Author(s): Magdalena Spooner, Mirco Tomasi, Paul Arnoldus, Ǻsa Johannesson-Linden, Fotis Kalantzis, Emmanuelle Maincent, Jerzy Pienkowski and Andras Rezessy
Over recent years, EU economies have been exposed to energy price increases leading to adverse effects on consumers and industries. Some economies have also been confronted with disruptions to gas supply, affecting gas-dependent industrial activities and households. Arguably, the EU economy will continue to be exposed to risks related to energy prices, including potential oil shocks or gas shortages.
In order to assess how Member States are energy dependent and potentially vulnerable to energy price hikes and supply shortages, a set of energy dependence indicators (EDI) has been developed. Three dimensions of energy dependence are considered for this analysis: (1) security of energy supply, (2) energy and carbon intensity, and (3) contribution of energy products to trade. The performance of each of the 28 Member States is analysed and compared along each of these three dimensions. This cross-country analysis is complemented by 10 country fiches. The report also includes an in-depth analysis of Energy Efficiency drivers.
|KC-AH-14-196-EN-N (online)||KC-AH-14-196-EN-C (print)|
|ISBN 978-92-79-35380-2 (online)||ISBN 978-92-79-36124-1 (print)|
|doi: 10.2765/75127 (online)||doi: 10.2765/78633 (print)|
Occasional Papers are written by the staff of the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, or by experts working in association with them. The Papers are intended to increase awareness of the technical work being done by staff and cover a wide spectrum of subjects. Views expressed in unofficial documents do not necessarily reflect the official views of the European Commission.