Welcome To Statistics Explained

Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up an encyclopedia of European statistics for everyone, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users.

To find the information you need, please select a theme from the menu below or use the coloured boxes on the right. The search function (alt-f) can also be used.

New / updated articles

International trade — especially the size and evolution of imports and exports — is an important indicator of a country’s economic performance, showing its status on the international stage. This article takes a closer look at recent trends in imports and exports of several of the world’s big economies, focusing on key trade statistics for goods and giving an insight into EU trading patterns compared to the world’s major economies. The article only deals with extra-EU trade, and does not consider trade between EU Member States (intra-EU trade). More ...
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat flagship publication 'Being young in Europe today' (which can be consulted in order to get a layouted pdf version). The right to education for children and young people contribute to their overall development and consequently lays the foundations for later success in life in terms of employability, social integration, health and wellbeing. Education and training play a crucial role in counteracting the negative effects of social disadvantage. The European Union (EU) therefore wants all children and young people to be able to access and benefit from high-quality education, care and training. More ...
This article is part of an online publication and provides information on a range of labour market statistics for the enlargement countries (except Iceland), in other words the candidate countries and potential candidates. More ...
This article is part of an online publication and provides data on economic statistics for the 10 countries that form the European Neighbourhood Policy-South (ENP-South) region, namely, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia. Recent developments for education statistics in these countries and in the European Union (EU) are presented. The article shows, among others, statistics on compulsory school years, literacy rates, public expenditure on education, youth educational attainment and statistics on tertiary education. More ...
In recent years Eurostat has significantly expanded the range of integrated quarterly data on government finances available, providing a timely and increasingly high quality picture of the evolution of government finances in the European Union (EU). The data presented in this article reflect both non-financial and financial (quarterly non-financial and financial accounts for general government) transactions and cover all European Union (EU-28) countries as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. This article is based on data transmitted to Eurostat at the end of March 2015 and during April 2015 and includes data coverage of the fourth quarter of 2014. It is the third ESA 2010 data published for quarterly government finance statistics. More ...
This article provides an overview of regional unemployment rates across the 272 NUTS-2 regions of the European Union (EU) in 2014, compiled by Eurostat on the basis of data from the EU Labour force survey. Just over half of the NUTS 2 regions1 of the European Union (EU) recorded a decrease of at least 0.5 percentage points in their regional unemployment rate in 2014 compared with 2013. Regional unemployment rates varied widely across the 272 NUTS-2 regions of the EU-28 in 2014, with the lowest rates recorded in the regions of Praha in the Czech Republic and Oberbayern in Germany (both 2.5 %) followed by Tübingen, Oberpfalz, Niederbayern and Unterfranken in Germany (all below 3.0 %), while the highest rates were registered in the Spanish regions of Andalucia (34.8 %), Canarias (32.4 %), Ceuta (31.9 %), Extremadura (29.8 %) and Castilla-la Mancha (29.0 %). More ...

Did you know that....

In 2012, overall greenhouse gas emissions were 9.7 % lower than they had been in 2000 in the EU, in other words, 502 million tonnes less of CO2-eq. were emitted. Read more...

Focus on

National accounts and GDP
Real GDP growth, 2003–13 (% change compared with the previous year) YB14.png
National accounts are the source for a multitude of well-known economic indicators which are presented in this article. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most frequently used measure for the overall size of an economy, while derived indicators such as GDP per capita — for example, in euro or adjusted for differences in price levels — are widely used for a comparison of living standards, or to monitor the process of convergence across the European Union (EU).

Moreover, the development of specific GDP components and related indicators, such as those for economic output, imports and exports, domestic (private and public) consumption or investments, as well as data on the distribution of income and savings, can give valuable insights into the driving forces in an economy and thus be the basis for the design, monitoring and evaluation of specific EU policies.

Main statistical findings

Developments in GDP

Growth in the EU-28’s GDP slowed substantially in 2008 and GDP contracted considerably in 2009 as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. There was a recovery in the level of EU-28 GDP in 2010 and this development continued (albeit at a progressively slower pace) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, as GDP increased to EUR 13 075 000 million — its highest ever level in current price terms (see Figure 1).

The euro area (EA-18) accounted for 73.4 % of this total in 2013, while the sum of the five largest EU Member State economies (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain) was 71.0 %. However, cross-country comparisons should be made with caution as notably exchange rate fluctuations may significantly influence the development of nominal GDP figures for those EU Member States which have not adopted the euro.

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