Energy saving statistics

Data from February 2016.Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: February 2017

Saving 20 % energy by 2020

The European Union (EU) has committed itself to a 20 % energy saving by the year 2020. This objective is also known as the 20 % energy efficiency improvements objective.

This article provides statistical evaluation of the progress made towards this objective and describes the statistical method for its measurement.

Table 1: Energy consumption, EU-28, Mtoe
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)
Table 2: Energy savings, EU-28, Mtoe
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)
Figure 1: Primary energy consumption, EU-28
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)
Figure 2: Primary energy savings, EU-28
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)
Figure 3: Final energy consumption, EU-28
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)
Figure 4: Final energy savings, EU-28
Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_334a)

Main statistical findings

Primary energy consumption and savings

Primary energy consumption (shown in Figure 1) decreased between 1990 and 2014 by 4 %. While consumption of solid fossil fuels (coal and coal products) decreased by 41 % and oil (including petroleum products) decreased by 15 %, consumption of renewables increased by 180 %, natural gas (including manufactured gases) increased by 17 % and nuclear energy increased by 10 %. Primary energy consumption peaked in 2006 and then decreased by 12 % by 2014.

In 2014, primary energy consumption of oil and petroleum products reached a record low since 1990; however oil and petroleum products are still the most important source of primary energy consumption with a 31 % share. Renewables reached record high levels in 2014 and their share in primary energy consumption was 13 %. Fossil fuels together (solid, gaseous and liquid) account for 71 % of total primary energy consumption.

The indicator measuring progress towards the 20% target of the Europe 2020 strategy for the primary energy reached 15.7 % in 2014 (Figure 2).

Final energy consumption and savings

Final energy consumption (Figure 3) decreased between 1990 and 2014 by 2 %. While consumption of solid fossil fuels (coal and coal products) decreased by 63 % and consumption of derived heat (heat sold) by 16 %, final energy consumption of renewables increased by 110 % and final consumption of electricity increased by 25 %. Final energy consumption peaked in 2006 and then decreased by 11 % by 2013.

In 2014, final energy consumption of oil and petroleum products reached a record low since 1990, however oil and petroleum products are still the most important source of final energy consumption with a 40 % share. Solid fossil fuels are undergoing a long term decreasing trend and contribute only 4 % to final energy consumption. Fossil fuels together (solid, gaseous and liquid) account for 66 % of total final energy consumption. Electricity and natural gas have 22 % share each.

The indicator measuring progress towards the 20% target of the Europe 2020 strategy for the final energy reached 16.9 % in 2014 (Figure 4). The actual final energy consumption in year 2014 was 2 % lower than the target value in Article 3 of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency.

Data sources and availability

Data from energy balances have been used for all calculations. The most recent data available are for 2014. Data are available for all 28 EU Member States. In general, data are complete, recent and highly comparable across countries. This results in high accuracy and accountability of EU aggregate figures.

Methodology

The legislative requirements in Directive 2012/27/EU refer to two aspects of EU energy data, the measured energy consumption and the consumption which would take place in the year 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario (projections). The difference between the two should amount to 20 % for the objective to be reached.

The target values for 2020 are fixed in Article 3 of Directive 2012/27/EU: the Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy.

The values in the paragraph above refer to EU-27. For EU-28, the equivalent values are 1 483 Mtoe for primary energy consumption and 1 086 Mtoe for final energy consumption.

P(t) denotes the primary energy consumption in year t. It is calculated as gross inland consumption [B_100900] minus final non-energy consumption [B_101600]. The energy consumption has to be measured in Mtoe.

F(t) denotes the final energy consumption in year t. It is equal to final energy consumption [B_101700]. The energy consumption has to be measured in Mtoe.

The indicator for monitoring progress towards the 20 % savings of primary energy consumption sP(t) and the indicator for monitoring progress towards the 20 % savings of final energy consumption sF(t) are defined in a such way that in case the target in 2020 is reached the indicator is equal to 20 %.

Thus P(2020) = 1 474 implies sP(2020) = 20 % and F(2020) = 1 078 implies sF(2020) = 20 %. For 2005 (t=2005) the indicators are 0 % and this is the first year for which the indicators are calculated, thus sP(2005) = 0 % and sF(2005) = 0 %.

For the time period after 2005 (2005) the savings are calculated as the difference between the actual energy consumption and the linear trajectory between 2005 and 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario divided by the energy consumption in year 2020 in the business-as-usual scenario.

The linear trajectories for EU-27 are defined as: for primary energy: ltP(t) = P(2005) + (1 474 / 0.8 – P(2005) ) / (2020 – 2005) * (t – 2005) for final energy: ltF(t) = F(2005) + (1 078 / 0.8 – F(2005) ) / (2020 – 2005) * (t – 2005)

From the linear trajectory we have to subtract the actual observed value of energy consumption and divide by the target energy consumption value in 2020 and subsequently multiply by 100 to obtain resulting value in percentages.

for primary energy: sP(t) = ( ltP(t) - P(t) ) / (1 474 / 0.8) * 100

for final energy: sF(t) = ( ltF(t) - F(t) ) / (1 078 / 0.8) * 100

The obtained result is the energy savings indicator for primary and/or final energy consumption. For EU-28, the formulae above use 1 483 and 1 086 instead of 1 474 and 1 078.

Context

Europe cannot afford to waste energy. Energy efficiency is the most cost effective way to reduce emissions, improve energy security, enhance competitiveness and make energy consumption more affordable for all consumers. Energy efficiency is also one of the key factors in achieving our long-term energy and climate goals.

The European Council adopted in 2007 energy and climate change objectives for 2020:

  • to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 %
  • to increase the share of renewable energy to 20 %
  • to make a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency.

The European Parliament has continuously supported these goals.

On 25 October 2012, the EU adopted Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. This Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the Union in order to ensure the achievement of the 20 % headline target on energy efficiency. At an EU summit in October 2014, EU countries agreed on a new energy efficiency target of 27 % or greater by 2030. The European Commission had proposed 30 % in its Energy Efficiency Communication.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Publications

Main tables

Energy statistics - main indicators (t_nrg_indic)
Energy statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)

Database

Energy statistics - quantities, annual data (nrg_quant)
Energy statistics - indicators and other data (nrg_indic)
Energy saving - annual data (nrg_ind_334a)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)

Other information

External links