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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


Updated: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2005-February-2015-e.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are early estimates of euro area inflation. More ...

Updated: Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics

Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports (in million tonnes) 1997-2013.png
This article presents the latest statistical data on freight handling and passenger traffic in ports in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. It also covers maritime transport flows with the main partner geographical areas, as well as individual results for major European ports. This article contains data for 2013. The next update (with figures for 2014) is provisionally scheduled for February 2016. Please note that the 2012 and 2013 figures for France are provisional estimates which are likely to be revised. More ...

Updated: Gender pay gap statistics

The unadjusted gender pay gap, 2013 (1) - difference between average gross hourly earnings of male and female employees as % of male gross earnings.png
This article shows how gender inequalities in terms of pay vary widely among the Member States of the European Union (EU) and among groups of employees. The unadjusted gender pay pap (GPG) is an important indicator used within the European employment strategy (EES) to monitor imbalances in wages between men and women. It is defined as the difference between the average gross hourly earnings of men and women expressed as a percentage of the average gross hourly earnings of men. More ...

New: Services trade by enterprise characteristics - STEC

Figure 1. Exported services by enterprise's size class, by countries, 2011.png
What do we know about the enterprises that trade in services from one economy to another? What is the impact of trade in services on employment in a world of interconnected economies? This article aims to describe the universe of service traders, by focusing on enterprise level data and providing a closer view of the traders' characteristics such as: size (the number of employees), ownership (foreign-controlled or domestic) and economic activity. More ...

Updated: Unemployment statistics

Unemployment rates, seasonally adjusted, January 2015.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000. Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. More ...

Updated: Agricultural accounts and prices

Intermediate inputs consumed by the agricultural industry at basic prices, EU-28, 2013.png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. It gives an overview of indicators on agricultural output, agricultural income and of agricultural prices in the European Union (EU). The data are extracted from Eurostat collections of agricultural statistics: economic accounts for agriculture (EAA), agricultural price indices (API) and absolute agricultural prices. More ...

Updated: Minimum wage statistics

Minimum wages, 1 January 2015 (EUR per month) YB15 II.png
This article illustrates how minimum wage levels vary considerably across the European Union (EU) Member States; it also provides a comparison with the situation in the candidate countries and the United States. Minimum wage statistics, as published by Eurostat, refer to national minimum wages. More ...

Updated: Europe 2020 indicators - climate change and energy

Final energy consumption, by sector, EU-28 Fig 15.PNG
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Smarter, greener, more inclusive? - Indicators to support the Europe 2020 strategy. It provides recent statistics on climate change and energy in the European Union (EU), key areas of the EU's Europe 2020 strategy. As unchecked climate change would erode the foundations of modern society, the EU has committed to limiting the mean global temperature rise to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, through reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). More ...

Today's article

Migration and migrant population statistics

Immigration by citizenship, 2012 YB14 II.png
This article presents European Union (EU) statistics on international migration, population stocks of national and foreign (non-national) citizens and data relating to the acquisition of citizenship. Migration is influenced by a combination of economic, political and social factors: either in a migrant’s country of origin (push factors) or in the country of destination (pull factors). Historically, the relative economic prosperity and political stability of the EU are thought to have exerted a considerable pull effect on immigrants.

In destination countries, international migration may be used as a tool to solve specific labour market shortages. However, migration alone will almost certainly not reverse the ongoing trend of population ageing experienced in many parts of the EU.

Main statistical findings

Migration flows

Immigration to the EU-27 was 1.7 million in 2012

During 2012, there were an estimated 1.7 million immigrants to the EU-27 from countries outside the EU-27. In addition, 1.7 million people previously residing in one of the EU Member States migrated to another Member State.

Thus, about 3.4 million people immigrated to one of the EU-27 Member States, while at least 2.7 million emigrants were reported to have left an EU-27 Member State. It should be noted that the two figures above do not represent the migration flows to / from the EU as a whole, since they also include flows between different EU Member States.

Germany reported the largest number of immigrants (592 200) in 2012, followed by the United Kingdom (498 000), Italy (350 800), France (327 400) and Spain (304 100). Spain reported the highest number of emigrants in 2012 (446 600), followed by the United Kingdom (321 200), France (288 300) and Poland (275 600). A total of 14 of the EU-27 Member States reported more immigration than emigration in 2012. However, in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Cyprus, Poland, Portugal, Romania and the three Baltic Member States, emigrants outnumbered immigrants, as they did in Croatia. More ...