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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).

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Updated: High-tech statistics

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High-tech exports by high-technology group of products, EU-27 and selected countries, 2013.png
This article analyses data on high-technology or 'high-tech' sectors in the European Union (EU) and in some EFTA and candidate countries. In the global race for competitiveness, it is essential to create, exploit and commercialise new technologies. High-tech sectors and enterprises are key drivers of economic growth, productivity, and generally provide high value added and well-paid employment. More ...

New: Annual national accounts - how ESA 2010 has changed the main GDP aggregates

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Impact of methodological changes and statistical improvements on the level of GDP 2010.png
This article analyses the impact of ESA 2010 revisions focusing on nominal GDP at the European level. Observing the main aggregates of the three approaches used in estimating GDP at market prices, it includes an analysis of the industries which have generated significant revisions to gross value added (GVA), and continues with a similar analysis of the categories of final expenditure and of the components of income. More ...

Updated: Inflation in the euro area

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Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2005-2015-01-p.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are actual HICP figures. More ...

Updated: Minimum wage statistics

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Minimum wages, 1 January 2015 (EUR per month) YB15 II.png
This article illustrates how minimum wage levels vary considerably across the European Union (EU) Member States; it also provides a comparison with the situation in the candidate countries and the United States. Minimum wage statistics, as published by Eurostat, refer to national minimum wages. More ...

New: Road freight vehicle statistics - lorries, road tractors and trailers

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Share of lorries by load capacity class, % of all registered lorries, 31 12 2012 (1).png
This article presents statistics on vehicles for transport of freight in the European Union (EU): lorries, road tractors, semi-trailers and trailers. It describes the development in the number of such vehicles and describes the trends in the registration of new vehicles. It also analyses the load capacity of these vehicles, which is essential for the capacity of the transport sector in the EU to move freight. More ...

Updated: Air pollution by industries and households

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Total acidifying potential emissions, EU 27, 2000 - 2012, (thousand tonnes of SO2 equivalents of SO2, NOx and NH3) New.png
This article analyses the emissions to air of five acidifying gases and ozone precursor substances in the European Union (EU) in a breakdown by industries and households that are responsible for their generation. The data source is the European environmental accounts. The article also briefly explains the differences between air emissions accounts reported under the Regulation (EU) Nr 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts, More ...

New: Agriculture statistics - family farming in the EU

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Average utilised agricultural area per holding for farms with only family workers, 2010 (hectares).png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles that together form Eurostat’s statistical book on Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. It presents data on family farming which is based on the most recent farm structure survey (FSS) conducted across the European Union (EU) as an agricultural census in 2009/10. The United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) declared 2014 to be the International year of family farming. The FAO defines a family farm as “… an agricultural holding which is managed and operated by a household and where farm labour is largely supplied by that household”. More ...

Updated: Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics

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Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports (in million tonnes) 1997-2013.png
This article presents the latest statistical data on freight handling and passenger traffic in ports in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. It also covers maritime transport flows with the main partner geographical areas, as well as individual results for major European ports. This article contains data for 2013. The next update (with figures for 2014) is provisionally scheduled for February 2016. Please note that the 2012 and 2013 figures for France are provisional estimates which are likely to be revised. More ...

Today's article


Energy production and imports

Production of primary energy, EU-28, 2012 (% of total, based on tonnes of oil equivalent) YB14.png
The dependency of the European Union (EU) on energy imports, particularly of oil and more recently of gas, forms the backdrop for policy concerns relating to the security of energy supplies. This article looks at the production of primary energy in the EU and, as a result of the shortfall between production and consumption, the EU’s increasing dependency on energy imports from non-member countries. Indeed, more than half (53.4 %) of the EU-28’s gross inland energy consumption in 2012 came from imported sources.

Main statistical findings

Primary production

Production of primary energy in the EU-28 totalled 794.3 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 2012. This continued the generally downward trend observed in recent years, with 2010 the main exception as production rebounded after a relatively strong fall in 2009 that coincided with the financial and economic crisis. When viewed over a longer period, the production of primary energy in the EU-28 was 15.7 % lower in 2012 than it had been a decade earlier. The general downward trend of EU-28 production may, at least in part, be attributed to supplies of raw materials becoming exhausted and/or producers considering the exploitation of limited resources uneconomical.

The highest level of primary energy production among the EU Member States was in France, with a 16.8 % share of the EU-28 total, followed by Germany (15.6 %) and the United Kingdom (14.6 %). Compared with a decade earlier the main change was the fall in the share of the United Kingdom, down from 27.1 % — see Table 1. The only other Member States whose shares fell over this period were Denmark (-0.6 percentage points) and Lithuania (-0.4 percentage points). In absolute terms, the largest expansions in the production of primary energy during the 10 years to 2012 were registered in Italy and Sweden (both up 4.4 million toe), and the Netherlands (up 4.3 million toe).

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