serbia’s imports coming from the EU was 53.9 % in 2021 and 54.6 % in 2011. North Macedonia imported 46.2 % of their goods from the EU in 2021 and 47.8 % in 2011. Montenegrin imports from the EU were 45.7 % in 2021 and 43.5 % in 2011. Kosovo took 44.3 % of its imports from the EU in 2021, up from a share of 39.9 % in 2011. The smallest share of imports originating from the EU in 2021 was 31.1 %, recorded in Turkey; in 2011, the share had stood at 35.5 %.

Intra-regional trade

Table 2 presents the trade between the seven candidate countries and potential candidates, analysing the exports. In total, the value of exports between the candidate countries and potential candidates reached EUR 10 billion in 2021.

Table 2: Intra-regional trade, 2021
(€ million)
Source: Eurostat (DS-056697)

Turkey was the largest exporter of goods to the other candidate countries and potential candidates (EUR 3.4 billion), mainly exporting to Serbia (EUR 1.2 billion), Albania (EUR 647 million) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUR 532 million). Serbia was the second largest exporter of goods to the other candidate countries and potential candidates (EUR 3.2 billion). Its exports were mainly to Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUR 1.4 billion), North Macedonia (EUR 698 million) and Montenegro (EUR 688 million); there was no data provided for the trade with Kosovo. Bosnia and Herzegovina followed with a total of EUR 1.4 billion; its main export partners among the candidate countries and potential candidates were Serbia (EUR 881 million), Montenegro (EUR 202 million) and Turkey (EUR 183 million). North Macedonia exported a total of EUR 946 million to other candidate countries and potential candidates. Its main export partners from the region were Kosovo (EUR 303 million) and Serbia (EUR 292 million). Albania’s total exports to other candidate countries and potential candidates were lower, totalling EUR 605 million; it’s main partners were Kosovo (EUR 308 million) and North Macedonia (EUR 102 million). Kosovo’s total exports amounted to EUR 294 million, mainly exporting to Albania (EUR 111 million) and North Macedonia (EUR 87 million). Montenegro’s export of goods was the lowest from the region, at EUR 213 million. Its main export partners were Serbia (EUR 107 million) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUR 33 million).

Structure of trade analysed by broad groups of goods

Figure 5 provides for 2021, for each of the candidate countries and potential candidates, a breakdown of their trade with the rest of the world, based on values in euro and analysed by broad group of goods. The main product groups shown follow the Standard international trade classification (SITC Rev.4). 'Other manufactured goods' (which cover SITC Sections 6 and 8) accounted for the highest proportion of goods both exported and imported from the candidate countries and potential candidates in 2021, with the only three exceptions being machinery and vehicles (SITC section 7) providing the largest group of exports for North Macedonia and of imports for Serbia and Turkey.

Figure 5: International trade in goods by broad groups of goods, 2021
(% share of total exports/imports)
Source: Eurostat (ext_lt_intertrd) and (ext_lt_intercc)

In Montenegro in 2021, other manufactured goods (SITC Sections 6 and 8 combined) accounted for 27.6 % of exports; raw materials (SITC sections 2 and 4 combined) 23.3 %; mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods (SITC section 3) 18.5 %; food, drinks and tobacco (SITC sections 0 and 1 combined) 13.2 %; and machinery and vehicles (SITC section 7) 10.6 %. Imports mainly consisted of other manufactured goods at 29.6 % of the total; food, drinks and tobacco 22.7 %; machinery and vehicles 20.5 %; and chemicals (SITC section 5) 13.1 %.

In North Macedonia, machinery and vehicles had a 30.4 % share of total exports in 2021; chemicals 27.1 %; and other manufactured goods 26.4 %. The structure of imports was mainly composed of other manufactured goods, 40.5 % of the total; machinery and vehicles 21.1 %; chemicals 15.8 %; and mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods 10.6 %.

Albanian exports consisted of 59.0 % of other manufactured goods in 2021; 13.6 % of mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods; and 10.2 % of food, drinks and tobacco. Imports were made up of 35.0 % of other manufactured goods; 20.9 % of machinery and vehicles; 15.1 % of food, drinks and tobacco; 12.6 % of mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods; and 12.1 % of chemicals.

The exports of Serbia in 2021 were accounted for by 33.5 % of other manufactured goods; 26.3 % of machinery and vehicles; 17.6 % of food, drinks and tobacco; and 10.2 % of chemicals. Its imports were made up of 30.5 % of machinery and vehicles; 30.2 % of other manufactured goods; and 16.3 % of chemicals.

Turkish exports in 2021 contained 47.3 % of other manufactured goods; 26.6 % of machinery and vehicles; and 9.6 % of food, drinks and tobacco. Imports consisted of 26.2 % machinery and vehicles; 21.8 % other manufactured goods; 16.5 % chemicals; and 15.2 % other goods (other than SITC 1 to 8).

Bosnia and Herzegovina’s exports in 2021 were accounted for by a share of 51.0 % of other manufactured goods; 16.6 % of machinery and vehicles; and 10.9 % of raw materials. Imports were made up by 36.7 % other manufactured goods; 20.3 % machinery and vehicles; 14.5 % food, drinks and tobacco; 13.7 % chemicals; and 11.9 % mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods.

In Kosovo, 60.6 % of exports in 2020 were of other manufactured goods; 14.9 % raw materials; and 11.4 % food, drinks and tobacco. Other manufactured goods made up 32.5 % of imports; machinery and vehicles 21.3 %; food, drinks and tobacco 19.5 %; and chemicals 12.7 %.

EU’s exports to the rest of the world in 2020 were 38.1 % machinery and vehicles; 22.8 % other manufactured goods; 20.9 % chemicals; and 8.0 % food, drinks and tobacco. Imports consisted of 31.8 % machinery and vehicles; 24.9 % other manufactured goods; 18.0 % mineral fuels, lubricants and related goods; and 12.8 % chemicals.

Data sources

International trade statistics track the value and quantity of goods traded between countries for imports, exports and the trade balance. All statistics presented in this article as monetary values are based on current price series. Traditionally, customs records were the main source of statistical data on international trade. Following the launch of the Single Market on 1 January 1993, customs formalities between EU Member States were removed, and so a new data collection system, Intrastat, was set up for intra-EU trade. In the Intrastat system, intra-EU trade data are collected directly from trade operators, which send a monthly declaration to the relevant national statistical authorities. The data presented in this article for the EU and the candidate countries and potential candidates come from the Comext database, Eurostat’s international trade database. Trade data are reported to Eurostat by all EU countries and a significant number of non-EU countries, of which all of the candidate countries and potential candidates. EU legislation serves as a basis for compiling the intra- and extra-EU trade statistics published by Eurostat. However, European statistics, which cover the EU as a whole, and the statistics published by the individual countries, are not always directly comparable. The countries may apply a different concept at national level but they have to provide Eurostat with harmonised data according to the Community concept. The most common differences between the Community concept and the national concepts are as follows:

  • use of the general trade system at national level while the Community statistics are compiled according to the special trade system;
  • exclusion from national statistics of ‘quasi-transit’, which means of
    • goods imported from a non-EU country, cleared through customs and immediately dispatched to another Member State (the Member State of final destination); or
    • goods imported from another Member State (the Member State of actual export), cleared through customs and immediately dispatched to a non-EU country.

Trade values are expressed in millions or billions (1 000 millions) of euros. They correspond to the statistical value, i.e. to the amount which would be invoiced in case of sale or purchase at the national border of the reporting country. It is called a FOB value (free on board) for exports and a CIF value (cost, insurance, freight) for imports.

Eurostat collects statistical information on international trade developments with respect to the candidate countries and potential candidates; these data are used by the European Commission to prepare annual strategy documents detailing policy developments for EU candidate countries and potential candidates as well as reports on political and economic developments in candidate countries and potential candidates.

The enlargement countries are expected to increase the volume and quality of their data progressively, and to transmit these data to Eurostat and the wider ESS in the context of the EU accession process. The final objective of the EU in relation to official statistics is to obtain harmonised, high-quality data that conforms to both European and international standards. More details on the statistical aspects of the accession process can be found in the article Enlargement policy and statistical cooperation.

The enlargement countries are not at the same level of development and are progressing towards an efficient and modern statistical system at different speeds. In a number of areas, candidate countries (and sometimes also potential candidates) are in a position to provide harmonised data in accordance with the EU acquis with respect to methodology, classifications and procedures for data collection and the principles of official statistics as laid down in the European statistics Code of Practice. In these cases, the candidate countries (and potential candidates) concerned report their data to Eurostat following the same procedures and under the same quality criteria as the EU Member States and the EFTA countries. Data from the enlargement countries that meet these quality requirements are published along with data for EU Member States and EFTA countries.

In addition, the enlargement countries provide data for a wide range of indicators for which they do not yet fully adhere to the quality requirements specified in the EU acquis and the methodology, classifications and procedures for data collection specified in the relevant Regulations, Directives and other legal documents. These data are collected on an annual basis through a questionnaire sent by Eurostat to the candidate countries or potential candidates. A network of contacts has been established for updating these questionnaires, generally within the national statistical offices, but potentially including representatives of other data-producing organisations (for example, central banks or government ministries). This annual exercise also provides an opportunity to provide methodological recommendations to the enlargement countries.

Tables in this article use the following notation:

Value in italics     data value is forecasted, provisional or estimated and is therefore likely to change;
: not available;
not applicable.

Context

The EU has a common international trade policy, often referred to as the common commercial policy. In other words, the EU acts as a single entity on trade issues, including issues related to the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In these cases, the European Commission negotiates trade agreements and represents Europe’s interests on behalf of the EU Member States.

The Western Balkan countries plus Moldova are parties to the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). CEFTA seeks to promote trade within the region by eliminating tariffs to regional trade and identifying and reducing non-tariff barriers to trade. In 2018, a protocol on trade facilitation entered into force and CEFTA parties launched negotiations on a new protocol on dispute settlement.

EU-Turkey trade relations are based on an Association Agreement from 1963 and a Customs Union agreement, which entered into force on 31 December 1995.

The economic impact of globalisation has had a considerable effect on international trade, as well as financial flows. The EU seeks to promote the development of free-trade as an instrument for stimulating economic growth and enhancing competitiveness. International trade statistics are of prime importance for both public sector (decision makers nationally, within the EU and internationally) and private users (in particular, businesses who wish to analyse export market opportunities), as they provide valuable information on developments regarding the exchange of goods between specific geographical areas.

While basic principles and institutional frameworks for producing statistics are already in place, the enlargement countries are expected to increase progressively the volume and quality of their data and to transmit these data to Eurostat in the context of the EU enlargement process. EU standards in the field of statistics require the existence of a statistical infrastructure based on principles such as professional independence, impartiality, relevance, confidentiality of individual data and easy access to official statistics; they cover methodology, classifications and standards for production.

Eurostat has the responsibility to ensure that statistical production of the enlargement countries complies with the EU acquis in the field of statistics. To do so, Eurostat supports the national statistical offices and other producers of official statistics through a range of initiatives, such as pilot surveys, training courses, traineeships, study visits, workshops and seminars, and participation in meetings within the European Statistical System (ESS). The ultimate goal is the provision of harmonised, high-quality data that conforms to European and international standards.

Additional information on statistical cooperation with the candidate countries and potential candidates is provided here.

Notes

* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

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