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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).

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Updated: Europe 2020 indicators - climate change and energy

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Final energy consumption, by sector, EU-28 Fig 15.PNG
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Smarter, greener, more inclusive? - Indicators to support the Europe 2020 strategy. It provides recent statistics on climate change and energy in the European Union (EU), key areas of the EU's Europe 2020 strategy. As unchecked climate change would erode the foundations of modern society, the EU has committed to limiting the mean global temperature rise to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, through reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). More ...

Updated: Unemployment statistics

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Unemployment rates, seasonally adjusted, January 2015.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000. Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. More ...

Updated: Inflation in the euro area

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Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2005-February-2015-e.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are early estimates of euro area inflation. More ...

Updated: Gender pay gap statistics

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The unadjusted gender pay gap, 2013 (1) - difference between average gross hourly earnings of male and female employees as % of male gross earnings.png
This article shows how gender inequalities in terms of pay vary widely among the Member States of the European Union (EU) and among groups of employees. The unadjusted gender pay pap (GPG) is an important indicator used within the European employment strategy (EES) to monitor imbalances in wages between men and women. It is defined as the difference between the average gross hourly earnings of men and women expressed as a percentage of the average gross hourly earnings of men. More ...

Updated: Agricultural accounts and prices

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Intermediate inputs consumed by the agricultural industry at basic prices, EU-28, 2013.png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. It gives an overview of indicators on agricultural output, agricultural income and of agricultural prices in the European Union (EU). The data are extracted from Eurostat collections of agricultural statistics: economic accounts for agriculture (EAA), agricultural price indices (API) and absolute agricultural prices. More ...

New: Services trade by enterprise characteristics - STEC

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Figure 1. Exported services by enterprise's size class, by countries, 2011.png
What do we know about the enterprises that trade in services from one economy to another? What is the impact of trade in services on employment in a world of interconnected economies? This article aims to describe the universe of service traders, by focusing on enterprise level data and providing a closer view of the traders' characteristics such as: size (the number of employees), ownership (foreign-controlled or domestic) and economic activity. More ...

Updated: Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics

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Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports (in million tonnes) 1997-2013.png
This article presents the latest statistical data on freight handling and passenger traffic in ports in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. It also covers maritime transport flows with the main partner geographical areas, as well as individual results for major European ports. This article contains data for 2013. The next update (with figures for 2014) is provisionally scheduled for February 2016. Please note that the 2012 and 2013 figures for France are provisional estimates which are likely to be revised. More ...

Today's article


Education statistics at regional level

Participation rates of four year-olds in pre-primary and primary education (ISCED levels 0 and 1), by NUTS 2 regions, 2012 (1) (% of four year-olds) RYB14.png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat Regional Yearbook publication. It presents a selection of the regional education and training statistics that are available within Eurostat. Education, vocational training and more generally lifelong learning play a vital role in the economic and social strategies of the European Union (EU).

Main statistical findings

Figures for the EU-28 for 2011 indicate that there were 93.7 million students enrolled in regular education systems covering all levels of education from primary to postgraduate studies; there were an additional 15.4 million children enrolled in pre-primary education.

Eurostat compiles and publishes education and training statistics for EU regions, the individual EU Member States, as well as the EU-28 aggregate; in addition, a subset of information is available for EFTA and candidate countries. These statistics are generally available for NUTS 2 regions and this article presents data relating to educational participation and early leavers from education and training, enrolments and attainment, and adult lifelong learning. Statistics for the participation rates of four year-olds and the number of students in tertiary education are only available at the national level for Croatia, while these indicators are presented for NUTS 1 regions across Germany and the United Kingdom.

Participation of four year-olds in education

Map 1: Participation rates of four year-olds in pre-primary and primary education
(ISCED levels 0 and 1), by NUTS 2 regions, 2012 (1)
(% of four year-olds) - Source: Eurostat (educ_regind)

The legal age to start education varies across the EU Member States: in Luxembourg and Northern Ireland (in the United Kingdom) compulsory education starts at age four, while in other EU regions it starts between five and seven years of age; enrolment in pre-primary education is generally voluntary across most EU Member States. The Europe 2020 strategy emphasises raising participation rates of young children in preparation for the start of compulsory education. One of its headline targets is to raise the share of children participating in pre-primary education to at least 95 % by the year 2020. More ...


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