Applications (migr_asyapp)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

Download


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F2: Population

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 11/07/2014
2.2. Metadata last posted 26/03/2015
2.3. Metadata last update 26/03/2015


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Data series on asylum applications contain statistical information based on Article 4 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 with reference to:

  • Asylum and first time asylum applicants by age, sex and citizenship
  • Persons subject to applications pending at the end of reference period by age, sex and citizenship
  • Applications for asylum withdrawn by age, sex and citizenship
  • Asylum applicants considered to be unaccompanied minors by age, sex and citizenship

These data are supplied to Eurostat by the national Ministries of Interior and related official agencies. Data is presented by country and for groups of countries: the European Union (EU28, EU27) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

Data has been rounded to the nearest 5.

3.2. Classification system

The classification of codes on the reporting country (GEO) and on the country of citizenship of asylum applicants (CITIZEN) corresponds to the ISO 3166 code-list (3166-1 alpha-2) with the exception of:

  • United Kingdom where the code ""UK"" was adopted (instead of ""GB"") and
  • Greece where the code ""EL"" was adopted (instead of ""GR"")
3.3. Coverage - sector

Asylum migration - international protection statistics

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

'Asylum applicant' means a person having submitted an application for international protection or having been included in such application as a family member during the reference period. 'Application for international protection' means an application for international protection as defined in Art.2(h) of Directive 2011/95/EU, i.e. a request made by a third-country national or a stateless person for protection from a Member State, who can be understood to seek refugee status or subsidiary protection status, and who does not explicitly request another kind of protection, outside the scope of this Directive, that can be applied for separately. This definition is intended to refer to all who apply for protection on an individual basis, irrespective of whether they lodge their application on arrival at the airport or land border, or from inside the country, and irrespective of whether they entered the territory legally (e.g. as a tourist) or illegally (see Art4.1 (a) of the Regulation).

  • Applications submitted by persons who are subsequently found to be a subject of a Dublin procedure (Regulation (EU) No 604/2013) are included in the number of asylum applications.
  • Persons who are transferred to another Member State in application of the Dublin Regulation are reported as asylum applicants also in the Menber State where they are transferred to.
  • Within the same reference period every person being a subject of asylum application is counted only once, therefore repeat applications are not recorded if the first application has been lodged in the same reference period. However, such a repeat application will be recorded if lodged in a different reference month. It means that the aggregation of the monthly figures may overestimate the number of persons applying for international protection within the aggregated period (year).

'First time asylum applicant' means a person having submitted an application for international protection for the first time. Applications submitted by persons who are subsequently found to be a subject of a Dublin procedure are included in the statistics on first time asylum applicants if such persons are also a subject of first asylum application. The term 'first time' implies no time limits and therefore a person can be recorded as first time applicant only if he or she had never applied for international protection in the reporting country in the past, irrespective of the fact that he or she is found to have applied in another Member State of the European Union. All Member States are requested to supply these data but their provision is voluntary.

Person being a subject of 'a pending application' means a person who is the subject of application for international protection under consideration by the responsible national authority at the end of the reference period. It includes the number of persons with pending applications at all instances of the administrative and/or judicial procedure (see Art 4.1(b) of the Regulation).

'Applications withdrawn' means applications for asylum having been withdrawn during the reference period at all instances of the administrative and/or judicial procedure (see Art.4.1(c) of the Regulation).

'Asylum applicants considered to be unaccompanied minors' means all applicants for international protection who are considered by the national authority to be unaccompanied minors during the reference period and relates to Art 4.3(a) of the Regulation. 'Unaccompanied minor' means minor as defined in Article 2(l) of Directive 2011/95/EU i.e. a minor who arrives on the territory of the Member States unaccompanied by an adult responsible for him or her whether by law or by the practice of the Member State concerned, and for as long as he or she is not effectively taken into the care of such a person; it includes a minor who is left unaccompanied after he or she has entered the territory of the Member States.

3.5. Statistical unit

Except for the data on asylum applications withdrawn, all data refer explicitly to the number of persons. However, it is understood that the data on asylum applications withdrawn will also relate to the number of persons rather than cases.

See annexes.

3.6. Statistical population

The statistical polulation for asylum applications statistics refers to:

  • persons having submitted an application for international protection or having been included in such an application as a family member during the reference period
  • persons who are the subject of applications for international protection under consideration by the responsible national authority at the end of the reference period
  • applications for international protection having been withdrawn during the reference period
  • applicants for international protection who are considered by the responsible national authority to be unaccompanied minors during the reference period

in the area of EU28 Member States and in the EFTA countries.

Please further see concept "3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions".

3.7. Reference area

EU28 Member States, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland

3.8. Coverage - Time

Asylum applications are available since 1985. However, Council Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 applies to asylum statistics collected since January 2008.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measure Top

The unit of measure is the absolute number of persons.


5. Reference Period Top

Calendar month or calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics on asylum is based on Article 4 of Council Regulation (CE) No 862/2007 of 11 July 2007 which depicts in detail the data provisions Member States are bound to supply Eurostat with.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable - data on Asylum applications are not confidential.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Not applicable.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

The database is updated two times per week, every Wednesday and Friday morning at 11.00 a.m..


10. Dissemination format Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Data on asylum are used in the frame of our annual News Release publications.

Our News Releases can be found under this portal: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/publications/collections/news-releases.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data on asylum are used regularly in the frame of quarterly and annual publications.

Our latest publications can be downloaded for free from this portal:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/asylum-and-managed-migration/publications

Moreover Eurostat produces statistical articles via the Statistics Explained platform. The Asylum_quarterly_report and the Asylum statistics articles describe recent short and long term developments in relation to numbers of asylum applicants and decisions on asylum applications in the European Union.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.


11. Accessibility of documentation Top
11.1. Documentation on methodology

Please see the annex on Technical Guidelines on asylum statistics.

Please refer as well to Article 4 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 862/2007

11.2. Quality management - documentation

See annexes.


12. Quality management Top
12.1. Quality assurance

An Asylum Metadata questionnaire has been developped by Eurostat to ensure the compliance of Member States with requirements of Article 4 of Regulation (EC) 862/2007.
As given in the Article 9 of the Regulation, Member States must report to Eurostat on the data sources used, the reasons for the selection of these sources and the effects of the selected data on the quality of the statistics.

Member States compile the requested data following the guidelines and instructions provided by Eurostat. Before data publication, consistency validation checks are performed. 

Furtermore, in order to ensure that the statistical practices used to compile the Asylum data are in compliance with the methodological requirements and that good practices in the field of Asylum statistics are being followed, Eurostat organises every two years a dedicated Working Group on Asylum statistics where quality and methodological issues are discussed with the data providers (Member States). Eurostat also undertakes compliance monitoring visits to Member States, during which it reviews and consults the data providers on methodological issues.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

Asylum statistics are mainly based on administrative sources. Certain differences in definitions and practices of producing asylum statistics exist between countires. However, with minor exceptions (see annexes) the Member States are following the requirements of the Regulation (EC) 862/2007 (first reporting period January 2008) and the quality of the data may be assessed as good or very good.

The main strengths of the Asylum statistics: relevance, accuracy, timeliness and punctuality, accessibility and clarity, coherence and comparability:

  • Relevance: The key users of Asylum statistics are DG HOME AFFAIRS (migration and asylum policy), European Asylum Support Office, various N.G.O.'s and researchers, but also other Directorates General, like DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and DG Justice. The data relevance can be assessed as good thanks to frequent informal and formal contacts with users.
  • Accuracy: The accuracy of the Asylum data depend on the accuracy and efficiency of the underlying administrative source systems. However, many Member States have introduced more integrated and comprehensive administrative systems that make use of modern IT and communication methods. These developments have a strongly
    positive impact on the accuracy of the statistical data, broadly speaking. Finally, Asylum statistics benefit from established and efficient validation and compilation tools.
  • Timeliness and punctuality: The Asylum statistics benefit from the well-established data collection and as well from the Regulation (EC) 862/2007 which defines certain deadlines for data transmission to Eurostat. The regulation specifies that the monthly and quarterly data must be reported to Eurostat not later than 2 months after the end of a reference period, while the annual data must be reported to Eurostat not later than 3 months after the end of the reference year. Due to the well established I.T. tools at Eurostat level, Asylum data are generally disseminated on a punctual manner immediately after they are transmitted to Eurostat, every Wednesday and Friday (given that the internal consistency of the data is ensured). Nevertheless, missing data can often impact on the punctuality of the release of certain publications (Data in Focus, Statistics Explained articles).
  • Accessibility: All the different dissemination channels are used: electronic and paper publications, predefined main tables, databases, DVDs and FTP addresses for bulk downloads.
  • Clarity: the dissemination of the Asylum statistics is supported by a complete set of structural and reference metadata making it possible to easily identify, retrieve and browse the data and their quality.
  • Coherence and Comparability: Regulation (EC) 862/2007 ensures the harmonisation of the concepts and definitions applied by the Member States for reporting the Asylum data to Eurostat. Furtermore, the increased degree of harmonisation in the management of asylum systems in the EU (for example, through the implementation of the
    Common European Asylum System or via the support of the European Asylum Support Office) has helped to ensure that these administrative sources and the resulting statistical data are highly comparable.

Other recent actions and future plans on ensuring and enhancing the quality of Asylum data:

  • In December 2013 the Technical Guidelines used for reporting Asylum data has been reviewed jointly by Eurostat, DG HOME AFFAIRS, FRONTEX and E.A.S.O. and in consultation with Member States. This exercise clarified certain concepts and definitions of Asylum data collection and helped to enhance the overall quality and comparability of the Asylum data across countries.
  • Eurostat will launch a new round of Quality Questionnaire in Autumn 2014 to assess the quality and comparability of the concepts and definitions of Asylum data across countries and over time.
  • The Working Group of April 2014 on Asylum, Residence Permit and Enforcement Statistics established a harmonised set of validation rules for Asylum data in order to enusre their internal coherence and consistency across countries.
  • Eurostat has recently developed and provided to Member States an automatic web validation engine (EDIT) with which data providers can check the consistency of the Asylum data against the common established validation rules.


13. Relevance Top
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users of Eurostat asylum statistics are:

  • various policy DGs in the European Commission, like DG HOME AFFAIRS for desinging, funding and implementing asylum related policies in the EU
  • the European Parliament
  • national authorities (Ministries of Interior, Ministries of Justice, Migration agencies) who use Asylum data to monitor or project the development of their national asylum procedures
  • the European Migration Network (EMN) which uses the Asylum data as a basis for its annual EU- and national-level statistical and analytical reports
  • researchers and students conducting analysis and research in the field of asylum
  • journalists and international organisations in the area of asylum and migration

Certain statistical needs related to asylum are not met fully by the statistics collected under the Regulation. For example, statistics on First time asylum applicants (as opposed to Total Asylum applicants) are only covered by "Gentlemen's agreements" with national data suppliers. Nevertheless, despite its voluntary nature, the coverage of this indicator is almost complete, with 27 out of the 28 EU Member States and 3 out of the 4 EFTA countries reporting it to Eurostat.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not conduct user satisfaction surveys per se. Instead the users satisfaction is monitored on a constant way through informal and formal contacts and communications with users and through requests and comments received by users.

13.3. Completeness

The completeness of the Asylum data depends largely on the availability of the data from the relevant data providers (National Statistical Institutes, Interior ministries or migration related agencies). Currently, 27 out of 28  Member States and all EFTA countries are producing the complete asylum applications data. Occassionally the completeness of the data may vary due to various constraints in the data providers administrative systems.

See annexes


14. Accuracy Top
14.1. Accuracy - overall

The accuracy of statistical outputs in the general statistical sense is the degree of closeness of estimates to the true values.

The overall assesment of the accuracy of the Asylum data collection is considered to be high.

The Asylum data are collected mainly through national administrative sources (registers in Ministries of Interior or related Immigration Agencies). It follows that accuracy of the Asylum data depends largely on the accuracy and efficiency of the underlying administrative systems of the national data providers.

Main sources of errors are:

  • differences in definitions by not recording a certain information, which may thus lead to over- or undercoverage of the target population, or
  • errors in the administrative register system (less often, mainly of technical nature)

Certain such discrepancies have occured over the years impacting some times on the accuracy (and comparability) of the asylum data (please see annex on 2009 Metadata questionnaire summary for country specific issues).

Many Member States have lately introduced more integrated and comprehensive administrative systems that make use of modern IT and communication methods. Moreover, more sophisticated systems (e.g. EURODAC database) also reduce the risk of over-counting, such as by helping to identify where a person has already made an asylum application (and so should therefore not be counted again as a first time asylum applicant).

14.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


15. Timeliness and punctuality Top
15.1. Timeliness

Depending on data periodicity data are sent to Eurostat by the reporting countries:

  • Monthly data: not later than 2 months after the end of the reference period
  • Yearly data: not later than 3 months after the end of the reference period 

Generally, data are released by Eurostat on the public online database approximately 3 working days immediately after their reception (given that they do not contain any errors). In exceptional cases (large revisions, further validation, technical reasons, etc.) data may be disseminated later than 3 working days.

15.2. Punctuality

The punctuality of the data is overall very good.

Almost all countries are able to meet the requirements of transmitting the data within the deadlines foreseen in the Regulation.

However, it is often the case that few countries might transmit the data some days/weeks after the deadlilne. Such delays will impact as well the scheduled timetable of certain publications, like the quarterly Data in Focus publication or the annual News Releases. The number of countries which provide delayed data can vary from period to period depending on problems that may arise in the respective national administrative systems.


16. Comparability Top
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Every effort is made to collect comparable data.

Main concepts and definitions are followed by the Member States. However, there is a number of differences in concepts, definitions or data sources used in different countries which can make comparisons between countries difficult and occasionally misleading.

Explanatory notes by countries and concepts are provided in the annexes at the bottom of this page.

16.2. Comparability - over time

There are two specific reference periods that should be taken into account when analysing/comparing Asylum data over time:

The first is January 2008. Prior to January 2008, Asylum statistics were collected on the basis of a Gentlemen's agreement. Concepts used by countries prior 2008 and after the entry into force of the Regulation (EC) 862/2007 (January 2008 and on) may thus differ. Therefore comparisons of prior-2008 and after-2008 Asylum data should be exercised with caution.

Data after January 2008, when Regulation (EC) 862/2007 entered into force, are considered to be highly comparable over time. However, various improvements or changes in the national administrative systems and statistical methodology may sometimes cause breaks in the time series. Please consult the explanatory notes by countries provided in the Annexes at the bottom of this page.

The second important reference period one needs to take into account when comparing Asylum data over time is January 2014. In December 2013 the Technical Guidelines were reviewed by Eurostat jointly with DG HOME, EASO and FRONTEX, to ensure the maximum harmonisation of the asylum data collection methodology and to reflect the recent recast of the legislation in the area of asylum.

These new 2013 guidelines first enter into force for data of reference period of:

  • January 2014 onwards, for monthly data
  • first quarter 2014 onwards, for quarterly data
  • 2014 year onwards, for annual data

The new 2013 guidelines may imply a methodological break in series for Asylum data before and after January 2014. To further identify the real impact of the new 2013 Asylum Guidelines on the reported data and to assess whether there is a warrant for the designation of a break in series for the amended definitions, Eurostat will administer to national data providers a quality questionnaire (survey) in Autumn 2014. The results of this quality survey will be published in this metadata information accompanying the Asylum data series.

Below is a list of the concepts amended for which their assumed impact on the reporting data is potentially significant. For the full list of amendments of the new 2013 Guidelines and their implementation calendar, please see attached Annex "Implementation of the new Asylum Guidelines".

 Table 1. Partial list of methodological amendments of the New 2013 Asylum Guidelines
 Amended concept Potential impact on reporting since January 2014

reporting AGE

Data on age of asylum applicants shall be reported (revised if necessary) according to the age of the asylum applicants as finally determined by the national authority during the decision taking procedure. That is, in case the age of the asylum seeker reported to Eurostat as provisional asylum application data appeared to be different from the one which was finally determined by the national authority during the decision taking procedure, national data supplier shall revise the provisional/initial data on asylum applications. This shall ensure the consistency of application and decision data.

Possibly significant impact on reporting final datasets

reporting AGE

For data related to applications by unaccompanied minors, the age of unaccompanied minors shall refer to the age accepted by the national asylum authority. In case a national authority carries out an age assessment procedure in relation to the applicant claiming to be an unaccompanied minor, the age reported shall be the age determined by the age assessment procedure'.

Possibly significant impact for countries carrying out age assessment procedures

reporting CITIZENSHIP

In case where the citizenship of the asylum seeker reported to Eurostat as provisional asylum application data appeared to be different from the one which was finally determined by the national authority during the decision taking procedure, national data suppliers shall revise the initial datasets on asylum applications. This shall ensure the consistency of application and decision data. For example, when at the stage of registering an asylum application the national authority accepted and reported to Eurostat that an applicant was of citizenship 'ABC', but during the evaluation procedure the authority determined that the actual citizenship of this applicant was 'XYZ', then the previously provided datasets on asylum applications shall be revised accordingly (i.e. reporting citizenship 'XYZ').

 

Possibly significant impact on reporting final datasets.

New definition: FIRST TIME APPLICANT

First time applicant for international protection (as defined by Articles 2(h) and 2(i) of Qualification Directive 2011/95/EU) is a person who lodged an application for asylum for the FIRST TIME in a given Member State. The term 'first time' implies no time limits and therefore a person can be recorded as first time applicant only if he or she had never applied for international protection in the reporting country in the past, irrespective of the fact that he is found to have applied in another Member State of the European Union.

New definition may have a significant impact on reporting in all or nearly all countries. Adjustments in reporting will be necessary to report only real First time applicants

New definition: REPEATED APPLICANT

Repeated asylum applicant: a person who made a further application for international protection, in a given Member State, after a final decision (positive/negative/discontinuation) has been taken on a previous application. The concept includes:

1. Subsequent applicants,

2. New applicants (see explanation below), and

3. Applicants being subject of re-opened applications

Repeated applicants should be reported under Applications and Pending applications data but NOT under First time applicants data

 

Subsequent applicant:

In line with the applicable articles of the Asylum Procedures Directive (Article 2(q)) "subsequent applicant" means a person who made a further application for international protection after a final decision (positive/negative/discontinuation) has been taken on a previous application, including cases where the applicant has explicitly withdrawn his or her application and cases where the determining authority has rejected an application following its implicit withdrawal in accordance with Article 28(1).

Only applications where Articles 40 of the Asylum Procedures Directive are applied shall be considered as subsequent.

Please note that such persons shall NOT be reported under First time applicants data.

Persons subject of subsequent applications shall be treated as a repeated applicant for the purpose of the statistical data collection and therefore reported under Applicants and Pending applicants data but NOT under First time applicants data

 

New applicant:

''New' applicants are considered 'Repeated' applicants if according to the Article 28(2) of the Asylum Procedures Directive 'New' application is lodged after discontinuation of the previous application.'

 

Re-opened application:

'When an asylum application is discontinued in application of Article 28(1) of the Asylum Procedure Directive and the applicant reports to the asylum authorities of the concerned Member States under the terms foreseen under Article 28(2) of the same Directive and request that his or her case be reopened, his or her application should be considered a "Re-opened application" under the statistical data collections and not as a subsequent application (i.e. Article 40 of the Asylum Procedure Directive is not applied).

In the context of Article 28(2) a re-opened application can only be considered as a "subsequent application" in the meaning of Article 40 if a Member State has defined a time limit for the reopening in line with Article 28(2). Only in such case, such re-opened application can be reported in applications and pending applications data.

When no final decision had been taken on the initial application yet and/or application was not yet withdrawn, such reopened application shall not be reported within application data.

Only when a final decision has been taken or the application was withdrawn such reopened applicant shall be reported as asylum repeated applicant in the table A01 and A02. Please note that such persons shall NOT be reported under First time applicants.

New definition may have a significant impact on reporting in all or nearly all countries.

Adjustments in reporting will be necessary to exclude Repeated applicants from the data reported under First time applicants.

Reporting DUBLIN cases

'Dublin cases (i.e. persons who are subject of a request and/or transfer on the basis of a 'Dublin' procedure) should be reported in the pending stock (asylum applications pending) of the requesting Member State until the actual transfer takes place. From that moment onwards they will be part of the pending stock of the receiving Member State.'

Assumed to have no or limited impact on reporting

 

Reporting RESETTLED PERSONS

'Persons being a subject to resettlement or to a relocation procedure shall NOT be reported in the statistics on asylum applicants and pending asylum applications in the receiving country.'

New instruction will have a significant impact on reporting only in few countries that include Resettled persons in Applications data. 


17. Coherence Top
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable

17.2. Coherence - internal

Internal consistency (between time, age, sex, country, groups of citizenship) is ensured through various validation checks performed both by national data providers but also by Eurostat before data publication.

For a list of the validation rules and procedures which Asylum data go through before they are considered ERROR-FREE and publishable, please see sub-concept 20.4 below (Data validation).


18. Cost and Burden Top

"The types of statistics required under the Regulation [862/2007] are needed also for national purposes, such as for the management of the national system for processing asylum applications [...]. In almost all cases, the data used to produce the statistics are based on existing administrative and statistical systems. The specific burdens placed by the Regulation on national authorities are therefore related to the need to prepare particular disaggregations or tables that might not otherwise have been produced, and to the need to apply the harmonised statistical definitions and concepts. For some national authorities, this resulted in one-off costs associated with the necessary adaptations to methods, procedures and systems.

The extent of the additional burdens varied between Member States according to the degree of similarity between the existing national systems for migration statistics and the requirements of the Regulation. However, in most Member States and for most of the statistics covered by the Regulation, the additional costs and burden are believed to be relatively limited and to be proportionate to the benefits obtained at both EU and national level of having more complete and better harmonised migration statistics." (*)

(*) Extract taken from the 2012 REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection.


19. Data revision Top
19.1. Data revision - policy

Currently there is no specific revision policy on Asylum statistics.

However, in March 2014 Eurostat has drafted and proposed a Revision Policy for Asylum statistics in a Working Group meeting with the national data providers. This revision policy is currently under consultation with the Member States and shall be published as soon as it shall be established.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Currently, Asylum data are revised on a continuous basis according to the most recently updated data provided by the reporting countries.


20. Statistical processing Top
20.1. Source data

Administrative data sources only.

Data are compiled from the administrative records of the national authorities, mainly the Ministries of Interior or Immigration Agencies to which asylum applicants lodge their application for international protection.

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Data on applicants for international protection, applicants being the subject of pending applications and withdrawals of applications are collected on a monthly basis.

Data on asylum applications by unaccompanied minors are collected on an annual basis.

20.3. Data collection

This data collection is administered by Eurostat. The statisics are collected by the responsible data providers (National statistical Institutes, Interior Mininistries or Migration related Agencies) and are supplied to Eurostat.

20.4. Data validation

A set of standardised validation checks are applied by Eurostat before publishing the data.

Currently, data providers may transmit the data either in excel, or in csv (comma separated value) templates (administered by Eurostat to Member States). or both templates validation rules are checked to ensure the internal consistency of the data:

  • variable codes and values of data are from a predefined set of accepted code-lists and format
  • statistics are confronted against other relevant data (e.g. a 'total' value of a given disaggregation (dimension) should equal the sum of the disaggregated data);
  • investigating inconsistencies in the statistics;
  • performing micro data editing;
  • verifying the statistics against expectations and domain intelligence;
  • outlier detection;
20.5. Data compilation

EU28, EU27 and other aggregates are calculated by Eurostat on available data. EU and other aggregates are flagged 'd' when data for at least one Member State is missing.

20.6. Adjustment

Data have been rounded to the nearest 5.
Due to the rounding, the sum of individuals may not necessarily match the given total.


21. Comment Top

Explanatory notes are provided in the Annexes at the bottom of this page.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
Asylum - Metadata questionnaire summary
Asylum - Eurostat guidelines to asylum templates - 2008-2012
Asylum - Eurostat guidelines to Asylum templates - 2013
Asylum - Implementation of the New 2013 Asylum Guidelines
Asylum - Eurostat guidelines to Asylum templates - 2014
Asylum - Eurostat guidelines to Asylum templates - 2016