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EU social indicators

One of the main achievements of the social Open Method of Coordination has been the development of EU indicators in the areas of social inclusion and social protection. The list of indicators is continuously being improved as statistics, data collection and policy needs evolve.

EU social indicators by policy area:

Main data sources

Methodology for the definition of EU social indicators

EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC)

EU labour force survey (EU-LFS)

Current use

EU social indicators are used in various contexts:


Indicator name Definition SPC portfolio Key dimension &
context of use
LastUpdate
Share of housing costs in total disposable household income Median of the distribution among individuals of the share of housing costs (net of housing allowances)... Click to view record 2018-02-11
Self-reported limitations in daily activities Self-reported limitations in daily activities defined as the percentage sum of people reporting to be... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Net income of social assistance recipients as a % of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold Net income of social assistance recipients as % of the at-risk of poverty rate threshold Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
low-wage trap The percentage of gross earnings which is taxed away through the combined effects of income taxes, social... Click to view record 2018-02-11
inactivity trap Total increase in effective tax burden resulting from a transition from labour market inactivity to a... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Unemployment trap The percentage of gross earnings which is taxed away through higher tax and social security contributions... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate Individuals who are classified as employed and who are at risk of poverty. Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Jobless households by main household type Proportion of people living in jobless households, expressed as a share of all people in the same age... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate before social cash transfers (other than pensions) The share of persons with an equivalised disposable income, before social transfers, below the risk-of-poverty... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate anchored at a fixed moment in time (2008) Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Life expectancy Life expectancy defined as the mean number of years that a new-born child (or a person of a specific... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Healthy life expectancy (e.g. at birth) Number of years that a person (at birth and at 65) is still expected to live in a healthy condition.... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Regional disparities – coefficient of variation of employment rates The dispersion of employment rates (measured using the coefficient of variation) across NUTS level 2. Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient measures the extent to which the distribution of income deviates from a perfectly... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Income quintile ratio (S80/S20) The ratio of total income received by the 20% of the country's population with the highest income (top... Social inclusion – context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Population living in jobless households Proportion of people living in jobless households, expressed as a share of all people in the same age... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Impact of social transfers by age Reduction in the at-risk-of-poverty rate in % due to social transfers, calculated as the percentage difference... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Housing deprivation by item Percentage of the population deprived of each housing deprivation item, and by number of items The following... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Overcrowding rate Percentage of people living in an overcrowded household – all households – excluding single households. The... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Housing cost overburden rate Percentage of the pop. living in a household where total housing costs (net of housing allowances) represent... Click to view record 2018-02-11
Depth of material deprivation Un-weighted mean of the number of items lacked by the population concerned out of the nine items retained... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Low reading literacy performance of pupils Share of 15 years old pupils who are at level 1 or below of the PISA combined reading literacy scale Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Persons with low educational attainment Share of the adult population (aged 25 years and over) whose highest level of education or training is... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate of children living in households at work Poverty risk for the child population (0-17) living in households at work, defined as having work intensity... Click to view record 2018-02-11
Dispersion around the at-risk-of-poverty threshold Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below 40%, 50% and 70% of the national... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate by accommodation tenure status Poverty risk for the total population aged 0+ in the following accommodation tenure categories: –... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate by most frequent activity status Poverty risk for the adult population (aged 18 years and over) in the following most frequent activity... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate by the work intensity of households Poverty risk for the total population aged 0+ in different work intensity categories and broad household... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk-of-poverty rate by household type Poverty risk for the total population aged 0+ in the following household types: Households with no... Social inclusion – secondary Click to view record 2018-02-11
In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate Individuals who are classified as employed according to their most frequent activity status and are at... Poverty prevention through employment. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Impact of social transfers Reduction in the at-risk-of-poverty rate in percentage (%) due to social transfers, calculated as the... Social inclusion – primary Impact/effectiveness of social transfers. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Child well-being To be developed Click to view record 2018-02-11
Self-reported unmet need for medical care Total self-reported unmet need for medical examination for the following three reasons: financial barriers... Social inclusion – primary Care utilisation. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Housing Social inclusion – primary Click to view record 2018-02-11
Material deprivation rate Share of population living in households lacking at least 3 items out of the following 9 items: i) to... Social inclusion – primary Material deprivation. Click to view record 2018-02-20
Employment gap of immigrants Percentage point difference between the employment rate for non-immigrants and that for immigrants. Immigrants... Social inclusion – primary Labour market integration of immigrants. Used in: JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Early school leavers Share of persons aged 18 to 24 who have only lower secondary education (their highest level of education... Social inclusion – primary Eudcation, skills. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (primary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Population living in (quasi-)jobless households Share of people aged 0-59 living in (quasi-)jobless households (i.e. households with very low work intensity),... Social inclusion – primary Social exclusion due to limited, or no, work intensity. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Long term unemployment rate Total long-term unemployed population (≥12 months' unemployment; ILO definition) as a proportion of total... Social inclusion – primary Long term unemployment. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Relative median poverty risk gap Difference between the median equivalised income of persons aged 0+ below the at-risk-of poverty threshold... Social inclusion – primary Depth of poverty Used in: SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Persistent at-risk of poverty rate Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold... Social inclusion – primary Duration of poverty. Used in: SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
At-risk-of poverty rate Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below 60% of the national equivalised... Social inclusion – primary Poverty risk. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Total health expenditure per capita. Total health expenditure per capita in PPP Click to view record 2018-02-11
Change in projected theoretical replacement ratio Change in the theoretical level of income from pensions at the moment of take-up related to the income... Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
At-risk of poverty rate before social transfers (other than pensions), Click to view record 2018-02-11
Net income of social assistance recipients as a % of the at-risk of poverty threshold for 3 jobless household types Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Low-wage trap The percentage of gross earnings which is taxed away through the combined effects of income taxes, social... Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Inactivity trap (esp. second earner case) The total increase in effective tax burden resulting from a transition from labour market inactivity... Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Unemployment trap The percentage of gross earnings which is taxed away through higher tax and social security contributions... Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Jobless households by main household types Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Social protection expenditure Social protection expenditure, current, by function, gross and net Click to view record 2018-02-11
Public debt, current and projected, % of GDP Click to view record 2018-02-11
Distribution of population by household types Click to view record 2018-02-11
Old age dependency ratio, current and projected Click to view record 2018-02-11
Life expectancy at birth and at 65 The mean number of years that a new born child (or that of a specific age) can expect to live if subjected... Life expectancy Used in: JAF Click to view record 2018-02-20
Long term unemployment rate Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Unemployment rate Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-11
Employment rate Click to view record 2018-02-11
GDP growth Real GDP growth rate - volume - Percentage change on previous year Overarching - context Click to view record 2018-02-20
Regional disparities – coefficient of variation of employment rates Standard deviation of regional employment rates divided by the weighted national average (age group 15-64... Overarching - indicators Regional cohesion. Used in: Click to view record 2018-02-20
Activity rate Share of employed and unemployed people in the total population of working age 15-64 Participation in the labour market. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate Individuals who are classified as employed (12) (distinguishing between “wage and salary employment plus... Overarching - indicators In-work poverty. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Employment rate of older workers Persons in employment in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 as a proportion of total population in the same age... Overarching - indicators Employment of older workers. Used in: SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
At-risk-of-poverty rate anchored at a fixed moment in time (2008) Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold... Overarching - indicators Improved standards of living resulting from economic growth. Used in: JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Growth rate in real gross household disposable income (GHDI (unadjusted)) GHDI = Compensation of employees (received) + Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income (received)... Overarching - indicators Household income (aggregate for the household sector, providing a link between macro-economic developments and household income developments). Used in: SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Self-reported unmet need for medical care Total self-reported unmet need for medical care for the following three reasons: financial barriers +... Overarching - indicators Inequalities in access to health care. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Aggregate replacement ratio Median individual gross pension income of the 65-74 age group relative to median individual gross earnings... Overarching - indicators Pension adequacy. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Median relative income ratio of elderly people Median equivalised income of people aged 65+ as a ratio of income of people aged 0-64 Overarching - indicators Pension adequacy. Used in: SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Projected total public social expenditures Age-related projections of total public social expenditures (e.g. pensions, health care, long-term care,... Overarching - indicators Financial sustainability of social protection systems. Click to view record 2018-02-16
Early school leavers Share of persons aged 18 to 24 who have only lower secondary education (their highest level of education... Overarching - indicators Educational outcome and human capital formation. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Healthy life expectancy (e.g. at birth, at age 65) Number of years that a person at birth, at 45, and at 65 is still expected to live in a healthy condition... Overarching - indicators Health inequalities. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Income quintile ratio (S80/S20) Ratio of total income received by the 20% of the country's population with the highest income (top quintile)... Overarching - indicators Income inequalities. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Relative median poverty risk gap Difference between the median equivalised income of persons aged 0+ below the at-risk-of poverty threshold... Overarching - indicators Intensity of poverty risk. Used in: SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
At-risk-of poverty rate (AROP) Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalised disposable income below 60% of the national equivalised... Overarching - indicators AROPE Component - the Risk of poverty. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Severe material deprivation rate Share of population living in households lacking at least 4 items out of the following 9 items: i) to... Overarching - indicators AROPE Component - Severe material deprivation. Used in: EPSR scoreboard (secondary indicator), SDG indicator framework, SPPM dashboard, JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16
Population living in (quasi-)jobless (i.e.very low intensity) households Share of people aged 0-59 living in (quasi-)jobless households (i.e. households with very low work intensity),... Overarching - indicators Click to view record 2018-02-16
At risk of poverty or social exclusion rate (AROPE) Share of persons who are at-risk-of-poverty and/or severely materially deprived and/or living in (quasi-)jobless... Overarching - indicators Europe 2020 headline indicator (Risk of poverty or social exclusion). Used in: EPSR scoreboard (headline indicator), SDG indicator framework,SPPM dashboard,JAF Click to view record 2018-02-16