Agri-environmental indicator - irrigation

Data from March 2016. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned update of the article: December 2018

This article provides a fact sheet on the European Union (EU) agri-environmental indicator (AEI) irrigation. It consists of an overview of recent data, complemented by all information on definitions, measurement methods and context needed to interpret them correctly. The irrigation article is part of a set of similar fact sheets providing a complete picture of the state of the agri-environmental indicators in the EU.

Table 1: Irrigable and irrigated areas, 2003 and 2013
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig) and (ef_lu_ovcropaa)
Map 1: Share of irrigable areas in UAA by NUTS 2 regions, EU-28 and Norway, 2013 (%)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)
Map 2: Share of irrigated areas in UAA by NUTS 2 regions, EU-28 and Norway, 2013 (%)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)
Figure 1: Share of irrigable and irrigated areas in UAA, 2013 (%)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)
Figure 2: Change in share of irrigable and irrigated areas in UAA, 2003-13 (percentage points)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig), (ef_lu_ofirrig)
Figure 3: Change in share of irrigable areas in UAA, 1995-2013 (percentage points)
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig), (ef_poirrig)
Figure 4: Holdings with irrigable area by size of irrigable area, 2013
(% of holdings with irrigable area)
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig), (ef_poirrig)
Figure 5: Irrigated crop area of extensive crops (citrus and vineyards), 2010
(% of total area of each crop)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig), (ef_popermaa)
Figure 6:Irrigated area of semi-intensive crops (maize and cereals excluding maize and rice), 2010
(% of total area of each crop)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig), (apro_cpp_crop)
Figure 7: Irrigated area of intensive crops (potatoes and sugar beet), 2010
(% of total area of each crop)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig), (ef_popermaa)
Figure 8: Holdings applying one or more irrigation methods in total number of holdings, 2003 and 2013
(% of total number of holdings)
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig), (ef_poirrig)
Figure 9: Irrigation methods, 2010
(% of holdings using each method)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)
Table 2: Holdings per irrigation methods and size of holdings, 2010
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig), (ef_poirrig)
Table 3: Volume of water used for irrigation, 2010
Source: Eurostat (ef_lu_ofirrig), (ef_poirrig)
Figure 10: Volume of water used for irrigation, 2010
(m³ per ha of irrigated area)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)
Figure 11: Water source used for irrigation, 2010
(% of holdings using each method)
Source: Eurostat (ef_poirrig)

The indicator assesses the trend of the irrigable and irrigated areas and their share in the total utilised agricultural area (UAA). The irrigable area is the area which is equipped for irrigation. This area does not show so much variation from year to year as it is costly for the farmer to invest in irrigation equipment. The irrigated area measures the actual amount of land irrigated and can vary significantly from year to year due to for instance meteorological conditions or the choice of crop.

Main indicator:

  • Share of irrigable area in utilised agricultural area (UAA) (and its trend)

Supporting indicators:

  • Irrigable area
  • Irrigated area
  • Share of irrigated area in total UAA
  • Share of irrigated crop area in total area with that crop
  • Share of holdings using surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation systems
  • Volume of water used for irrigation
  • Water source used for irrigation

Main statistical findings

Key messages

  • In 2013 the total irrigable area in EU-28 was circa 18.7 million ha, however only 10.2 million ha was actually irrigated. The share of irrigable and irrigated UAA in EU-28 in 2013 was 11.3 % and 6.2 % respectively.
  • Irrigable and irrigated areas greatly vary among countries mainly because of regional climate. Full irrigation is needed in many types of agricultural production of southern European countries. The share of irrigable and irrigated areas was not surprisingly largest in the Mediterranean countries. Spain and Italy had the largest irrigable areas in absolute terms (6.7 million and 4.0 million hectares respectively) in 2013. Greece, Malta, Cyprus, Italy and Spain had the largest share of irrigable UAA in 2013 (44.9 %, 38.6 %, 34.9 %, 33.9 % and 31.1 % respectively). Share of irrigated UAA in 2013 was 34.4 % in Greece, 33.6 % in Malta, 24.3 % in Italy, and 22.6 % in Cyprus.
  • In central and western Europe, irrigation is also used on a supplementary basis to improve crop production (e.g. potatoes, maize) in dry summers. This trend is well shown by the relatively large share of irrigable area in the Netherlands (27.0 %) and Denmark (16.8 %). However, only 5.5 % of UAA in the Netherlands and 9.2 % in Denmark was in 2013 actually irrigated.
  • The efficient drop irrigation method is gaining importance. In 2010 it constituted the main irrigation method in Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia.
  • With close to 10 000 m³, Malta used by far the highest water volume per irrigated hectare in 2010. Portugal followed with 7 371 m³ per ha.

Assessment

Irrigable and irrigated areas

Data on irrigated and irrigable areas are only available from 2003 for EU-27 and from 2010 for EU-28, while data for EU-15 are available from 1995 onwards.
In the past, the expansion of the irrigated area has been influenced by policy measures supporting the provision of irrigation infrastructure and providing subsidies to farmers installing irrigation equipment, as well as guaranteeing low water prices for agriculture.

Map 1 shows the share of irrigable areas and Map 2 the share of irrigated areas in UAA at NUTS 2 regional level in 2013. High shares of irrigable and irrigated areas are mainly found in regions of the Mediterranean countries such as Italy, also Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain and the coast of Portugal. In southern European countries full irrigation is an essential element in many types of agricultural production. In central and northern European countries, supplementary irrigation is generally used to improve production in dry summers, especially when the dry period occurs at a sensitive crop growth stage. In the Netherlands for instance a relative large share of irrigable and irrigated areas was found in regions in the north of Brabant and Limburg (these regions are mostly drought-sensitive sandy soils[1]).

In 2013 the total irrigable area in the EU-27 was 18.644 million hectares, representing an increase by 13.4 % compared to 2003. The area actually irrigated in 2013 was 10.221 millions of hectares. The highest shares of irrigable areas at country level are expectedly found in some southern Member States: in Greece and Malta shares of 44.9 % and 38.6 % were registered respectively. Cyprus, Italy and Spain followed with 34.9 %, 33.9 % and 31.1 % respectively. The corresponding shares in Portugal amounted to around 15 %, lower than one might expect. Surprisingly high was the irrigable area in the Netherlands (27.0 %) and Denmark (16.8 %), countries less linked to the notion of irrigation. And yet, the fact is that potatoes are one of the main irrigated crops in northern Europe. In absolute terms, Spain and Italy have the largest irrigable areas with 6.7 million and 4.0 million hectares respectively. Figure 1 arranges the information of Table 1 in a way that shows the relationship between the potentially irrigable area and the actually irrigated area for 2013, based on a decreasing order of relative importance.

Figure 2 shows the change in the shares of irrigable and irrigated areas in total UAA in EU-27 between 2003 and 2013. The difference is presented in percentage points. The share of irrigable area increased the most in Malta and Spain (from 21.3 % to 38.6 % and from 16.8 % to 31.1 % respectively), however the share of irrigated area rose only in Malta (from 19.7 % to 33.6 %), while in Spain decreased (from 15.1 % to 13.4 %)

The share of irrigable area also increased significantly in the Netherlands, Greece and Cyprus between 2003 and 2013 (9.6, 6.5 and 6.0 percentage points respectively). In Romania and Slovakia the shares of irrigable area decreased by 11.2 and 4.5 percentage points and their shares of irrigated area also decreased by 2.2 and 3.6 percentage points respectively. In Portugal the share of irrigable area decreased by 3.2 percentage points, whereas the share of area irrigated actually increased by 6.6 percentage points. Ireland and Luxembourg did not declare irrigable or irrigated areas, which were considered non-significant. Figure 3 shows the development of the irrigable areas in EU-15 between 1995 and 2013. The share of irrigable areas in total UAA decreased by 4.7 percentage points in Portugal while it increased by more than 15 percentage points in Spain and Italy (19.7 pp and 15.5 pp respectively).

Holdings with irrigation potential

Because most irrigation is practised in southern Europe, it is overwhelmingly associated with large numbers of very small farms. Often, irrigation is critical to the viability of these farm businesses. The socio-economic importance of irrigated agriculture within the EU should therefore not be underestimated. Figure 4 looks at the agricultural holdings that do have an irrigable area and details these by size categories. In Member States such as Bulgaria, Malta and Romania, the share of holdings with irrigable area which total area does not exceed 1 hectare amounts to over 80 %. At the other end, the largest holdings are found in Denmark, where holdings over 10 ha made up 51.6 %.

Irrigated area by crop type

Different crops are subject to irrigation at varying levels of intensity. Four main categories are distinguished by the Institute for European Environmental Policy[2]:

  1. Extensive crops: these are generally of lower value or permanent crops for which irrigation is used mainly in arid regions to stimulate enhanced growth and productivity, at a fairly low level, for example permanent grassland, permanent crops (including olives, vines and citrus/apple orchards). Figure 5 shows the share of irrigated area in total crop area for citrus fruit and vines in 2010 for countries who irrigated these crops significantly.
  2. Semi-intensive crops: these are generally lower value crops where irrigation is more widely used to improve growth rates and productivity, either on a seasonal basis at times of peak demand (notably in northern Member States) or for most of the cropping period. Rates of water use are generally higher than for extensive crops, for example sown or temporary grassland or alfalfa (less than 5 years old), cereals, oilseeds, or maize. (Maize is noted separately because it has different growth characteristics to other cereal crops, and is associated with greater environmental risks. Maize could also be considered as intensive with regards to water use). Figure 6 shows the share of irrigated area in total crop area of cereals and maize in 2010 for countries who irrigated these crops significantly.
  3. Intensive crops: these are generally high value crops where irrigation can be critically important to maintain yields and quality and it is therefore more intensively applied to the crop, for example root crops (potatoes, sugar beet, swedes), industrial crops (cotton and tobacco), open air horticulture (salads, green vegetables grown in the open), glasshouse production (salads, tomatoes, many other vegetables grown intensively under glass in controlled environments). Figure 7 shows the share of irrigated area in total crop area for potatoes and sugar beet in 2010.
  4. Saturated crops: where water is used to flood fields in order to facilitate the production of crops which require saturation conditions, for example rice.

Irrigation methods

Irrigable and irrigated areas alone give no complete indication of the intensity of water use, which also depends on the type of equipment used:

  • surface irrigation (also called ‘flood irrigation’) i.e. the leading of water along the ground, either by flooding the whole area or leading the water along small furrows between the crop rows, using gravity as a force;
  • sprinkler irrigation i.e. irrigating the plants by propelling water under high pressure as rain over the parcels;
  • drop irrigation i.e. irrigating the plants by placing water low by the plants drop by drop or with micro-sprinklers or by forming fog-like conditions.

Sprinkler and drop irrigation methods are less water-intensive than surface irrigation, which still predominates in some countries. Equipment for drop irrigation is more expensive than for other irrigation methods and this system therefore tends to be concentrated in areas with high-value crops. Figure 8 shows that in the EU 14.6 % of total holdings in 2003 and 16.2 % of total holdings in 2013 applied one or more irrigation methods, whereas the countries with a high percentage of holdings applying irrigation methods are found in Mediterranean region and in Portugal and Bulgaria. Figure 9 shows the share of the holdings applying different irrigation methods. Traditionally, much of the irrigation practiced in Europe has consisted of gravity-fed systems, where water is transported from surface sources via small channels and used to flood or furrow feed agricultural land (furrow irrigation). In sizeable areas of the southern Member States this remains an important form of irrigation. In Bulgaria 93.7 % and in Portugal 62.5 % of all holdings with irrigable area used this method in 2010. However, in an increasing number of regions in both North and South, irrigation by sprinklers using pressure, often drawing water from subterranean aquifers, was the most common practice. It is often in these areas where the quantities of water used, and thus the impact on the environment, can be most severe. Drip systems tend to be more efficient in their use of water but they are often far too costly to be within the means of the majority of small irrigators in the south. Still, in 2010 drop irrigation was the most widespread form of irrigation in Cyprus (applied by 75.9 % of all holdings with irrigation area), Malta (52.5 %) and Slovenia (52.0 %).

The type of irrigation system (and the related cost) and the size of the agricultural holding may often be linked. This is illustrated in Table 2. It can be observed that surface irrigation was most practiced by small farms (between 80 % and 90 % of the holdings applying surface irrigation in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Malta are of the smallest category – less than 1 ha) and to lesser extent also by middle-sized farms (around 50 % of all holdings between 1 and 10 ha in the Czech Republic, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and United Kingdom). For sprinkler and drop irrigation, the picture is more heterogeneous and appears to be linked more to the type/value of the crop grown.

Volume of water used for irrigation

The amount of water used for irrigation depends on factors such as: climate, current weather conditions, crop type, soil characteristics, water quality, cultivation practices and irrigation techniques. At the level of the EU-28, it is estimated that in 2010, a total volume of around 40 billion cubic meters of water have been used to irrigate approximately 10 million hectares of land.

The highest volume of water used for irrigation in absolute terms was in Spain, where 16.7 billion m³ were used, followed by Italy with 11.6 billion m³ (Table 3). As such, this comes as no surprise, as these countries have the largest irrigated areas. More interesting and meaningful is the average volume of water used to irrigate one hectare of land: Malta used by far the highest volume of irrigation water with 9 956 m³ per hectare (Figure 10). In absolute terms, Malta used over 28 million m³ of irrigation water for 2 830 hectares in 2010, about as much water as Austria and the Czech Republic combined (for 45 680 hectares). The already scarce groundwater in Malta has been exploited heavily by farmers (boreholes) to extract good-quality water. This excessive groundwater extraction is leading to the salinization and farmers sometimes invest in reverse osmosis plants to desalinate the extracted water. Furthermore, nitrates use in agriculture has resulted in the pollution of Malta’s aquifers. Malta’s “per hectare consumption” lies far ahead of Portugal (7 371 m³) and Spain (5 471 m³). Bulgaria, Greece and Cyprus follow with values between 3 900 m³ and 3 200 m³. The lowest value, apart from Ireland where there was practically no irrigation, was in Latvia, with an average 103 m³ per hectare.

Source of irrigation water

In the Survey on agricultural production methods (SAPM) 2010, questions were asked on the source of irrigation. These questions were however differently interpreted by different countries. Some Member States asked the question a) what is the main source of irrigation used on your holding, where others asked the question b) which sources of irrigation the farmer used on the holding. The farmer could only report one water source when question "a" was asked, whereas he/she could report one or more water sources if question "b" was asked.
Figure 11 shows the result of the information received. Ground water seems to be important source of water used for irrigation in almost all Member States. Over 50 % of farms in Denmark, Hungary, Germany, The Netherlands, Austria, Romania and Slovakia used this source of water for irrigation in 2010. 50.6 % of farms in Malta, 50.0 % in Latvia and 47.6 % in Estonia used the on-farm surface water for irrigation. Over 40 % of farms in Italy, Greece, Slovenia and Cyprus reported that they used the off-farm water from water supply networks to irrigate their crops in 2010.

Data sources and availability

Indicator definition

The indicator assesses the trend of the irrigable and irrigated areas and their share in the total utilised agricultural area (UAA). The irrigable area is the area which is equipped for irrigation. This area does not show so much variation from year to year as it is costly for the farmer to invest in irrigation equipment. The irrigated area measures the actual amount of land irrigated and can vary significantly from year to year due to for instance meteorological conditions or the choice of crop.

Measurements

Main indicator:

  • Share of irrigable area in utilised agricultural area (UAA) (and its trend)

Supporting indicators:

  • Irrigable area
  • Irrigated area
  • Share of irrigated area in total UAA
  • Share of irrigated crop area in total area with that crop
  • Share of holdings using surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation systems
  • Volume of water used for irrigation
  • Water source used for irrigation

Links with other indicators

The indicator is directly and indirectly linked to various AEIs, among which the most important are:

The link to AEI 20 is especially important, as the relative and total area irrigated do not provide enough information to estimate the environmental implications of irrigation on depletion of water resources and thus the sustainability of the cropping systems. The link to AEI 12 is relevant as intensification processes in cropping systems usually go together with an increase in inputs such as water use. Extensification usually has an opposite effect. So this indicator tells us something about the driving forces behind the changes in irrigable area.

Data used and methodology

The indicator is considered fully operational. Proposals to improve this indicator include:

  • collecting data on water metering to be able to monitor and evaluate this practice. Water metering is an important practice to improve the efficiency of water use by irrigation.
  • analysing data at river basin scale. As the EU water policy is mainly built on it, it would be relevant that the information would be at some point aggregated to this scale.
  • improve link with the AEI 20 indicator. The effects of irrigation on the environment depend also on the current state of water management in the area. Negative effects can for instance occur in water stressed areas. To be able to assess the effects of irrigation on the environment it would be necessary to link the data to water abstraction and state of water in the area.

Data on irrigable areas and irrigated areas are collected in the Farm structure survey (FSS). Data for EU-27 are only available from 2003 and for EU-28 from 2010, while data for EU-15 are available from 1995 onwards. Data on irrigation methods, area irrigated by crop type, as well as the volume and source of irrigation water were collected in the Survey of agricultural production methods (SAPM), which was a one-off survey carried out together with the FSS 2010. Crops under glass and kitchen gardens, which are assumed to be generally irrigable and irrigated, are not considered within the scope of this article.

The legal basis for the SAPM and the FSS from 2010 onwards is Regulation 1166/2008 of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, which repealed Council Regulation 571/1988. The FSS are conducted consistently throughout the EU with a common methodology at a regular base and provide therefore comparable and representative statistics across countries and time, at regional levels (down to NUTS 3 level). Every 3 or 4 years the FSS is carried out as a sample survey, and once in the ten years as a census. The basic unit underlying the FSS is the agricultural holding. The FSS covers all agricultural holdings with UAA of at least one hectare (ha) and also those holdings with UAA of less than 1 ha where their market production exceeds certain natural thresholds. Although the thresholds for defining an agricultural holding can be different between countries (as high as five hectares of UAA in some cases), it has been ensured that the survey covers 98 % of the UAA and the livestock of each country. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Estonia, France, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Slovakia carried the SAPM out as a census, while Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Cyprus, Latvia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Norway, Switzerland and Croatia carried it out as a sample survey. Although sample sizes varied, from about 3 % to a third of agricultural holdings, the level of precision is guaranteed for certain survey characteristics by the precision requirements in Annex IV to Regulation No 1166/2008.

Context

Irrigation fosters crop production by bringing water to plants, which is absolutely essential if plants are to grow in some areas. Irrigation increases productivity and therefore contributes significantly to agricultural output and food supply. However, irrigation is a major driving force behind water abstraction. Agriculture is responsible for an important share of water abstraction and use in the EU and the water use by agriculture has increased in recent decades. Water abstraction can eventually lead to environmental problems. In particular, availability problems occur when the demand for water exceeds the amount available during a certain period. Apart from causing problems with supplying agriculture and other users, overexploitation of water has led to drying-out of natural areas in western and southern Europe and to salt-water intrusion in coastal aquifers. The use of water by agriculture is also under increasing scrutiny as competing demands are made for an increasingly scarce resource[3].

Trends in water abstraction rates depend on various factors: crop variety (examples of water-intensive crops are potatoes in northern Europe and cotton, grain maize, rice and fruit in southern Europe), irrigation area, irrigation technology, water prices, water restrictions, pumping costs and climate conditions. Farmers may select crops that require more water during the growing season, or that have growth periods more sensitive to soil moisture stress. Because of these factors, irrigated areas change from year to year and irrigable areas, defined as the total area equipped for irrigation, are used instead to present irrigation trends. Crops under glass and kitchen gardens, which are assumed to be generally irrigable and irrigated, are not considered here.

Policy relevance and context

The need for a more sustainable and integrated approach to managing water resources in Europe is reflected in water-related policy and legislation. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) (Directive 2000/60/EC) requires the ‘promotion of sustainable water use based on long term protection of available water resources’. A balance between abstraction and recharge of groundwater must be ensured, with the aim of achieving good quantitative status with respect to groundwater. The WFD also requires that water pricing policies are implemented that provide adequate incentives for the efficient use of water resources, a conference on this topic was organised in 2011 in Poland.

In recognition of the acuteness of the water scarcity and drought challenges in Europe, the European Commission undertook in 2006 and early 2007 an in-depth assessment of the situation at EU level. In July 2007 the Commission adopted a Communication on Water Scarcity and Droughts, which identified an initial set of policy options to be taken at European, national and regional levels to address water scarcity within the EU. This set of proposed policies aims to move the EU towards a water-efficient and water-saving economy. One important factor in this context is future land use, which is crucial for mitigating water stress in the long run. Furthermore, data on agricultural water use are important for the authorities in regions with water shortage.

On 20 November 2008 the EU agriculture ministers reached a political agreement on the CAP 2009 Health Check, the aim of which is to modernise, simplify and streamline the CAP and remove restrictions on farmers, thus helping them to respond better to signals from the market and to face new challenges such as climate change, water management and bio-energy. The health check provided additional funds for the programming period of 2007-2013 for these new challenges amongst which also for water management.

The main policy objectives at EU level in relation to water use and water stress were set out in the 6th and 7th Environmental Action Programmes and the Water Framework Directive:

  • to ensure that the rates of extraction from our water resources are sustainable over the long term and to promote sustainable water use based on a long-term protection of available water resources;
  • to ensure a balance between abstraction and recharge of groundwater;
  • national, regional and local authorities need, among other things, to introduce measures to improve the efficiency of water use and to encourage changes in agricultural practices necessary to protect water resources (and quality);
  • EU Member States shall ensure that water-pricing policies provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently, and thereby contribute to the environmental objectives of the Water Framework Directive.

Agri-environmental context

Within Europe there is a great variability in the availability of water resources and, therefore, a marked spatial variability in agricultural water management practices and consumption. Climate is the main factor that determines agricultural water consumption; there are regions where irrigation is the only source of water for crop cultivation (this is the case during summer in some Mediterranean areas), while in other regions, irrigation is used as a supplement to rain-fed agriculture. Irrigation technology is also a major factor influencing the level of agricultural water consumption. The number of Member States that experience seasonal or long term droughts has increased over the years. Agricultural water use is a serious concern especially in southern parts of Europe, where water is scarce and highly variable from year to year. In dry periods of the year or in generally dry regions it is necessary to irrigate certain crops to obtain reasonable yields. In addition to lower income for the farmer, low yields will also have the implication that less fertiliser nitrogen is removed from the fields with harvested crops and thereby leaving excess amount in the soil resulting in potentially higher risk for leaching during the following period. In some cases irrigation has led to a combination of over-abstraction of groundwater supplies, salinisation and severe pollution of water by nutrients, pesticides and other farm inputs; soil erosion arising both from intensive irrigation and from the abandonment of formerly hand-irrigated terrace agriculture in the hills; and the desiccation of former wetlands and destruction of former high nature value habitats including arable dry land, low density pastures and sensitive aquatic environments[4]. The environmental impact of irrigation is however depending on the water abstraction rate, the water availability at local level and the water sources used for irrigation also matter, e.g. surface water can be replenished much faster than groundwater.

Irrigation can also have environmental benefits. Traditional irrigation systems create diverse and intricate landscapes, which support a variety of wildlife and have important cultural and historic value. In the same way, the creation and management of rice fields often provides important feeding and over-wintering opportunities for some bird species. Moreover, through a redistribution of water resources, new irrigation projects can contribute to improvement of aquifer recharge and habitat conservation in the areas receiving the new water. This may be the case, for instance, for irrigation projects that entail the creation of wetland areas, which may provide new feeding and/or breeding opportunities for wildlife.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Publications

Database

Farm structure (ef)
Farm structure - 2008 legislation (from 2005 onwards) (ef_main)
Farm land use - Permanent crops, other farmland, irrigation (ef_po)
Irrigation: number of farms, areas and equipment by size of irrigated area and NUTS 2 regions (ef_poirrig)
Farm structure - 1988 legislation (1990 - 2007) (ef_historic)
Land use (ef_lu)
Other farmland (ef_lu_of)
Irrigation: number of farms, areas and equipment by size of farm (UAA) and NUTS 2 regions (ef_lu_ofirrig)
Land use overview (ef_lu_ov)
Farmland: number of farms and areas by size of farm (UAA) and NUTS 2 regions (ef_lu_ovcropaa)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Source data for tables, figures and maps (MS Excel)

Other information

Legislation: Commission Staff working document accompanying COM(2006)508 final
Corresponding IRENA Fact sheet 10

External links

  • European Commission - Environment
  • European Environment Agency
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Notes

  1. C.R. Stoof en C.J. Ritsema, 2006. Waterwinning voor beregening in de landbouw en op sportvelden: een overzicht van de regelgeving in Nederland. Alterra, Wageningen.
  2. IEEP (2000). The environmental impacts of irrigation in the European Union. A report to the Environment Directorate-General of the European Commission by the Institute for European Environmental Policy, London, in association with the Polytechnical University of Madrid and the University of Athens.
  3. D. Stanners and P. Bourdeau (eds). Europe’s environment. The Dobris assessment. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 1995.
  4. IEEP. The environmental impacts of irrigation in the European Union. A report to the Environment Directorate-General of the European Commission by the Institute for European Environmental Policy, London, in association with the Polytechnical University of Madrid and the University of Athens, 2000.