Welcome To Statistics Explained

Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up an encyclopedia of European statistics for everyone, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users.

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New / updated articles

Municipal waste statistics
Updated 26/03/2015
This article shows trends in municipal waste generation and treatment in the European Union (EU) from 1995 to 2013. There is a very distinct trend towards less landfilling as countries move steadily towards alternative ways of treating waste. Municipal waste accounts for only about 10 % of total waste generated when compared with the data reported according to the Waste Statistics Regulation (tab env_wasgen). More ...
This article takes a look at long-term trends in the number of lives lost in road traffic accidents in the European Union (EU), down to the regional level for the latest year available. The total number of fatalities in road traffic accidents decreased by 61 % between 1990 and 2012 (Figure 1) at the level of the EU-28 and by 51 % since 2000 (Target expressed in the European Commission’s White Paper: -50% between 2000 and 2010). More ...
This article is part of an online publication and provides a description of the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector in the European Union (EU) and in the six countries that together form the European Neighbourhood Policy-East (ENP-E) region, namely, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. More ...
Job vacancy statistics
Updated 20/03/2015
This article gives an overview of recent job vacancy statistics in the European Union (EU), notably the job vacancy rate (JVR). Job vacancy trends over the last decade are analysed in another article. The News Release with quarterly data on the job vacancy rate is available here. More ...
E-commerce statistics
Updated 20/03/2015
This article focuses on the electronic commerce (e-commerce) statistics in the European Union (EU) and is based on the results of the 2014 Community survey on 'ICT usage and e-commerce in enterprises'. E-commerce refers here to the trading of goods or services over computer networks such as the internet. It can be divided into e-commerce sales (e-sales) and e-commerce purchases (e-purchases) according to the way in which an enterprise receives or places orders respectively. More ...
The labour cost index (LCI) shows the short-term development of the labour cost, the total cost on an hourly basis of employing labour. In other words, the LCI measures the cost pressure arising from the production factor “labour”. This article takes a look at the most recent evolutions of the LCI, both at the level of the European Union (EU) and the Member States. More ...

Did you know that....

In 2013, the share of employees working part-time was highest in the Netherlands (52.4 % of employees), followed by Germany (27.6 %) and Austria (26.5 %), while the lowest shares were recorded in Romania (0.7 %), Bulgaria (2.2 %) and Slovakia (5.1 %). Read more...

Focus on

Employment statistics
Employment rate, age group 15–64, 2013 (%) YB15.png
This article presents recent European Union (EU) employment statistics, including an analysis based on important socioeconomic dimensions: employment statistics show significant differences by sex, age and educational level attained. There are also considerable labour market disparities across EU Member States.

Labour market statistics are at the heart of many EU policies following the introduction of an employment chapter into the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997. The employment rate, in other words the proportion of the working age population that is in employment, is considered to be a key social indicator for analytical purposes when studying developments within labour markets.

Main statistical findings

Employment rates by sex, age and educational attainment

In 2013, the EU-28 employment rate for persons aged 15 to 64, as measured by the EU’s labour force survey (EU LFS), stood at 64.1 %. The EU-28 employment rate peaked in 2008 at 65.7 % and decreased during successive years to stand at 64.0 % in 2010. This decrease during the global financial and economic crisis — a total fall of 1.7 percentage points — was halted in 2011 when there was a small increase in the EU-28 employment rate, to stand at 64.2 %, after which it fell by 0.1 percentage points, remaining at 64.1 % since 2012 — see Table 1. Among the EU Member States, employment rates in 2013 reached highs in the range of 72 % to 74 % in Austria, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, peaking at 74.4 % in Sweden. At the other end of the scale, employment rates were below 60 % in eight of the EU-28 Member States, with the lowest rates being recorded in Croatia (49.2 %) and Greece (49.3 %) — see Figure 1.

Between the start of the financial and economic crisis and 2013 (the latest data available), there were considerable differences in the performances of the individual labour markets. While the overall employment rate for the EU-28 in 2013 remained 1.6 percentage points below its level of 2008, there were nine EU Member States which reported an increase in their respective rates. The biggest gains were recorded in Malta (up 5.3 percentage points) and Germany (3.2 points), while Luxembourg, Hungary and the Czech Republic each reported gains of more than 1 percentage point. By contrast, the Greek employment rate fell from 61.9 % in 2008 to just below 50 % in 2013. There were also considerable reductions — of at least 5 percentage points —between 2008 and 2013 for the employment rates of Spain, Cyprus, Croatia, Portugal, Ireland, Denmark and Slovenia.

Employment rates are generally lower among women and older workers. In 2013, the employment rate for men stood at 69.4 % in the EU-28, as compared with 58.8 % for women. A longer-term comparison shows that while the employment rate for men in 2013 was below its corresponding level 10 years earlier (70.3 % in 2003), there was a marked increase in the proportion of women in employment — rising 4.0 percentage points from 54.8 % in 2003 — see Table 2.

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