Welcome To Statistics Explained

Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up an encyclopedia of European statistics for everyone, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users.

To find the information you need, please select a theme from the menu below or use the coloured boxes on the right. The search function (alt-f) can also be used.

New / updated articles

This article is part of an online publication; it presents information on a range of labour force statistics for the European Union (EU) and in the six countries that together form the European Neighbourhood Policy-East (ENP-East) region, namely, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. The article presents indicators such as activity rates, employment rates, an analysis of employment by economic activity and professional status, and statistics on unemployment. More ...
Trade in raw materials is extremely important for the sustainability of European countries and their economies. Construction, chemicals, the automotive and aerospace industries, machinery and equipment are some of the sectors that are most dependent on access to raw materials. More ...
This article analyses global trends in the structure of general government expenditure breakdown by their main socio-economic function (according to the Classification of the Functions of Government - COFOG), with a focus on social protection expenditure. More ...
This article takes a look at the most recent statistics (2014 monthly cumulated data and provisional 2014 annual data as voluntarily supplied by Member States) on the volumes of electricity that have been produced and supplied at the level of the European Union (EU-28), the euro area (EA-19) and at the level of the individual Member States of the EU-28 and of Norway and Turkey. For years before 2014, annual data have been used. More ...
In June 2014, Eurostat published an article describing the construction of a set of indicators of economic globalisation. This set of indicators has now been extended in two ways. Firstly, the indicators are calculated separately for intra-EU and extra-EU partners; secondly, the indicators are calculated separately for 12 NACE Rev. 2 sections of the non-financial business economy. The present article shows graphs and figures for nine of the indicators in two NACE sections (manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade) to illustrate the type of information that could be used to track the various aspects of globalisation. More ...
This article presents recent statistics on the tourism industries in the European Union (EU). While tourism statistics focus on either the accommodation sector or the demand side (from households), and relate mainly to physical flows (arrivals or nights spent at tourist accommodation or trips made by residents of a country), this analysis is based on economic data extracted from other areas of official statistics, in particular structural business statistics (SBS) and short-term business statistics (STS). Thus a more complete economic analysis can be drawn of this sector, which is an important motor for many countries' economies and labour markets. More ...

Did you know that....

Almost half (49 %) of all enterprises in the EU-28 carried out innovation activities during the period 2010-12. Read more...

Focus on

National accounts and GDP
Real GDP growth, 2003–13 (% change compared with the previous year) YB14.png
National accounts are the source for a multitude of well-known economic indicators which are presented in this article. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most frequently used measure for the overall size of an economy, while derived indicators such as GDP per capita — for example, in euro or adjusted for differences in price levels — are widely used for a comparison of living standards, or to monitor the process of convergence across the European Union (EU).

Moreover, the development of specific GDP components and related indicators, such as those for economic output, imports and exports, domestic (private and public) consumption or investments, as well as data on the distribution of income and savings, can give valuable insights into the driving forces in an economy and thus be the basis for the design, monitoring and evaluation of specific EU policies.

Main statistical findings

Developments in GDP

Growth in the EU-28’s GDP slowed substantially in 2008 and GDP contracted considerably in 2009 as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. There was a recovery in the level of EU-28 GDP in 2010 and this development continued (albeit at a progressively slower pace) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, as GDP increased to EUR 13 075 000 million — its highest ever level in current price terms (see Figure 1).

The euro area (EA-18) accounted for 73.4 % of this total in 2013, while the sum of the five largest EU Member State economies (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain) was 71.0 %. However, cross-country comparisons should be made with caution as notably exchange rate fluctuations may significantly influence the development of nominal GDP figures for those EU Member States which have not adopted the euro.

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