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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


Updated: Seasonality in tourism demand

Distribution over the year of trips and nights spent of EU residents by month of departure(¹), EU-28(²), 2012 (%).png
This article is part of the Eurostat online publication Tourism trips of Europeans, which provides recent statistics on tourism demand in the European Union (EU) and EFTA countries. The article focuses on the seasonal pattern of tourism demand in the European Union (EU): the trips made by EU residents and the number of nights spent on those trips. More ...

New: Statistics on enforcement of immigration legislation

Non-EU citizens refused entry at the external borders of the EU-28, by EU Member State, 2013.png
This article presents the European Union (EU) indicators on the enforcement of immigration legislation (EIL). It provides statistics on non-EU citizens refused entry at external borders,[1] apprehended as being illegally present or subject to an obligation to leave the territory of an EU Member State. The indicators in this article can be regarded as an official record of persons subject to enforcement of immigration legislation, providing a general overview of the outcomes of territorial surveillance and control procedures. More ...

New: Material flow accounts - flows in raw material equivalents

Comparison of actual material flow indicators with material flow indicators expressed in raw material equivalents (RME), EU-27, 2012 (tonnes per capita).png
This article presents an extension of the material flow accounts framework by estimating the material footprint of the goods consumed in the European Union (EU), i.e. the total amount of raw materials needed to produce them. It shows that raw material consumption in the EU-27 is 14.2 tonnes per capita, while domestic material consumption (DMC) is 13.5 tonnes per capita. More ...

Updated: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components (%), 2014, November 2013 and June - November 2014-p.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are actual HICP figures. More ...

New: Electricity and heat statistics

Gross electricity generation by fuel, GWh, EU-28, 1990-2012 new.png
This article provides an overview of electricity and derived heat production as well as consumption in the European Union (EU) in 2012, based on the annual data provided by each Member State. Detailed data are available on gross electricity and derived heat production by type of generation plant (main activity producers, autoproducers) and by product generated (electricity only plants , combined heat and power (CHP) plants, heat only plants). In addition, simplified electricity and derived heat balances as well as trade data and other indicators are provided in the source file that can be found at the end of this article. More ...

Statistics in focus: Internet and cloud services - statistics on the use by individuals

Individuals who used the internet away from home or work, 2012 and 2014 (% of individuals)2 .png
This article presents an overview of the findings of the 2014 ‘Survey on ICT (information and communication technology) usage in households and by individuals’. It takes a closer look at individuals' internet and mobile internet use in the EU and a set of newly released indicators relating to the use of cloud services. More ...

Updated: Labour cost index - recent trends

Total nominal hourly labour cost, 2014 Q3 (% change compared to previous quarter).png
The labour cost index (LCI) shows the short-term development of the labour cost, the total cost on an hourly basis of employing labour. In other words, the LCI measures the cost pressure arising from the production factor “labour”. This article takes a look at the most recent evolutions of the LCI, both at the level of the European Union (EU) and the Member States. More ...

New: Intra-EU trade in goods - recent trends

Evolution of intra EU28 export trade, 2002-2013 (EUR 1 000 million).png
This article takes a close look at recent trends, focusing on total intra-EU trade in goods and the most traded products. It presents statistics for the EU-28 aggregate and for individual Member States for the period covering 2002 to 2013, although the composition of the actual EU has changed over this period. Statistics on international trade in goods between Member States of the European Union (EU)- especially the size and evolution of imports and exports - enable the EU and national authorities to evaluate the growth of the Single Market and the integration of EU economies. These statistics also provide EU businesses with essential information for their sales and marketing policies. More ...

Today's article

National accounts and GDP

Real GDP growth, 2003–13 (% change compared with the previous year) YB14.png
National accounts are the source for a multitude of well-known economic indicators which are presented in this article. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most frequently used measure for the overall size of an economy, while derived indicators such as GDP per capita — for example, in euro or adjusted for differences in price levels — are widely used for a comparison of living standards, or to monitor the process of convergence across the European Union (EU).

Moreover, the development of specific GDP components and related indicators, such as those for economic output, imports and exports, domestic (private and public) consumption or investments, as well as data on the distribution of income and savings, can give valuable insights into the driving forces in an economy and thus be the basis for the design, monitoring and evaluation of specific EU policies.

Main statistical findings

Developments in GDP

Growth in the EU-28’s GDP slowed substantially in 2008 and GDP contracted considerably in 2009 as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. There was a recovery in the level of EU-28 GDP in 2010 and this development continued (albeit at a progressively slower pace) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, as GDP increased to EUR 13 075 000 million — its highest ever level in current price terms (see Figure 1).

The euro area (EA-18) accounted for 73.4 % of this total in 2013, while the sum of the five largest EU Member State economies (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain) was 71.0 %. However, cross-country comparisons should be made with caution as notably exchange rate fluctuations may significantly influence the development of nominal GDP figures for those EU Member States which have not adopted the euro. More ...

  1. The EIL statistics refer to the concept of ‘external borders’ for all EU-28 Member States and EFTA countries even if some are not in the Schengen area. The ‘external borders’ of the Schengen area do not coincide with the ‘external borders’ of the EU-28 Member States due to the opt-out of the United Kingdom and Ireland and the inclusion in the Schengen area of the non-EU Member States Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland and the fact that Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania are not yet members of the Schengen area.