Results of the community innovation survey 2014 (CIS2014) (inn_cis9)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

1.2. Contact organisation unit

G4: Innovation and information society.

1.5. Contact mail address

L-2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 12/01/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 12/01/2018
2.3. Metadata last update 24/04/2019

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The Community Innovation Survey (CIS) is a survey about innovation activities in enterprises. The survey is designed to provide information on the innovativeness of sectors by type of enterprises, on the different types of innovation and on various aspects of the development of an innovation, such as objectives, sources of information, public funding or expenditures.

The CIS provides statistics broken down by countries, types of innovators, economic activities and size classes. The survey is currently carried out every two years across the European Union, EFTA countries and EU candidate countries.

In order to ensure comparability across countries, Eurostat together with the countries developed a standard core questionnaire (see in Annex) accompanied by a set of definitions and methodological recommendations. CIS 2014 concepts and its underlying methodology are also based on the Oslo Manual (2005) 3rd edition (see link at the bottom of the page).

CIS 2014 results were collected under Commission Regulation No 995/2012. This Regulation defines the mandatory target population of the survey referring to enterprises in the Core NACE categories (see section 3.3.) with at least 10 employees. Further activities may be covered on a voluntary basis in national datasets. Most statistics are based on the 3-year reference period 2012-2014, but some use only one calendar year (2012 or 2014).

CIS 2014 includes an ad-hoc module on innovations with environmental benefits.

While European innovation statistics use aggregated national data, the microdata sets can be consulted by researchers via the SAFE Centre of Eurostat in Luxembourg or via CD-ROM releases in a more anonymised form; some countries also provide access to their microdata through national Safe Centres. Since the provision of microdata is voluntary, microdatasets do not cover all countries.

3.2. Classification system

Indicators related to the enterprises are classified by country, economic activity (NACE Rev. 2), size class and type of innovation activity.

3.3. Coverage - sector

In accordance with Commission Regulation No 995/2012, the following industries and services are included in the Core target population. Results are made available with these following breakdowns:

Core NACE (NACE Rev. 2 sections & divisions B-C-D-E-46-H-J-K-71-72-73 ) (NACE code in the tables = B-M73_INN)

Core Industry (excluding construction) (NACE Rev. 2  sections B_C_D_E) (NACE code in the tables = B_E)


  10-12: Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco
  13-15: Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products
  16-18: Manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction
    20: Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
    21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
  19-22: Manufacture of petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber and plastic products
    23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
    24: Manufacture of basic metals
    25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
    26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products
  25-30: Manufacture of of fabricated metal products (except machinery and equipment), computer, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment, motor vehicles and other transport equipment
  31-33: Manufacture of furniture; jewellery, musical instruments, toys; repair and installation of machinery and equipment


    36: Water collection, treatment and supply
  37-39: Sewerage, waste management, remediation activities

Core Services (NACE Rev. 2 sections & divisions 46-H-J-K-71-72-73)(NACE code in the tables = G46-M73_INN)
    46: Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles

  49-51: Land transport and transport via pipelines, water transport and air transport
  52-53: Warehousing and support activities for transportation and postal and courier activities

    58: Publishing activities
    61: Telecommunications
    62: Computer programming, consultancy and related activities
    63: Information service activities

    64: Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding
    65: Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security
    66: Activities auxiliary to financial services and insurance activities

    71: Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis
    72: Scientific research and development
    73: Advertising and market research
  71-73: Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis; Scientific research and development; Advertising and market research

Countries can also provide results for sectors in a more detailed form or for sectors that are not included in the Core NACE coverage on a voluntary basis.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The CIS provides information on the characteristics of innovation activities at enterprise level. It allows Europe's progress to be monitored in the area of innovation, creating a better understanding of the innovation process with analyses of the objectives and the effects of innovation. These results can also be linked to variables related to competitiveness, employment and economic growth. The concepts are in line with those recommended by the Oslo Manual (2005, 3rd edition), which is the internationally recognised standard methodology for collecting innovation statistics.

CIS 2014 collected information on product, process, organisational and marketing innovation. CIS results offer a broad set of indicators on innovation activities, innovation development, innovation expenditures, public funding, sources of information for innovation, innovation cooperation and organisational and marketing innovation.

Main concepts and definitions used for the CIS data collection:

An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), process, new marketing method, or new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. This definition of innovation encompasses a wide range of possible innovations. An innovation can be categorised as the implementation of one or more types of innovations, for instance product and process innovation. An overview of the types of innovators is available in the Annex.

The minimum requirement for an innovation to occur is that the product, process, marketing or organisational method must be new or significantly improved to the firm. This includes not only products, processes and methods that firms are the first to develop but also those that have been adopted from other firms or organisations.

Product innovative enterprises are those who introduced, during 2012-2014, new or significantly improved goods and/or services with respect to their capabilities, user friendliness, components or sub-systems. Changes of a solely aesthetic nature and the simple resale of new goods and services purchased from other enterprises are not considered as innovation.

Process innovative enterprises implemented new or significantly improved production process, distribution method or supplying activity during 2012-2014.

Organisational innovative enterprises implemented at least one new organisational method in the enterprises business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.

Marketing innovative enterprises implemented at least one new marketing concept or strategy that differs significantly from enterprises' existing marketing methods and which has not been used before. It requires significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. In addition, it excludes seasonal, regular and other routine changes in marketing methods.

Innovative enterprises had innovation activities during the period 2012-2014, including enterprises with on-going and abandoned activities. In other words, enterprises that had innovation activities during the period under review, regardless of whether the activity resulted in the implementation of an innovation, are innovation-active.

During the period, innovation activities can be of three categories:

● Successful, in having resulted in the implementation of an innovation (although the innovation need not have been commercially successful);

● On-going, with work in progress that has not yet resulted in the implementation of an innovation;

● Abandoned before the implementation of an innovation.

Non-innovative enterprises had no innovation activity whatsoever during the reference period. These enterprises answered only a limited set of questions of the survey. The CIS 2014 ad-hoc module on innovations with environmental benefits targeted both enterprises, with and without innovation activity.

3.5. Statistical unit

The main statistical unit is the enterprise, as defined in the Council Regulation on statistical units (Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993, OJ No L76 of 3 March 1993) or as defined in statistical Business Registers.

The Regulation defines the enterprise as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision making, especially for the allocation of its current resources. It may carry out one or more activities at one or more locations and it may be a combination of legal units, one single legal unit or part of a legal unit.

3.6. Statistical population

The population of the CIS is determined by the size of the enterprise and its principal activity. All enterprises with 10 or more employees in any of the Core NACE categories are included in the statistical population. For the coverage of economic activities according to their status (mandatory or on voluntary basis), see section "3.3 Coverage sector " above.

3.7. Reference area

Beyond all Member States, CIS 2014 has been conducted in the following countries: Norway, Iceland, and Switzerland, Serbia, Macedonia and Turkey for the associated countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

CIS 2014 results, as well as results of each Community Innovation Survey, are available in separate sections in Eurobase. This articulation reflects the structure of the questionnaire and scope of each survey.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top

CIS 2014 indicators are available according to 3 units of measure:

NBR: Number of enterprises for all indicators except for the indicators EMP12/EMP14 (total number of employees in 2012 and in 2014) for which NBR refers to the Number of employees.

THS_EUR: Thousands of euros. All financial variables are provided in thousands of euros, i.e. Turnover 2012, Turnover 2014 and Innovation expenditures in 2014.

PC: Percentage. The percentage is the ratio between the selected combination of indicator, type of innovators and - in most cases - the total category of the selected type of innovators.

Users are invited to consult the "CIS 2014 - Calculation details of all the indicators" detailing all the available computed derivations (see the Annexes at the bottom of the page).

5. Reference Period Top

In CIS 2014, most questions and by consequence most indicators cover the reference period 2012-2014, i.e. the 3-year period from the beginning of 2012 to the end of 2014.

As regards the indicators on innovation expenditures for product and process innovations, the reference period is only one year, 2014. Spain for example, used only 2014 as reference period to collect the number of enterprises engaged in innovation activities. The other countries used the 3-year period for these indicators.

Moreover, basic economic indicators (Turnover and Employment) were also requested for 2012 and for 2014 in the CIS 2014 questionnaire.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

CIS 2014 survey was based on Commission Regulation No 995/2012, implementing Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology.

This Regulation establishes innovation statistics on a statutory basis and makes the delivery of certain variables compulsory. In addition, it defines the obligatory cross-coverage (combination of sector and size class).

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Primary and secondary confidentiality of CIS data are flagged by the countries.

The objective is not only to protect cells against absolute and approximate disclosure but also to minimize information loss in order to increase the usefulness of the CIS data. Eurostat takes the complete flagging as given and is not executing any additional measure than removing flagged data while publishing the results. Primary and secondary confidentiality is respected for any data publicly released.

The European aggregates are not made available if one or two countries sent confidential data for the concerned indicator.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No official calendar is available for CIS data release. However, CIS data can be expected in the course of the second semester of even-numbered years.

8.2. Release calendar access

No official calendar is available for CIS data release. However, CIS data can be expected in the course of the second semester of even-numbered years.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence,  in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Since 2004, Community Innovation Surveys have been conducted every two years.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained (article: Innovation statistics)

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line Eurobase/ Science and Technology section Community Innovation Survey (CIS).

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

The CIS microdata sets are available exclusively for research purpose. The access is provided according to contracts established between Eurostat and the corresponding research institutions.

Two versions of microdata are made available, they differ on the level of information retained:

  • Secure use files: confidential data as obtained from the national authorities. They allow only indirect identification of the statistical units concerned. The access to these data is only possible in the Eurostat SAFE Centre.
  • Scientific use files: anonymised microdata sets extracted from the aforementioned data. The individual statistical records have been modified in order to minimise, in accordance with current best practice, the risk of indirect identification of the statistical units to which they relate. This access is given via distribution of encrypted CD-ROM.

In both cases, regional level data are not available in the datasets and the enterprises cannot be tracked from a wave to another, given that CIS data is not panel data.

The implementation frameworks for release of EU microdata for scientific purposes are defined in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 831/2002.

Detailed information on CIS microdata access are available at the following link:

10.5. Dissemination format - other

CIS data is also used, amongst others, in the European Innovation Scoreboards.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The methodological notes accompanying the questionnaire as well as the methodological recommendations to conduct the 2014 Community Innovation Survey are available in the Eurostat public folder

"Expert Group - Science, Technology and Innovation statistics" in CIRCABC ( > Library > Methodology)

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Users interested in quality aspects of the previous surveys may refer to the CIS 2012 Synthesis Quality Reports available in the Annex of this document or for previous waves to the annex of metadata related to the previous waves.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

In accordance with Annex III to Commission Regulation No 995/2012, the provision of Quality Reports by each Member States is now mandatory. This report includes key quality indicators such as non-response rates, coefficient of variation, etc.

The CIS Quality Report that has to be filled by the countries is in conformity with the ESS (European Statistical System) Standard for Quality Reports structure.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

A high degree of harmonisation in concepts and methods has been achieved through the adoption of Commission Regulation N° 995/2012, the Oslo Manual for the compilation of innovation statistics and the Harmonised CIS Questionnaire.

However, countries may deviate from the Harmonised Questionnaire by introducing additional questions and/or modifying existing questions in order to satisfy specific national needs.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The CIS 2014 provides an understanding of the types of innovation introduced by enterprises, their features and their development. Amongst others, information on sources of information, cooperation, methods for maintaining or increasing competitiveness is provided by the survey. CIS also allows some cross-analyses using economic indicators such as the Number of employees or Turnover.

Since 2000, the CIS has also become a major data source for the Innovation Union Scoreboard and the Regional Innovation Scoreboard.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

A user satisfaction survey is generally not carried out. Countries receive mainly ad-hoc feedback from users.

12.3. Completeness

Almost all countries transmitted all compulsory statistics on innovation in the 2014 survey edition.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not available.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

According to Commission Regulation No 995/2012, national CIS statistics must be delivered to Eurostat within 18 months from the end of the reference year.

Most countries conformed to the Regulation and transmitted the data by the requested time.

Eurostat made available CIS 2014 data in January 2017.

14.2. Punctuality

The vast majority of countries were punctual in delivering CIS data to Eurostat.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

In order to ensure comparability across countries, Eurostat, in close cooperation with the EU Member States and other countries, has developed a standard core questionnaire for each CIS round, with an accompanying set of definitions and methodological recommendations.

Most countries follow the proposed filtering used in the Harmonized Survey, only Sweden noted that the ad-hoc module was only asked to self-declared innovators. In some instances, the questions asked in section 14 on basic economic information are placed at the beginning of the national survey (Slovakia for example).

Items related to "Turnover" and "Average number of employees" were obtained from national statistical Business registers or from other surveys for the following countries: Austria, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Macedonia. In addition, question 1.1 on the structure of the surveyed enterprise has been derived from the business register has also been derived from the business register in the Netherlands.

Certain data that should be covered under the EC Regulation 995/2012 may appear to be missing (i.e. for NACE 12 in Norway or Iceland) in all tables. However, this is due to there being no enterprises in these industries in the population frame.

However, in the CIS 2014 context, deviations from the target population or from the Harmonised Questionnaire are listed here below:

Belgium (BE): Due to confidentiality constraints, instead of consulting the official Belgian business register as frame population, the register of the Belgian National Social Security Office containing all active employers in Belgium was used. Only mandatory variables covered by EC Regulation 995/2012 are referenced.

Germany (DE): The national business register of the German national statistical office (Destatis) has been used for a basis for deriving population totals. Since the most recent data at the time of sampling referred to 2013, projections for 2014 based on data from sector-specific statistics have been calculated. In addition, business register data had to be adjusted for the following situations:

- The definition of "Turnover" for NACE divisions 64 and 65 in the business register is not comparable to the definition of turnover as used in the CIS.

- Employment data have been completed so as to include of self-employed persons and civil servants

- Large enterprises active in multiple NACE divisions were surveyed in each division separately,

- For NACE division 72 (research and development), data for public research organisations have been subtracted from business register data.

Spain (ES): Innovation activities have only been requested for 2014 and not for the period 2012-2014. Moreover, the item on "Design" was not requested separately as it is the case in the Harmonised Questionnaire. Therefore, all the enterprises engaged in design activities (RDSG) are encompassed in the indicator "Enterprises engaged in other innovation activities" (ROTHE_YES). All the concerned indicators are consequently flagged with the flag "d" (standing for "Definition differs").

France (FR): Whilst inquiring about the type of cooperation in question 7.2, the option “Your country” was split into “France - Same region” and “France - Outside your region”. Only aggregated results have been transmitted to Eurostat (for indicators CO11 to CO71). Results of question 11.1 on IPR have not been transmitted as one item has been dropped out. Furthermore, in order to reduce the burden of respondents, "Turnover" was only asked for the year 2014, and not for the year 2012; similarly, the number of employees has been reduced to employee size classes.

Italy (IT) used the number of employed persons instead of the number of employees to measure employment and make size class. Data for NACE divisions 05 and 07 are included in division 06, as well as division 12 encompassed in NACE division 11.

The only deviation from the Harmonised Questionnaire is due to design expenditures (question 5.1). As a matter of fact, categories of expenditures (inn_cis9_exp) spent in innovation activities are requested in a more detailed form, expenditures in design being asked separately. However, all the categories of innovation expenditures reported by Italy are comparable with other countries.

Luxembourg (LU): Small deviations have been introduced in the national questionnaire whilst asking for more information on innovation activities and expenditures (question 5.1 for the corresponding indicators RMAC and RMACX, and question 6.1 for FUNGMT, FUNEU and FUNRTD). Question 11.1 on intellectual property rights has been completely redesigned but the results reported are comparable with the other countries.

Austria (AT): In question 10.2 part 2, one small deviation from the proposed filtering in the Harmonised Questionnaire: only one answer was allowed, "Specifically require innovation as part of the contract" or "Not require innovation as part of the contract".

Poland (PL) used the number of employed persons instead of the number of employees to measure employment. Industry and Services sectors have each their own questionnaire.

United Kingdom (UK): The UK CIS9 was conducted according to NACE Rev 1.1 (or SIC2007, Standard Industrial Classification of British economic activities). Results provided to Eurostat were then mapped to NACE Rev 2.

Iceland (IS) excluded question 5.2 on expenditures as the data collection happened to be too close to R&D data collection, where similar data would be collected from the same enterprises.

Norway (NO): Deviations in the national questionnaire mainly limited the information requested by question 2.4 (for which the only option was "Yes"), question 5.1 (omitting more detailed information on continuously/occasional in-house R&D), question 6.1 (considering European financial support at the more global level) and question 11.1 (skipping the option on utility models which are not applicable in Norway).

15.2. Comparability - over time

CIS 2014 includes the most recent changes recommended by the latest Oslo Manual guidelines: CIS 2014 reports data on product, process, organisation and marketing innovation. The ad-hoc module in the 2014 survey is on environmental benefits.

Compared to CIS 2012, the following major changes in the CIS 2014 questionnaire have generated new or altered indicators:

1. A definition of innovation activities has been added to the Introduction.

2. The definition of external R&D used in question 5.1 has been changed.

3. The CIS 2012 question 6.1 on sources of information is not used in the CIS 2014.

4. The CIS 2012 question 7.1 on competitiveness is not used in the CIS 2014.

5. Two new questions 11.1 and 11.2 on the use of intellectual property rights and licensing have been included.

6. Three new questions 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 for non-innovators have been included.

7. The CIS 2012 module on the strategies and obstacles for meeting firms’ economic goals has been replaced with a two-page module on innovations with environmental benefits.

8. A new question 14.2 has been included on the share of turnover from sales to clients outside the country.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

1. Innovation-related variables are unique to each CIS data collection therefore comparisons with other statistics are not possible.

2. However, the coherence between CIS and SBS statistics is very satisfactory on common variables (Turnover, Employees).

15.4. Coherence - internal

No imputation has been done for missing data: the EU aggregates have been calculated only when all countries data are available.

16. Cost and Burden Top

Information is not available.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Not applicable.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The figures are revised only when inconsistencies are found. Upon release, data are final unless otherwise stated.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

All aggregations and indicators presented in CIS collections are based on data from national CIS data collections.

Countries generally carry out a stratified sample survey in order to collect the data, whilst a limited number of countries use a census or a mix of census and sample survey. The target population is to be broken down into strata for sampling purposes. The dimensions to be used for this purpose are Size (according to the number of employees) and the Economic Activity classification (NACE). These two dimensions are highly correlated with Innovation activity. The size-classes should at least be broken down in 3 categories: 10-49 employees (small enterprises), 50-249 employees (medium-sized enterprises), 250 + employees (large enterprises). Stratification by NACE Rev. 2 has been in general by 2-digit level (division) or groups of division.

The sampling frame to be used for the sample is mostly the official statistical Business Register.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

The frequency of CIS is biennial.

18.3. Data collection

Eurostat collects aggregated data and microdata from countries every two years. At national level, data are mainly collected via online or mail surveys. A few countries choose also other collection methods such as face to face interviews.

Participating countries have to fill csv templates or Excel tables presented in different sheets, both including all requested indicators according to the corresponding type of innovators, NACE category and size class. Once filled by the countries, files are sent to Eurostat by Edamis and converted into a csv file by Eurostat for the upload on the production database.

18.4. Data validation

Both micro- and aggregated data are checked, then corrected for detected inconsistencies. Quality controls are done on aggregated and microdata at both national and Eurostat level. The vast majority of variables are cross-checked to verify the consistency of answers. A quality report is produced by countries in order to report any deviation.

18.5. Data compilation

At national level, as in any regular sample survey, countries extrapolate the collected data with appropriate weighting schemes in order to obtain the population totals. At Eurostat level, European aggregates are summed up from national data.

18.6. Adjustment

If non-response in a national survey based on the ratio between non-responding and operating enterprises in the sample population as a whole exceeds 30%, a non-response analysis is recommended. At least a 10% sample of the relevant non-respondents should be drawn, and a non-response survey then undertaken.

19. Comment Top

In CIS surveys, some countries add extra questions for national purposes; similarly, some countries exclude some or all optional questions.

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top
CIS 2014 - Calculation details of all the indicators
CIS 2014 - Types of innovators - Overview
Oslo Manual (2005) 3rd edition
CIS 2014 - Harmonised survey Questionnaire
Synthesis of the CIS 2012 quality reports
CIS 2014 Synthesis Quality Report