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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


Updated: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2004-2014-12-p version 2.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are early estimates of euro area inflation. More ...

Updated: Housing price statistics - house price index

House Price Indices euro area and EU aggregates Index levels 2010 100 2014Q3.PNG
This article describes the house price index (HPI) in the euro area and the European Union (EU), presenting data on this indicator both at European and Member State level. It also provides examples of possible use of this indicator in relation to other statistics, such as consumer price indices, rent price indices and household disposable income. Finally, a summary description of the methodology used in the compilation of the HPI is given. More ...

Updated: Underemployment and potential additional labour force statistics

Unemployment rate and new supplementary indicators, EU-28, age 15-74, 2008-2014Q3.png
This article reports on three forms of unemployment in the European Union (EU) which are not covered by the ILO definition of unemployment. They are: underemployed part-time workers, jobless persons seeking a job but not immediately available for work and jobless persons available for work but not seeking it. These three groups do not meet all criteria of the ILO unemployment definition i.e. being without work, actively seeking work, and being available for work. More ...

Updated: Air passenger transport - monthly statistics

Monthly growth and share EU-28 monthly passengers carried 2013-2014S1.png
This article describes the recent monthly development of passenger transport by air in the European Union (EU). A distinction is made between national (domestic), intra- and extra-EU transport, and the article also looks at the importance of airports. More ...

Updated: Natural gas market indicators

Number of main entities bringing gas and their cumulative market share in year 2013.png
This article takes a look at the natural gas markets in the European Union (EU), presenting recent statistical data on the number and activities of companies that either bring natural gas into the country or by indigenous production (IMport and PROduction  = IMPRO) and retail companies across EU Member States, Serbia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). More ...

Updated: Electricity market indicators

Cumulative market share and installed capacity share 2013.png
This article takes a look at electricity markets in the European Union (EU), presenting recent statistical data on the number of electricity generating and retailing companies across EU Member States and Norway, FYR of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Turkey. More ...

Updated: Innovation statistics

Share of innovative enterprises, 2010–12 (¹) (% of all enterprises) YB15.png
This article discusses the innovativeness of enterprises in the European Union (EU). It provides information on the state of innovation and focuses on some features and key aspects of the development of innovations implemented by enterprises. More ...

Updated: Government finance statistics - quarterly data

EU-28 and EA-18 quarterly net lending - net borrowing by country, seasonally adjusted data.png
In recent years Eurostat has significantly expanded the range of integrated quarterly data on government finances available, providing a timely and increasingly high quality picture of the evolution of government finances in the European Union (EU). The data presented in this article reflect both non-financial and financial (quarterly non-financial and financial accounts for general government) transactions and cover all European Union (EU-28) countries as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. This article is based on data transmitted to Eurostat at the end of December 2014 and during January 2015 and includes data coverage of the third quarter of 2014. It is the second ESA 2010 data published for quarterly government finance statistics. More ...

Today's article

Income distribution statistics

At-risk-of-poverty rate before and after social transfers, 2012 (1) (%) YB14 II.png
This article analyses recent statistics on monetary poverty and income inequalities in the European Union (EU). Comparisons of standards of living between countries are frequently based on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, which presents in monetary terms how rich one country is compared with another. However, this headline indicator says very little about the distribution of income within a country and also fails to provide information in relation to non-monetary factors that may play a significant role in determining the quality of life of a particular population. On the one hand, inequalities in income distribution may create incentives for people to improve their situation through work, innovation or acquiring new skills. On the other hand, such income inequalities are often viewed as being linked to crime, poverty and social exclusion.

Main statistical findings

At-risk-of-poverty rate and threshold

In 2012, 17.0 % of the EU-28 population was assessed to be at-risk-of-poverty after social transfers (see Figure 1). This share, calculated as a weighted average of national results, conceals considerable variations across the EU Member States. In five Member States, namely Greece (23.1 %), Romania (22.6 %), Spain (22.2 %), Bulgaria (21.2 %) and Croatia (20.5 %), one fifth or more of the population was viewed as being at-risk-of-poverty. The lowest proportions of persons at-risk-of-poverty were observed in the Netherlands (10.1 %) and the Czech Republic (9.6 %). Norway (10.1 %) and Iceland (7.9 %) also reported relatively low shares of their respective populations as being at-risk-of-poverty. More ...