Temporary protection statistics

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

F2: Population and migration

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 29/04/2022
2.2. Metadata last posted 29/04/2022
2.3. Metadata last update 29/04/2022

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

On 22 March 2022, Eurostat’s Director General addressed the Directors General and Presidents of the NSIs (National Statistical Institutes) in the European Statistical System inviting them to contribute professionally to European actions to support Ukraine by ensuring the timelier availability of the necessary statistics. More specifically, the Partnership Group stressed that population data are crucial in this situation and would need to be prioritised. The Directors of Social Statistics underlined the importance of comparable statistics covering statistics on temporary protection. 

In line with the ESS commitment to provide relevant and timely official statistics, Eurostat asked Member States and EFTA countries to transmit voluntary monthly data within one month following the end of reference period and for the first time by the end of April for the reference month March 2022 for the following data series within the framework of Eurostat data collections in the field of Asylum and international protection (Article 4 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 862/2007): 

  • First instance decisions during the reference period granting temporary protection status by age, sex and citizenship (flow data).
  • First instance decisions during the reference period granting temporary protection status to unaccompanied minors by age, sex and citizenship (flow data).
  • Beneficiaries of temporary protection at the end of the month by citizenship, age and sex (stock data).
  • Unaccompanied minors benefiting of temporary protection at the end of the month by citizenship, age and sex (stock data).

Temporary protection status and conditions of applications are defined by Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 whereas Council implementing decision (EU) 2022/382 of 4 March 2022 establishing the existence of a mass influx of displaced persons from Ukraine within the meaning of Article 5 of Directive 2001/55/EC is the first one having the effect of introducing temporary protection. 

These data are supplied to Eurostat by the national Ministries of Interior and related official or statistical agencies. Data is presented by country and for groups of countries: the European Member States and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). 

Provided data may differ from operational data collected by European or International agencies like EUAA (European Union Asylum Agency) or UNHCR.

3.2. Classification system

The classification of codes on the reporting country (GEO) and on the country of citizenship of asylum applicants (CITIZEN) corresponds to the ISO 3166 code-list (3166-1 alpha-2) with the exception of:

  • Greece where the code ""EL"" was adopted (instead of ""GR"") and
  • United Kingdom where the code ""UK"" was adopted (instead of ""GB"")

Available age groups are:

  • Less than 14 years
  • From 14 to 17 years
  • Less than 18 years
  • From 18 to 34 years
  • From 35 to 64 years
  • 65 years or over
  • Unknown
3.3. Coverage - sector

Asylum migration - international protection statistics

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

‘Temporary protection’ means a procedure of exceptional character to provide, in the event of a mass influx or imminent mass influx of displaced persons from third countries who are unable to return to their country of origin, immediate and temporary protection to such persons, in particular if there is also a risk that the asylum system will be unable to process this influx without adverse effects for its efficient operation, in the interests of the persons concerned and other persons requesting protection. 

European temporary protection versus national temporary protection: The Council implementing decision (EU) 2022/382 of 4 March 2022 is compatible with, and can be applied in complementarity with, national temporary protection schemes, which can be considered as implementing Directive 2001/55/EC. If the Member State has a national scheme that is more favourable than the arrangements set out in Directive 2001/55/EC, the Member State should be able to continue applying it, since that Directive provides that Member States may adopt or retain more favourable conditions for persons covered by temporary protection. However, should the national scheme be less favourable, the Member State should ensure the additional rights provided for in Directive 2001/55/EC. 

Duration of temporary protection: In accordance with Directive 2001/55/EC, the ‘duration of temporary protection’ should be for an initial period of one year. Unless terminated under the terms of that Directive, that period should be extended automatically by six monthly periods for a maximum of one year. The Commission will keep the situation under constant monitoring and review. At any time, it may propose to the Council to end the temporary protection, based on the fact that the situation in Ukraine is such as to permit the safe and durable return of those granted temporary protection, or propose that the Council extend the temporary protection by up to one year. 

Termination of temporary protection: Temporary protection shall come to an end when the maximum duration has been reached or at any time, by Council Decision adopted by a qualified

majority on a proposal from the Commission, which shall also examine any request by a Member State that it submit a proposal to the Council. The Council Decision shall be based on the establishment of the fact that the situation in the country of origin is such as to permit the safe and durable return of those granted temporary protection. 

‘Unaccompanied minors’ means third-country nationals or stateless persons below the age of eighteen, who arrive on the territory of the Member States unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them whether by law or custom, and for as long as they are not effectively taken into the care of such a person, or minors who are left unaccompanied after they have entered the territory of the Member States;

3.5. Statistical unit

All data refer explicitly to the number of persons covered by the decisions granting temporary protection status. 

3.6. Statistical population

Based on the Council implementing decision (EU) 2022/382 of 4 March 2022, the population to whom the temporary protection applies to the following categories of persons displaced from Ukraine on or after 24 February 2022, as a result of the military invasion by Russian armed forces:

a)      Ukrainian nationals residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022.

b)     Stateless persons, and nationals of third countries other than Ukraine, who benefited from international protection or equivalent national protection in Ukraine before 24 February 2022.

c)      Family members of the persons referred to in points a) and b).

d)     Stateless persons, and nationals of third countries other than Ukraine, who can prove that they were legally residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022 on the basis of a valid permanent residence permit issued in accordance with Ukrainian law and who are unable to return in safe and durable conditions to their country or region of origin. Member States may extend temporary protection to all other stateless persons or nationals of third countries other than Ukraine residing legally in Ukraine who are unable to return in safe and durable conditions to their country or region of origin. Such persons could include third-country nationals who were studying or working in Ukraine on a short-term basis at the time of the events leading to the mass influx.


The following persons shall be considered to be part of a family, in so far as the family was already present and residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022:

  • The spouse of a person referred to in point a) or b), or the unmarried partner in a stable relationship, where the legislation or practice of the Member State concerned treats unmarried couples in a way comparable to married couples under its national law relating to aliens.
  • The minor unmarried children of a person referred to in point a) or b), or of his or her spouse, without distinction as to whether they were born in or out wedlock or adopted.
  • Other close relatives who lived together as part of the family unit at the time of the circumstances surrounding the mass influx of displaced persons, and who were wholly or mainly dependent on a person referred to in point a) or b) at the time.
3.7. Reference area

EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series on temporary protection are available from reference month March 2022.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top

The unit of measure is the absolute number of persons.

5. Reference Period Top

Calendar month (flow and stock data), or calendar quarter (flow data).

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics on asylum is based on Article 4 of Council Regulation (CE) No 862/2007 of 11 July 2007 which depicts in detail the data provisions Member States are bound to supply Eurostat with.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable - data on Asylum applications are not confidential.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Not applicable.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

The database is updated two times per week, every Tuesday and Thursday morning at 11.00 a.m..

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Data on temporary protection will be used in the frame of our periodical News publications.

Our News can be found under this portal: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/migration-asylum/asylum/publications.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data on temporary protection will be used regularly in the frame of periodical publications.

Our latest publications can be downloaded for free from this portal:

Moreover Eurostat produces statistical articles via the Statistics Explained platform. 

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult data on-line https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/migration-asylum/asylum/database, or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Please see the annex on Technical Guidelines on asylum statistics.

Please refer as well to Article 4 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 862/2007, Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 and Council implementing decision (EU) 2022/382 of 4 March 2022.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

See annexes.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

An Asylum Metadata questionnaire has been developped by Eurostat to ensure the compliance of Member States with requirements of Article 4 of Regulation (EC) 862/2007.
As given in the Article 9 of the Regulation, Member States must report to Eurostat on the data sources used, the reasons for the selection of these sources and the effects of the selected data on the quality of the statistics.

Member States compile the requested data following the guidelines and instructions provided by Eurostat. Before data publication, consistency validation checks are performed. 

Furtermore, in order to ensure that the statistical practices used to compile the Asylum data are in compliance with the methodological requirements and that good practices in the field of Asylum statistics are being followed, Eurostat organises every two years a dedicated Working Group on Asylum statistics where quality and methodological issues are discussed with the data providers (Member States). Eurostat also undertakes compliance monitoring visits to Member States, during which it reviews and consults the data providers on methodological issues.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Temporary protection data, as asylum statistics, are, mainly based on administrative sources. Certain differences in definitions and practices for producing those statistics may exist between countries. However, the Member States are generally following the requirements of the Regulation (EC) 862/2007) and the quality of the data may be assessed as good or very good.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users of Eurostat asylum statistics including temporary protection data are:

  • various policy DGs in the European Commission, like DG HOME AFFAIRS for desinging, funding and implementing asylum related policies in the EU
  • the European Parliament
  • national authorities (Ministries of Interior, Ministries of Justice, Migration agencies) who use Asylum data to monitor or project the development of their national asylum procedures
  • the European Migration Network (EMN) which uses the Asylum data as a basis for its annual EU- and national-level statistical and analytical reports
  • researchers and students conducting analysis and research in the field of asylum

journalists and international organisations in the area of asylum and migration

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not conduct user satisfaction surveys per se. Instead the users satisfaction is monitored on a constant way through informal and formal contacts and communications with users and through requests and comments received by users.

12.3. Completeness

The completeness of the temporary protection data depends largely on the availability of the data from the relevant data providers (National Statistical Institutes, Interior ministries or migration related agencies). Since the data collection is carried out on a voluntary basis, the completeness of the data may vary.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

The accuracy of statistical outputs in the general statistical sense is the degree of closeness of estimates to the true values.

The overall assessment of the accuracy of the Asylum data collection is considered to be high.

The Asylum data are collected mainly through national administrative sources (registers in Ministries of Interior or related Immigration Agencies). It follows that accuracy of the Asylum data depends largely on the accuracy and efficiency of the underlying administrative systems of the national data providers.

Main sources of errors are:

  • · differences in definitions by not recording correctly certain information, which may thus lead to over- or undercoverage of the target population, or
  • · errors in the administrative register system (less often, mainly of technical nature)

EU aggregate:

  • EU aggregate is calculated as the sum of Member States’ data, and can be overestimated because of the possibility for the same third-country national to be counted as beneficiary of temporary in several Member States
13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Measurement error in the register

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Data are sent to Eurostat by the reporting countries no later than one month after the end of the reference period.

Generally, data are released by Eurostat on the public online database approximately 3 working days immediately after their reception (given that they do not contain any errors). In exceptional cases (large revisions, further validation, technical reasons, etc.) data may be disseminated later than 3 working days.

14.2. Punctuality

It is expected that the punctuality of data on temporary protection will be comparable to the punctuality of asylum data which is overall very good.

Almost all countries are able to meet the requirements of transmitting the data within the deadlines foreseen in the Regulation.

However, it is often the case that few countries might transmit the data some days/weeks after the deadline. The number of countries which provide delayed data can vary from period to period depending on problems that may arise in the respective national administrative systems.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Main possible issue concerning comparability of data on temporary protection could result from the difference existing between national temporary protection schemes and European temporary protection status, but both types of status shall be included collected statistics on temporary protection.

Explanatory notes by countries and concepts will be provided when available in the annexes at the bottom of this page.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Not applicable yet

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable

15.4. Coherence - internal

Internal consistency (between time, age, sex, country, groups of citizenship) is ensured through various validation checks performed both by national data providers but also by Eurostat before data publication.

For a list of the validation rules and procedures which Asylum data go through before they are considered ERROR-FREE and publishable, please see sub-concept 20.4 below (Data validation).

16. Cost and Burden Top

"The types of statistics required under the Regulation [862/2007] are needed also for national purposes, such as for the management of the national system for processing asylum applications [...]. In almost all cases, the data used to produce the statistics are based on existing administrative and statistical systems. The specific burdens placed by the Regulation on national authorities are therefore related to the need to prepare particular disaggregations or tables that might not otherwise have been produced, and to the need to apply the harmonised statistical definitions and concepts. For some national authorities, this resulted in one-off costs associated with the necessary adaptations to methods, procedures and systems.

The extent of the additional burdens varied between Member States according to the degree of similarity between the existing national systems for migration statistics and the requirements of the Regulation. However, in most Member States and for most of the statistics covered by the Regulation, the additional costs and burden are believed to be relatively limited and to be proportionate to the benefits obtained at both EU and national level of having more complete and better harmonised migration statistics." (*)

(*) Extract taken from the 2012 REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

In March 2014 Eurostat has drafted and proposed a Revision Policy for Asylum statistics in the Working Group meeting with the national data providers.

Please find this revision policy in the Annex of the latest Technical Guidelines (please see Annexes of this metadata file).

17.2. Data revision - practice

Currently, Asylum data are revised on a continuous basis according to the most recently updated data provided by the reporting countries.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are compiled from the administrative records of the national authorities, mainly the Ministries of Interior or Immigration Agencies. 

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Data on temporary protection are intended to be collected on a monthly basis. Quarterly data corresponds to aggregation of monthly data.

18.3. Data collection

This data collection is administered by Eurostat. The statistics are collected by the responsible data providers (National statistical Institutes, Interior Ministries or Migration related Agencies) and are supplied to Eurostat.

18.4. Data validation

A set of standardised validation checks are applied by Eurostat before publishing the data.

Currently, data providers may transmit the data only in csv (comma separated value) templates (administered by Eurostat to Member States). The new validation service infrastructure is built around two components performing validation operations: one for structural validation (called STRUVAL) and one for content validation (called CONVAL). 

The validation rules below are checked to ensure the internal consistency of the data:

  • variable codes and values of data are from a predefined set of accepted code-lists and format;
  • statistics are confronted against other relevant data (e.g. a 'total' value of a given disaggregation (dimension) should equal the sum of the disaggregated data);
  • investigating inconsistencies in the statistics;
  • analysis of size and sign of revision;
  • verifying the statistics against expectations and domain intelligence;
  • outlier detection.

For more details on the validation of the Asylum statistics, please refer to the Technical Guidelines document in the Annexes part of this metadata file.

18.5. Data compilation

Based on the national detailed figures transmitted by the national data providers, Eurostat derives European aggregates by applying common calculation method: the geographical aggregation is done by arithmetical sum, when there are no missing values among the components of the respective geographical aggregate. Otherwise, they are not calculated.

For some historical data, EU and other aggregates may be flagged with 'd' when data for at least one Member State is missing.

18.6. Adjustment

Data have been rounded to the nearest 5.

Due to the rounding, the sum of individuals may not necessarily match the given total.

19. Comment Top

Explanatory notes are provided in the Annexes at the bottom of this page.

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top
Asylum - Metadata questionnaire summary
Asylum - Eurostat guidelines to Asylum templates - 2021 onwards
Annex 5 new tables on temporary protection statistics