’s material flow accounts are a comprehensive data framework that systematically records the inputs of materials to European economies, breaking them down by material category such as fossil energy materials
, metal ores
etc. More ...
This article presents the European Union (EU)
indicators on the enforcement of immigration legislation (EIL)
. It provides statistics on non-EU citizens refused entry at external borders,
apprehended as being illegally present or subject to an obligation to leave the territory of an EU Member State. The indicators in this article can be regarded as an official record of persons subject to enforcement of immigration
legislation, providing a general overview of the outcomes of territorial surveillance and control procedures. More ...
The labour cost index (LCI)
shows the short-term development of the labour cost
, the total cost on an hourly basis of employing labour. In other words, the LCI measures the cost pressure arising from the production factor “labour”. This article takes a look at the most recent evolutions of the LCI, both at the level of the European Union (EU)
and the Member States
. More ...
— a contraction of biological diversity — encompasses the number, variety and variability of living organisms, including mankind. Given that humans depend on the natural richness of our planet for the food, energy, raw materials, clean air and clean water that make life possible and drive economies and societies, most commentators agree it is imperative that humans seek to prevent a loss of biodiversity, as a reduction or loss of biodiversity may not only undermine the natural environment but also economic and social goals.
The challenges associated with preserving biodiversity have made this topic an international issue. This article examines two indicators for biodiversity in the European Union (EU)
— namely, information on protected areas (for terrestrial and maritime areas) and bird populations. More ...
This article describes recent developments in relation to numbers of asylum applicants
and first instance decisions on asylum applications
in the European Union (EU)
. Asylum is a form of international protection given by a state on its territory. It is granted to a person who is unable to seek protection in his/her country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. More ...
This article presents an overview of the findings of the 2014 ‘Survey on ICT (information and communication technology) usage in households and by individuals’. It takes a closer look at individuals' internet and mobile internet use in the EU
and a set of newly released indicators relating to the use of cloud services. More ...
This article presents statistical data on business demography
in the European Union (EU)
, treating aspects such as the total number of active enterprises
in the business economy
, their birth rates
, death rates
, and the survival rate
. In the business demography domain, the business economy
covers sections B to N, excluding activities of holding companies – K64.2 (NACE Rev.2
). More ...
This article is part of the Eurostat
online publication Tourism trips of Europeans
, providing recent statistics on tourism demand
in the European Union (EU)
Three types of tourism
flows can be distinguished: domestic tourism (persons making tourism trips within their country of residence), outbound tourism and inbound tourism. More ...
This article presents European Union (EU) statistics on international migration, population stocks of national and foreign (non-national) citizens and data relating to the acquisition of citizenship. Migration is influenced by a combination of economic, political and social factors: either in a migrant’s country of origin (push factors) or in the country of destination (pull factors). Historically, the relative economic prosperity and political stability of the EU are thought to have exerted a considerable pull effect on immigrants.
In destination countries, international migration may be used as a tool to solve specific labour market shortages. However, migration alone will almost certainly not reverse the ongoing trend of population ageing experienced in many parts of the EU.
Main statistical findings
Immigration to the EU-27 was 1.7 million in 2012
During 2012, there were an estimated 1.7 million immigrants to the EU-27 from countries outside the EU-27. In addition, 1.7 million people previously residing in one of the EU Member States migrated to another Member State.
Thus, about 3.4 million people immigrated to one of the EU-27 Member States, while at least 2.7 million emigrants were reported to have left an EU-27 Member State. It should be noted that the two figures above do not represent the migration flows to / from the EU as a whole, since they also include flows between different EU Member States.
Germany reported the largest number of immigrants (592 200) in 2012, followed by the United Kingdom (498 000), Italy (350 800), France (327 400) and Spain (304 100). Spain reported the highest number of emigrants in 2012 (446 600), followed by the United Kingdom (321 200), France (288 300) and Poland (275 600). A total of 14 of the EU-27 Member States reported more immigration than emigration in 2012. However, in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Cyprus, Poland, Portugal, Romania and the three Baltic Member States, emigrants outnumbered immigrants, as they did in Croatia.