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01 October 2019

Citizenship, participation and belonging in Scandinavia


The research published by the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) reveals a strong consensus among your Scandinavians of different ethnic origins as to what the requirements to obtaining citizenship in their countries should be.

A research team including scholars from Denmark, Sweden and Norway interviewed 7,500 respondents between the ages of 20 and 36, both of local origin as well as first- and second-generation migrants. The participants were asked what they saw as reasonable criteria to becoming a citizen, what they thought of the existing rules, and whether they felt part of the national community.

While Denmark, Sweden and Norway fare similarly across a number of social indicators, their citizenship rules differ, with Denmark having a number of strict rules as opposed to Sweden where obtaining citizenship is comparatively easier. Regardless of their background, however, respondents overwhelmingly agreed that the demands for acquiring citizenship should be ‘reasonable’ in order not to hamper migrants' equality and civil rights.

Citizenship, participation and belonging in Scandinavia
(14.95 MB - PDF)


Marta Bivand Erdal, Davide Bertelli, Mathias Kruse, Mathias Hatleskog Tjønn, Arnfinn H. Midtbøen, Grete Brochmann, Pieter Bevelander, Per Mouritsen, Emily Cochran Bech, Kristian Kriegbaum Jensen
Geographic area
Contributor type
Academics and experts
Original source
Posted by
Michala Clante Bendixen
Country Coordinator

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