Cloud computing - statistics on the use by enterprises
- Data from November 2014. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
Authors: Konstantinos GIANNAKOURIS, Maria SMIHILY
Cloud computing for business yet to go mainstream in the EU
This article presents recent statistics on enterprises' use of cloud computing services in the European Union (EU). In principle, cloud computing involves two components, a cloud infrastructure and software applications. The first consists of the hardware resources required to support the cloud services being provided and typically includes server, storage and network components. The second component refers to software applications and computing power for running business applications, as provided via the internet by third parties.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 1.1 Use of cloud computing: highlights
- 1.2 Cloud computing as a service model for meeting enterprises’ ICT needs
- 1.3 Enterprises using cloud computing
- 1.4 Enterprises’ dependence on cloud computing
- 1.5 Types of cloud computing: public and private cloud
- 1.6 Factors limiting enterprises’ use of cloud computing
- 1.7 Factors preventing enterprises from using cloud computing
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
Use of cloud computing: highlights
- 19 % of EU enterprises used cloud computing in 2014, mostly for hosting their e-mail systems and storing files in electronic form.
- 46 % of those firms used advanced cloud services relating to financial and accounting software applications, customer relationship management or to the use of computing power to run business applications.
- In 2014, almost twice as many firms used public cloud servers (12 %) as private cloud servers (7 %), i.e. infrastructure for their exclusive use.
- Four out of ten enterprises (39 %) using the cloud reported the risk of a security breach as the main limiting factor in the use of cloud computing services.
- A similar proportion (42 %) of those not using the cloud reported insufficient knowledge of cloud computing as the main factor that prevented them from using it.
Cloud computing as a service model for meeting enterprises’ ICT needs
Essentially, instead of building their own IT infrastructure (which would include hardware and involve developing and maintaining software applications and databases), enterprises can access computing resources hosted by third parties on the internet (the ‘cloud’).
In technological terms, cloud computing is a model for providing enterprises with ubiquitous, flexible, on demand access over the internet to a shared pool of configurable computing resources, including servers, databases, software applications, storage capacity and computing power.
Cloud computing can be seen as the technological evolution of server-based computing. The cloud/internet functions as an enormous networked server. Consequently, enterprises can use the services by accessing the internet using devices ranging from relatively low-cost desktop computers (‘thin clients’) to any number of various portable devices.
Cloud computing services should be delivered from service providers’ servers and, for the purposes of the ICT usage and e-commerce in enterprises survey, have the following mandatory characteristics:
- on-demand self-service: users may request computing resources without human interaction with the service provider;
- elasticity of provision: capabilities may be easily scaled up or down, e.g. in response to changes in the number of users or required storage capacity, so that enterprises can meet demand peaks without having to invest in infrastructure that will otherwise remain idle or underutilised; and
- payable services (pay-per-user, pay-per-use or pre-paid).
In principle, the service providers may deliver ICT-related services from shared servers (public cloud) or from a cloud infrastructure provided for the exclusive use of a particular enterprise (private cloud).
Enterprises using cloud computing
As cloud computing services can be delivered only via the internet, enterprises must have internet access to be able to use them. In 2014, this applied to almost all EU enterprises (97 %) with 10 or more persons employed. Although the proportion of firms with internet access was at similar near saturation levels in most Member States, only one in five (19 %) reported that they used cloud computing services (see Figure 1).
Significant differences can be observed across countries. In Finland, Iceland, Italy, Sweden and Denmark, over 30 % of enterprises used cloud computing. On the other hand, fewer than 10 % did so in Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece, Poland, Latvia and Romania.
Of the enterprises that reported using cloud computing, some 66 % relied on a cloud solution for their e-mail (see Table 1). Instead of setting up a server infrastructure for their e-mail system, which would have involved inter alia capital expenditure and maintenance costs, these firms opted for a cloud solution based on per-user operating costs.
Cloud computing services may meet a wide range of other business ICT needs. Over half of all enterprises (53 %) used the cloud for storing files in electronic form. Some 39 % used it to host their database, while 34 % reported using it for office software (e.g. word processors, spreadsheets, etc.).
Most importantly, via the cloud, enterprises access relatively more advanced end customer software applications, e.g. for finances/accounting and managing information about their customers (customer relationship management – CRM) (31 % and 21 % respectively). In addition, 17 % reported using the (usually high-performance) cloud computing platforms for computing power in order to run their own business software applications.
Not surprisingly, the highest proportion of enterprises using cloud computing services (45 %) was in the information and communication sector, while in almost all other economic sectors the percentage ranged from 14 % to 20 % (see Figure 2). ‘Professional, scientific and technical’ firms came in between, with 27 % reporting that they used the cloud.
Enterprises’ dependence on cloud computing
As regards dependence on cloud computing services, enterprises can be classified according to three levels (lower-medium, upper-medium and high) by combining the reported use of services as shown in the following table:
For this classification, all possible individual responses (in bold) are necessary conditions. For example, enterprises classified in the ‘lower-medium’ level will have reported using at least one of the services in (a), (b) or (c), but none of the others. Those classified in the ‘upper-medium’ level will, in addition, have reported using the cloud for (d), but none of the relatively advanced services in (e), (f) and (g). Enterprises classified in the ‘high’ level will have responded in the affirmative for at least one of the services in (e), (f) or (g).
19 % of EU enterprises reported using the cloud (see above) and a relatively high proportion (9 % of the total) reported using at least one of the advanced services ((e), (f) or (g)) and were hence classified as highly dependent (see Figure 3).
Accordingly, 46 % of enterprises in the EU that used cloud computing were ‘highly dependent’, while 49 % used none of the advanced services and were classified in the ‘medium’ level (see Figure 4). At the two extremes, the majority of enterprises in the manufacturing sector (58 %) belonged to the medium-dependence group, while the majority in information and communication (63 %) reported using advanced services and hence belonged to the high-dependence group.
Types of cloud computing: public and private cloud
Service providers can deliver cloud computing services with all the above characteristics in two main ways: via public cloud servers (12 % of enterprises) or private cloud servers (7 % of enterprises). The latter, by definition, involve a single-tenant environment where the hardware, storage and network are set aside for a single enterprise. Consequently, the infrastructure guarantees high levels of security, as the service provider’s other clients cannot access the same resources. Some 7 % of SMEs and 17 % of large enterprises reported using private cloud (see Figure 5).
In contrast, public cloud infrastructures are provided for shared use by multiple clients. Essentially, they tend to be highly standardised, with limited customisation options, e.g. an e-mail server can provide many firms with the necessary cloud infrastructure to manage their e-mail systems. Public cloud computing is reportedly used by 24 % of large enterprises and 12 % of SMEs in the EU.
Factors limiting enterprises’ use of cloud computing
Enterprises using cloud computing services reported several factors limiting their usage (see Figure 6). The risk of a security breach scored highest both for large enterprises and SMEs, (57 % and 38 % respectively). Clearly, firms attach importance to the protection of their IT systems, but the issue can be seen in the wider context of resilience to possible security breaches when using the cloud. Service providers would be expected to take all possible steps to establish, and transparently apply, procedures relating to possible breaches of the security of systems and services intended for their clients. Therefore, from the firms’ point of view (regardless of size), the risk of a security breach may be a matter of service providers’ liability and accountability, as well as a merely technical issue.
Large enterprises and SMEs differed somewhat as regards other limiting factors. The use of cloud computing services may require specific ICT management skills, particularly to evaluate need and use management tools to gauge consumption of IT resources accurately. Therefore, insufficient knowledge or expertise may limit the take-up of cloud computing. One in three SMEs (32 %) using the cloud reported this as a limiting factor, as compared with less than one in five large enterprises (17 %). A similar proportion of SMEs (32 %) already on the cloud regarded the high cost of cloud computing services as a limiting factor.
Cloud services are often hosted in one country and consumed in others. Service providers may use data centres scattered around the globe hence enterprises using the cloud may feel uncertain of the location of their data. In addition, there may be issues of legal jurisdiction in the event of dispute and uncertainty about the applicable law. Both factors were reported as limiting the use of cloud computing, particularly for large enterprises already using the cloud (46 % for both).
Factors preventing enterprises from using cloud computing
The majority of enterprises did not buy cloud computing services. In most sectors, enterprises reported that insufficient knowledge of cloud computing prevented them from doing so. Expertise and sufficient knowledge of contractual and legal aspects and the details of technical implementation are necessary prerequisites to an enterprise deciding to purchase cloud computing services (this also applies to firms already using the cloud – see above). In addition, the risk of a security breach was again a key consideration for enterprises in four economic sectors (see Figure 7).
Data sources and availability
The data in this article are based on the results of the 2014 survey on ICT usage and e-commerce in enterprises. The statistics were obtained from enterprise surveys conducted by national statistical authorities in 2014. The statistical observation unit is the enterprise, as defined in Regulation (EEC) No 696/93. The survey covered enterprises with at least 10 persons employed.
Country codes: European Union (28 countries): Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), the Czech Republic (CZ), Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), Estonia (EE), Ireland (IE), Greece (EL), Spain (ES), France (FR), Croatia (HR), Italy (IT), Cyprus (CY), Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Luxembourg (LU), Hungary (HU), Malta (MT), the Netherlands (NL), Austria (AT), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovenia (SI), Slovakia (SK), Finland (FI), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). Iceland (IS), Norway (NO), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MK).
The economic activities referred to are defined in the EU’s NACE classification, Revision 2. The sectors covered are manufacturing, electricity, gas and steam, water supply, construction, wholesale and retail trades, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, transportation and storage, accommodation and food service activities, information and communication, real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities, administrative and support activities, and the repair of computers and communication equipment. Enterprises are broken down by size, into small (10-49 persons employed), medium (50-249) and large (250 or more).
In 2014, 151 000 of the 1.5 million enterprises in the EU-28 were surveyed. Of the 1.5 million enterprises, approximately 83 % were small enterprises (10-49 persons employed), 14 % medium (50-249) and 3 % large (250). The data extracted for this article may differ from those in the Eurostat database where the latter have since been updated.
The Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) aims to reboot Europe’s economy and help its citizens and businesses get the most out of digital technologies. It is the first of seven flagship initiatives under Europe 2020, the EU’s strategy to deliver smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.
The wider EU policy interest is in enabling and facilitating the faster adoption of cloud computing across all sectors of the economy; this can cut ICT costs and, when combined with new digital business practices, boost productivity, growth and jobs.
Cloud computing is one of the strategic digital technologies considered important enablers for productivity and better services. Enterprises use cloud computing to optimise resource utilisation and build business models and market strategies that will enable them to grow, innovate and become more competitive. Growth remains a condition for businesses’ survival and innovation remains necessary for competitiveness. The European Commission’s main innovation policy is the Broad-based innovation strategy for the EU.
- E-business integration
- E-commerce statistics
- ICT security in enterprises
- Mobile connection to internet
- Social media - statistics on the use by enterprises
- ICT specialists - statistics on hard-to-fill vacancies in enterprises
- Information society statistics - enterprises
Further Eurostat information
- Information society, see:
- Computers and the internet in households and enterprises (isoc_ci)
- Computers - availability and use (isoc_ci_cm)
- Enterprises - computers: devices and communication systems (NACE Rev. 2) (isoc_ci_cd_en2)
- Computers - availability and use (isoc_ci_cm)
- Special module 2014: cloud computing (isoc_ci_cc)
- Enterprises - use of cloud computing services (isoc_ci_cce)
- Use of cloud computing services (isoc_cicce_use)
- Obstacles that limit/prevent the use of cloud computing services (isoc_cicce_obs)
- Benefits realised from using cloud computing services (isoc_cicce_bnf)
- Enterprises - use of cloud computing services (isoc_ci_cce)
- Special module 2014: cloud computing (isoc_ci_cc)
Methodology / Metadata
- Eurostat Metadata ICT usage and e-commerce in enterprises (ESMS metadata file — isoc_bde15d_esmsms)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Regulation (EC) No 808/2004 of 21 April 2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EC) No 960/2008 of 30 September 2008 implementing Regulation 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EC) No 1023/2009 of 29 October 2009 implementing Regulation 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EU) No 821/2010 of 17 September 2010 implementing Regulation 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EU) No 937/2011 of 21 September 2011 implementing Regulation 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EU) No 1083/2012 of 19 November 2012 implementing Regulation 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EU) No 859/2013 of 5 September 2013 implementing Regulation (EC) No 808/2004 concerning Community statistics on the information society
- Regulation (EC) No 696/1993 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community