Energy balances (nrg_bal)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: European Commission - Eurostat


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

European Commission - Eurostat

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit E.5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat
Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy
L-2920 Luxembourg


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 06/03/2019
2.2. Metadata last posted 06/03/2019
2.3. Metadata last update 06/03/2019


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The energy balance is the most complete statistical accounting of energy products and their flow in the economy. The energy balance allows users to see the total amount of energy extracted from the environment, traded, transformed and used by different types of end-users. It also allows seeing the relative contribution of each energy carrier (fuel, product). The energy balance allows studying the overall domestic energy market and monitoring impacts of energy policies. The energy balance offers a complete view on the energy situation of a country in a compact format, such as on energy consumption of the whole economy and of individual sectors. The energy balance presents all statistically significant energy products (fuels) of a country and their production, transformation and consumption by different type of economic actors (industry, transport, etc.). Therefore, an energy balance is the natural starting point to study the energy sector.

Annual data collection cover in principle the EU Member States, EFTA, EU candidate countries, and potential candidate countries. Time series starts mostly in year 1990.

All data in energy balances are presented in terajoules, kilotonnes of oil equivalent and gigawatt hours.

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European system of statistics. Therefore, they also rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

The classification of the economic activities both in carrying out the surveys and in presenting the results is in accordance to NACE Rev.2.

Classification of energy products (commodities/carriers) is in general highly consistent with the UN’s International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (especially its chapter 3: “Standard International Energy Product Classification”).

3.3. Coverage - sector

Energy statistics data covers all major sectors of the economy that are involved in the production, trade, energy transformation or energy consumption (e.g. energy sector, industrial sector, transport, commercial and public services, agricultural/forestry/fishing and households, for annual data).

For further detail information on divisions, groups or class please consult the reporting instructions for annual energy questionnaires.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

For energy statistics, definitions, concepts and methodology are harmonised at international level. The methodology is described in the Energy Statistics Manual. Definitions of Annex A of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics apply.

For energy balances, the methodology is not harmonised at international level - international organisations as well as national administrations apply various approaches when constructing energy balance.

The relationships between products and flows of Eurostat’s energy balances in general follow the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics.

3.5. Statistical unit

The statistical unit may vary in the annual energy statistics. A statistical unit in energy statistics can be for example: enterprises, local units, establishment or household.

Reporting units in energy statistics might be: producers, importers, exporters of oil and petroleum products, households.  

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Not available - not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports

3.7. Reference area

Annual data series cover in principle all Member States of the European Union, EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway), EU candidate countries (Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey) and potential candidate countries (Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/99)). Data for Energy Community Contracting Parties are also available (in addition to countries listed before this covers Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia).

The EU and Eurozone aggregates are also shown.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Annual data are available from 1990 for the vast majority of countries.

3.9. Base period

The concept of base period is not applicable for energy statistics as there is no “index number” or a “constant series”.


4. Unit of measure Top

Basic data on energy quantities are given in fuel specific units e.g. solid and liquid fuels in thousand tonnes, electricity in Gigawatt-hours, heat and gases in terajoules (TJ). The basic energy quantities data are converted to energy units, i.e. in Terajoules and Tonnes of oil equivalent to allow comparison of different fuel types.

Units in which countries provide data to Eurostat are defined in Annex B of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Until reference year 2016 all figures reported are rounded to the nearest whole number. As of reference year 2017, reporting countries can provide data up to 3 decimal places. Some countries provided more decimal places as part of the revision of their historic time series. Some countries opted for continuing reporting with zero decimal places. 

The statistical data collection system in the annual energy questionnaires cannot distinguish between the following cases:

  • Data are not available to the reporting authority
  • Data are confidential and not shown
  • Energy quantity is a real zero (aka no consumption)
  • Consumption is negligible (quantity is less than half of the smallesy national unit used for reporting)

All these cases are shown as “zero” in the annual energy questionnaire and as "0.000" in the datasets for energy balances.

Flag Z indicated logically non-feasible combinations of energy balance and also combinations that are not covered by the reporting templates (countries do not report these data points).


5. Reference Period Top

Annual energy statistics refer to the calendar year (January - December).


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Data are compiled under the standard collection cycles of the "Energy Statistics Unit” according to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics (and its amendments). This legal text provides the framework for the production, transmission, evaluation and dissemination of annual energy statistics in its Annex B. This legislation also defines the scope, units, reported period, frequency, deadline and transmission modalities for the annual energy statistics.

Harmonised annual energy questionnaires are used - five annual questionnaires (Eurostat – OECD/IEA – UNECE  questionnaires) that contain detailed explanatory notes on the accounting conventions to be used for each fuel type. These conventions are agreed and reviewed regularly by the three organisations using these questionnaires.

In general, the energy statistics transmitted to Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES) adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011. The methodology for constructing enegry balances is also coherent with IRES.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable. Eurostat does not have any agreements or procedures in place for data sharing of annual energy statistics. Eurostat copyright rules applies: free re-use, both for non-commercial and commercial purposes.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recitals 23-27, 31-32 and Articles 20-26) applies also to energy statistics. It stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data are not shown. The most common approach is to present only aggregation of the confidential data point with the non-confidential data that is the nearest suitable data point.

The confidentiality is applied by reporting countries before transmission of the annual energy questionnaires to Eurostat, as this helps reporting countries to ensure all confidentiality aspects vis-à-vis the release of their national data and ensures the aspects of secondary confidentiality.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section. According to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics, annual energy statistics need to be published by 31 January of the year Y+2 (Y being the reference year of data). In other words, 13 months after the end of the reference year. The same time schedulle is applied to the dissemination of energy balances.

8.2. Release calendar access

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users

Energy data - database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

Energy data - main tables: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables

Energy data - energy balances in MS Excel format: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/energy-balances

Energy flow charts (Sankey diagrams): http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/sankey/sankey.html 


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Data are disseminated on annual basis.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

The Energy balance sheets publication is produced by Eurostat.

Some energy data are also reproduced in other publications produced by Eurostat and DG Energy. The list below shows some examples:

  • Energy, transport and environment indicators - Statistical pocketbook - 2018 edition (paper and pdf)
  • EU energy in figures - Statistical pocketbook - 2018 edition (pdf)
10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Dissemination is maintained on Eurostat's database:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/database

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/main-tables

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

The concept of microdata is not applicable for energy statistics. No micro data are transmitted to Eurostat for data collected under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. All micro data are available only at the level of reporting countries.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Eurostat has developed an interactive tool to visualise energy data by means of energy flow charts (also called Sankey diagrams). Please note that the Sankey dataset is an auxiliary dataset to make the Sankey tool more efficient. Therefore its scope is limited and it is not recommended to use this dataset for a purpose which is not in relation to the Sankey tool.

The digital publication Shedding light on energy in the EU – A guided tour of energy statistics. This publication aims to answer questions on energy most frequently asked by citizens in an original way. Answers are provided through short texts, dynamic infographics, maps, videos, graphs, photos etc. This digital publication provides the statistical background which helps to better understand the challenges faced by the Energy Union. Both those not so familiar with the energy sector and experts in the domain should find something of interest.

The Energy dedicated section in Eurostat website contains methodological information, publications and also energy balances in MS Excel format.

Several articles in the Energy theme of the Statistics Explained section exist for the energy domain.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Detailed Eurostat methodology for constructing energy balance is available in the documents referenced below:

The basic methodology for energy statistics is described in the Energy Statistics Manual.

The Energy dedicated section on Eurostat's website has additional methodological information, such as the reporting instructions for annual energy statistics.

In general, the energy statistics transmitted to Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Please see information presented in section 10.6. "Documentation on methodology" and consult the quality documentation on energy statistics website - section "QUALITY REPORTS".


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Eurostat carries out quality tests, mainly on the coherency of the provided information. In addition, the questionnaires used for data transmission also have built-in coherency tests.

This dataset is a part of the energy statistics defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. It is considered as European statistics and consequently the ESS framework for quality applies. In addition, they are integrated in the Quality Reporting cycle that takes place every five years. Quality reports for energy statistics are based on Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and other checks corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts reporting countries to provide necessary justifications or corrections.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The energy balance is a multi-purpose tool to:

  • Provide harmonised comprehensive information on the energy supply and demand in order to understand the energy security situation, the effective functioning of energy markets and other relevant policy goals, as well as to formulate energy policies;
  • Provide the essential basis for calculating various indicators, including indicators monitoring progress towards Energy Union and Europe 2020 targets (energy efficiency indicators, share of renewable energy, energy dependency, etc.);
  • Ensure comparability of statistical information between different reference periods and between different countries/regions;
  • Provide data for the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion;
  • Serve as a quality tool to ensure completeness, consistency and comparability of energy statistics;
  • Provide an input for modelling and forecasting.

The United Nations Statistical Commission agreed on the use of energy balances as the key instrument to coordinate work on energy statistics and to provide data in a suitable form to understand and analyse the role of energy in the economy. Energy balance is the starting point for constructing several indicators, such as import dependency. Certain aggregates of the energy balance contribute to cross-domain indicators, such as energy intensity (energy input per unit of output (GDP)). More generally, a number of questions can be answered by looking at the data in the energy balance (such as the evolution of energy consumption by sector or efficiency of electricity generation from combustible fuels).

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat conducts two types of evaluations that assess Eurostat's performance in general:

  • Evaluations of the Community Statistical Programmes
  • User Satisfaction Surveys

Please see more details on the Eurostat website.

12.3. Completeness

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Eurostat receives disaggregated data which are used to countercheck the results and to ensure consistency with the total amount of energy consumption. The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. In several countries and for most energy commodities data provision by the companies is required by law. However, emerging liberalisation process in some countries may to some extent negatively affect accuracy in some cases. From time to time detailed surveys targeted to single sub- items (e.g. Wood consumption in households) are carried out to improve the methodology.

A “statistical difference” in energy balance can be an indicator of accuracy. High statistical difference indicate that some reported elements are inaccurate (or alternatively, some elements are not reported). However, statistical difference systematically equal to zero usually means less statistical information available for data compilation. In other words, due to the lack of statistical input (data) the methodology applied inherently hides the statistical difference within some other flow of the energy balance. More robust statistical systems where more information is available could produce small statistical difference and this should not be considered as indication of lower accuracy of such statistical systems.

While indirect indicators suggest overall accuracy of energy balance should be in general high, quantitative assessment of accuracy was not performed by Eurostat.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat. Specific national information can be found in the national metadata files built on the basis of the national quality reports.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Annual energy statistics is should transmitted from reporting countries to Eurostat 11 months after the end of the reference year as stipulated in Annex B of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

Eurostat should disseminate annual energy statistics 13 months after the end of the reference year as stipulated in Article 5(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

14.2. Punctuality

General punctuality of annual data deliveries to Eurostat for EU Member States is presented in the table below. The first column indicate the number of months (end of the month) after the end of the reference period (calendar year). The second column indicates the percentage of completed data transmission – cumulative totals.

9 months (end September) 15%
10 months (end October) 30%
11 months (end November) 80%
12 months (end December) 95-99%
13 months (end January) 100%

Disseminating deadline for EU Member States is in general met by Eurostat and data are disseminated during the last week of January and first weeks of February. In recent years, Eurostat disseminated complete energy balances always before the legal deadline and datasets in Eurobase were gradually updated around the legal deadline.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Energy domain provides highly comparable annual energy statistics.

Data on energy is submitted on the basis of the annual energy questionnaires employing an standardised and internationally agreed methodology (Eurostat - OECD/IEA - UNECE). In general, the energy statistics transmitted to by Eurostat is coherent with the International Recommendations for Energy Statistics adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2011.

Eurostat verifies, to the extent possible, if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however the responsibility of the reporting countries. The methodology for reporting energy statistics is harmonised for all European countries (EU Member States, EFTA countries, EU Candidate Countries, Energy Community Contracting Parties) and also with the OECD energy statistics.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology harmonised on international level that is stable over long periods. Occasional breaks in time series are present due to the developments of statistical systems on national level and the level of detailed information (micro data) available at national level.

In general comparability is very high in last 10 years and for older periods slowly decreasing. In addition, introduction of new statistical information in the most recent data collections can lead to breaks in series until information is compiled and provided by reporting countries.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Energy balances are highly coherent with other annual energy statistics.

Data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the consistency of time series, detection of outliers, efficiency of energy transformation processes and also checks on utilization factors.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available – information not produced by Eurostat.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

The Revision Policy for energy statistics and the revision pre-announcement form are implemented on the basis of a gentlemen's agreement. It might be followed by the future amendment of the relevant legislation once the revision policy has been incorporated into national practice.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The annual energy questionnaires in the MS Excel format provide data on the last reference year and revisions for the years before (maximum back to 1990). Revisions of entire time series can be made by reporting countries due to their national specific circumstances. These revisions are then reflected in the annual energy questionnaires and are also implemented by Eurostat in due time.

Data are updated in case an error would be identified, if a reporting country transmits more up-to-date figures or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones. These revisions are then implemented (processed and published) by Eurostat in due time.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are obtained from the National Administrations competent for energy statistics. Depending on the reporting country and the specific annual process, the data providers can be:

  • National Statistical Institutes
  • Ministries
  • Energy Agencies
  • Professional Associations

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the reporting countries to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of EDAMIS (Electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

All data transfers to Eurostat come via Single Entry Point of data, which is currently implemented by EDAMIS.

For national practices:

National competent authorities collect the data by using census, surveys, administrative data, association's data, customs data and also by modelling including interpolation and extrapolation. Even estimates are occasionally submitted if real data is not available. The mixture of sources differs between countries. More information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.

For Eurostat:

The annual data cycle starts in July-August for the previous year's data by sending to reporting countries pre-filled annual energy questionnaires (email with MS Excel files attached). Starting in September, countries provide new data for the latest reference year and possible revisions for historical time periods. The legal deadline is 30 November. Data corrections and data revisions can arrive until April due to ongoing discussions on data validation issues and this might result in changes in disseminated data.

18.4. Data validation

All annual data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the completeness checks, the consistency of time series, the detection of outliers, the efficiency of energy transformation processes, the checks on utilization factors, the energy transformation efficiency checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the reporting country to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

18.5. Data compilation

Countries report to Eurostat basic data in the relevant units as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

Country aggregations, such as European Union and Euro Area are formed by the aggregation of data from individual countries.

Data are reorganised to the energy balance format and converted to common energy units when creating energy balance. For details on this process, please refer to the Energy balance guide and the Energy balance builder tool.

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments of data are performed in a systematic way, because energy statistics are collected according to internationally harmonised methodology and standards.

For the construction of energy balance, missing calorific values are estimated by using the cascade system of choosing default calorific values – for details on this process, please refer to the Energy balance guide and the Energy balance builder tool.


19. Comment Top

More country specific information can be found in the national metadata files build on the basis of the national quality reports.


Related metadata Top
nrg_quant_esms - Energy statistics - quantities
nrg_cb_esms - Supply, transformation and consumption - commodity balances


Annexes Top