Oil and petroleum products - a statistical overview
- Data extracted in August 2016. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: July 2017.
This article provides an overview of oil statistics covering crude oil as well as petroleum products. Energy statistics are available for all 28 EU Member States) and 11 non-EU countries. Data are available for the period 1990 to 2014.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
For decades, crude oil and petroleum products have had the largest share in gross inland energy consumption in the EU-28. Despite decreasing production and consumption in the EU in recent years, crude oil and its derived products remain the largest contributors to energy consumption.
Production of crude oil
The primary production of crude oil in 2014 in the European Union (EU-28) was 64.6 Mtoe. This production peaked in 2002 at 151 Mtoe and since then the production of crude oil decreased by 53 %. The top oil producers in the EU-28 in 2014 were the United Kingdom (38.3 Mtoe) followed by Denmark (8.1 Mtoe), Italy (5.9 Mtoe) and Romania (4.1 Mtoe).
In Norway, one of the key European non-EU crude oil producers, production peaked in 2000 (163.6 Mtoe) and by 2014 it had decreased to less than half (76.9 Mtoe). EU candidate countries (Albania, Serbia and Turkey) have some production of crude oil however on a very small scale (in total 4.9 Mtoe in 2014). These data are presented in Figure 1.
Imports of crude oil
The production of crude oil in the EU-28 only covers a small proportion of its needs (12.6 %). In 2014 net imports (imports minus exports) of crude oil into the EU-28 from the non-EU countries was 486.1 Million tons (Mt). The major imports came from Russia (150.3 Mt in 2014), Norway (64.6 Mt), Nigeria (45.2 Mt) and Saudi Arabia (44.2 Mt). See Table 1 and Figure 2 for the historic evolution since 2000.
Trade in petroleum products
Imports of crude oil are by far the most important component of trade in oil statistics. The imports of crude oil are complemented by imports of already manufactured petroleum products such as gas/diesel oil (23.4 Mt in 2014), kerosene type jet fuel (15.8 Mt), naphtha (14.7 Mt) and liquefied petroleum gas (14.1 Mt). The EU-28 also exports manufactured petroleum products to third countries. In 2014 EU-28 exported 48.7 Mt of motor gasoline and 9.1 Mt of fuel oil. Trade of other petroleum products (lubricants, bitumen, other hydrocarbons) is of a smaller magnitude and in 2014 resulted in net exports of 3.9 Mt.
Oil imports dependency
Import dependency on oil is calculated as the ratio of net imports (imports minus exports) to gross inland energy consumption (but including international maritime bunkers) of crude oil and petroleum products. Positive values over 100 % indicate a stock build, while negative dependency rates indicate a net exporter country.
The European Union relied on net imports (imports minus exports) for 87 % of the oil products consumed in 2014. The dependency on foreign petroleum is currently at its peak in the 25 year history covered by Eurostat's data series. The lowest import dependency for oil was observed in 1995, namely a rate of 74 %. Detailed national data are available in Table 3.
Sectoral oil dependency
Sectoral oil dependency refers to the ratio of oil consumption in a specific sector to the total fuel consumption of that sector. The dependence on oil for transport and for fishing is the highest of all sectors, although it slightly decreased from nearly 100 % in 1990 to just below 94 % in 2014. However, the industry sector, households and services have decreasing dependency rates towards 10 % dependency on oil. With the exception of non-energy consumption, the dependency on oil decreased in all sectors since 1990.
Use of petroleum products
The production of electricity from fossil fuels, especially from oil products, is slowly diminishing. Many of the existing oil-fired plants are kept only as a part of the power reserve margin, using mainly fuel oil and gas/diesel oil. In 2014 the input of oil into the transformation sector for electricity generation represented less than a quarter of the quantities used in 1990.
In the last four years the final energy consumption of petroleum products has fallen below the 1990s level. The final energy consumption of individual petroleum products is shown in Figure 3. Gas/diesel oil, gasoline and kerosene type jet fuel (listed in order of significance) are by far the three most important products throughout the whole 25-year-period, although demonstrating different evolution patterns.
The consumption of petroleum products by sector is shown in Figure 4. In 2014, the transport sector was by far the main consumer of petroleum products. Within the transport sector, road transport is the key consumer. Petroleum products are also used for non-energy purposes, which is the second highest sector of consumption after transport. Non-energy consumption includes, for example, bitumen for road surfaces, the use of lubricants for reducing friction as well as the use of oil products in the chemical industry for chemical properties rather than energy content (combustion).
Figure 5 and Figure 6 present additional information about oil consumption in the transport sector. This sector has slightly reduced its dependency on oil due to the use of liquid biofuels. Nevertheless, the dependency on oil is still above 93 %. All other fuels (gas, electricity) play a minor role in transport.
When looking at the detailed consumption of fuels in transport, we can see a significant change over the last 25 years. Gas/diesel oil overtook motor gasoline as the most used fuel in 1998. In 2014, more than twice as much diesel was consumed for transport compared to gasoline. The imbalance in the EU production (refinery output) and EU demand (inland consumption) was addressed via international trade (import/export statistics presented earlier, which shows exports of gasoline and imports of diesel).
Data sources and availability
Data on energy are submitted on the basis of an internationally agreed methodology in joint annual energy questionnaires (Eurostat - OECD/IEA - UNECE). Data are available for all EU-28 countries and the methodology is harmonised for all reporting countries. Consequently, data comparability across countries is very high.
Crude oil and petroleum products have the highest share of energy consumption in the EU. The EU is the world's second largest producer of petroleum products (after the United States). Several policy initiatives are tackling the security of energy supplies as well as environmental and climate aspects of oil production and consumption. Consequently, there are several challenges due in part to the decreasing demand in the EU (among others due to structural changes in the economy, more efficient use of oil products and in transport substitution by biofuels or electricity) and imbalance in supply/demand (for example increasing EU gasoil/diesel/jet fuel demand and shrinking gasoline demand).
Further Eurostat information
- Energy balance sheets - 2014 data (2016 edition)
- Energy, transport and environment indicators (2015 edition)
- Shedding light on energy in the EU - A guided tour of energy statistics
- Energy (t_nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - main indicators (t_nrg_indic)
- Energy statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - quantities, annual data (nrg_quant)
Methodology / Metadata
- Energy statistics - quantities, annual data (ESMS metadata file)
Source data for tables, figures and maps (MS Excel)
- Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics
- European Commission - DG Energy
- International Energy Agency
- Wikipedia: Oil fields of Europe