Electricity price statistics
- Data extracted in June 2017. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: November 2017.
This article highlights the development of electricity prices both for industrial and household consumers within the European Union (EU); it also includes price data from Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo , Moldova and most recently also from Ukraine.
The price of energy in the EU depends on a range of different supply and demand conditions, including the geopolitical situation, the national energy mix, import diversification, network costs, environmental protection costs, severe weather conditions, or levels of excise and taxation. Note that prices presented in this article include taxes, levies and VAT for household consumers, but exclude refundable taxes and levies and VAT for industrial/business consumers.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
- 7 Notes
Main statistical findings
An overview of average electricity prices in euro per kilowatt-hour (EUR per kWh) for the last three years (second half of each year) is presented in Table 1.
Electricity prices for household consumers
For household consumers (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-size consumers with an annual consumption within the range of 2 500 kWh < consumption < 5 000 kWh), electricity prices during the second half of 2016 were highest among the EU Member States in Denmark (EUR 0.308 per kWh), Germany (EUR 0.298 per kWh) and Belgium (EUR 0.275 per kWh); see Figure 1. The lowest electricity prices were in Bulgaria (EUR 0.094 per kWh), Hungary (EUR 0.113 per kWh) and Lithuania (EUR 0.117 per kWh). The price of electricity for households in Denmark and in Germany was more than three times as high as the price in Bulgaria.
The EU-28 average price — a weighted average using the most recent (2015) data for the quantity of electricity consumption by households — was EUR 0.205 per kWh.
The development of electricity prices for household consumers in the EU-28 since the first half of 2008 is presented in Figure 2. These prices increased in 2008, decreased in the first half of 2009 but were stable in the second half, and then increased continuously from the first half of 2010 to the second half of 2016, apart from a fall of 2.4 % in the first half of 2016.
Figure 3 shows the change in electricity prices for household consumers including all taxes and VAT in national currency terms between the second half of 2015 and the second half of 2016; these prices fell during the period under consideration in 15 of the EU Member States. The highest price increase was observed in Belgium (16.7 %), while the price of electricity for household consumers fell most notably in Cyprus (-11.8 %) and the Netherlands (-13.8 %).
The proportion of taxes and levies in the overall electricity retail price for household consumers is shown in Figure 4. The relative amount of tax contribution in the second half of 2016 was smallest in Malta (4.8 %) where a low VAT rate is applied to the basic price and no other taxes are charged to household consumers. The highest taxes were charged in Denmark where 67.8% of the final price was made up of taxes and levies.
Table 2 shows the composition of the electricity price for household consumers divided into the following three components: energy and supply; network costs; and taxes and levies.
The relative importance of the energy and supply component compared with network costs can be seen in Figure 5; the share of the latter was relatively low in Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy and Ireland.
Electricity prices for industrial consumers
For industrial consumers (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-size consumers with an annual consumption within the range of 500 MWh < consumption < 2 000 MWh), electricity prices during the second half of 2016 were highest among the EU Member States in Italy and Germany (see Figure 6). The EU-28 average price — a weighted average using the most recent (2015) national data for the quantity of consumption by industrial consumers — was EUR 0.114 per kWh.
The development of electricity prices for industrial consumers in the EU-28 since the first half of 2008 is shown in Figure 7. These prices increased in 2008 and during the first half of 2009, decreased during the second half of 2009, and increased again each half year through to the first half of 2013. In the second half of 2013 the average price fell slightly, before increasing quite strongly (4.3 %) in the first half of 2014 to reach a peak of EUR 0.123 per kWh. From the second half of 2014 onwards a decreasing trend was observed.
Figure 8 shows the change in electricity prices for industrial consumers including all non-recoverable taxes and levies in national currency terms between the second half of 2015 and the second half of 2016; these prices fell during this period in 22 of the EU Member States. The highest price increases were observed in Sweden (14.3 %) and Belgium (7.1 %), while the price of electricity for industrial consumers fell by 11.5 % in Lithuania.
The proportion of non-recoverable taxes and levies in the overall electricity price for industrial consumers is presented in Figure 9. In the second half of 2016 the highest share of taxes was charged in Germany, where non-recoverable taxes and levies made up 46.8 % of the total price.
Table 3 shows the composition of the electricity price for industrial consumers divided into the following three components: energy and supply; network costs; and taxes and levies.
The relative importance of the energy and supply component compared with the network costs can be seen in Figure 10; the share of the latter was relatively low in Malta, whereas network costs accounted for more than half of the electricity price for industrial consumers in Slovakia and Latvia.
Data sources and availability
Defining household consumers
Throughout this article, references to household consumers relate to the medium standard household consumption band with an annual electricity consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh. All figures are consumer retail prices and include taxes, levies and VAT.
Note that the comparison between the 2015 and 2016 prices are made with prices in national currencies in order to exclude the influence of changes in exchange rates between national currencies and the euro for EU Member States and non-member countries that do not use the euro.
Defining industrial consumers
Throughout this article, references to industrial consumers relate to the medium standard industrial consumption band with an annual consumption of electricity between 500 and 2 000 MWh. In this article, prices are presented corresponding to the basic price for electricity production and network costs, including all non-recoverable taxes and levies.
Due to a change in methodology from 2007 onwards, there is a break in series and hence only a relatively short time series is available. Nevertheless, even in this relatively short timeframe, electricity prices have fluctuated considerably.
The transparency of energy prices is guaranteed within the EU through the obligation for EU Member States to send Eurostat information relating to prices for different categories of industrial consumers, as well as data relating to market shares, conditions of sale, and pricing systems; prices for household consumers are provided on a voluntary basis.
Electricity tariffs or price schemes vary from one supplier to another. They may result from negotiated contracts, especially for large industrial consumers. For smaller consumers, they are generally set according to the amount of electricity consumed along with a number of other characteristics; most tariffs also include some form of fixed charge. There is, therefore, no single price for electricity. In order to compare prices over time and between EU Member States, this article shows information for consumption bands for household consumers and for industrial consumers. There are in total five different types of households for which electricity prices are collected following different annual consumption bands. Across industrial consumers, electricity prices are collected for a total of seven different types of users.
Statistics on electricity prices charged to industrial consumers are collected under the legal basis of a European Commission Decision (2007/394/EC) of 7 June 2007 amending Council Directive (90/377/EEC) with regard to the methodology to be applied for the collection of gas and electricity prices. Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 22 October 2008 concerns procedures to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users. As noted above, electricity prices for households are collected on a voluntary basis.
The prices collected cover average prices over a period of six months (a half year or semester) from January to June (first half or semester 1) and from July to December (second half or semester 2) of each year. Prices include the basic price of the electricity, transmission and distribution charges, meter rental, and other services. Electricity prices for household consumers are presented including taxes, levies, non-tax levies, fees and value added tax (VAT) as this generally reflects the end price paid by household consumers. As industrial consumers are usually able to recover VAT and some other taxes, prices for enterprises are shown without VAT and other recoverable taxes/levies/fees. The unit for electricity prices is that of euro per kilowatt hour (EUR per kWh).
The price and reliability of energy supplies, electricity in particular, are key elements in a country’s energy supply strategy. Electricity prices are of particular importance for international competitiveness, as electricity usually represents a significant proportion of total energy costs for industrial and service-providing businesses. In contrast to the price of fossil fuels, which are usually traded on global markets with relatively uniform prices, there is a wider range of prices within the EU Member States for electricity. The price of electricity is, to some degree, influenced by the price of primary fuels and, more recently, by the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission certificates.
These issues were touched upon in a Communication from the European Commission Facing the challenge of higher oil prices (COM(2008) 384), which called on the EU to become more efficient in its use of energy, and less dependent on fossil fuels — in particular, by following the approach laid out in the climate change and renewable energy package.
The EU has acted to liberalise electricity and gas markets since the second half of the 1990s. Directives adopted in 2003 established common rules for internal markets for electricity and natural gas. Deadlines were set for opening markets and allowing customers to choose their supplier: as of 1 July 2004 for business customers and as of 1 July 2007 for all consumers (including households). Some EU Member States anticipated the liberalisation process, while others were much slower in adopting the necessary measures. Indeed, significant barriers to entry remain in many electricity and natural gas markets as seen through the number of markets that are still dominated by (near) monopoly suppliers. In July 2009, the European Parliament and Council adopted a third package of legislative proposals aimed at ensuring a real and effective choice of suppliers, as well as benefits for customers. It is thought that increased transparency for gas and electricity prices should help promote fair competition, by encouraging consumers to choose between different energy sources (oil, coal, natural gas and renewable energy sources) and different suppliers. Energy price transparency can be made more effective by publishing and broadcasting as widely as possible prices and pricing systems.
Further Eurostat information
- Energy (t_nrg), see
- Energy Statistics - prices (t_nrg_price)
- Electricity prices by type of user (ten00117)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy Statistics - prices of natural gas and electricity (nrg_price)
- Energy statistics - natural gas and electricity prices (from 2007 onwards) (nrg_pc)
- Energy statistics - natural gas and electricity prices (until 2007) (nrg_pc_h)
Methodology / Metadata
- Energy statistics - electricity prices for domestic and industrial consumers, price components (ESMS metadata file — nrg_pc_204_esms)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Weekly oil bulletin (weekly pump prices)
- Single market progress report for gas and electricity
- This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.