Timber removals, wood products and trade (for_rpt)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 11/06/2018
2.2. Metadata last posted 11/06/2018
2.3. Metadata last update 11/06/2018

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Production and trade in wood and paper products:

- Primary products: roundwood, sawnwood, chips, residues, pellets, veneers, glulam, wood-based panels, pulp, paper, recovered paper and paperboard

- Secondary products: further processed wood and paper products (only trade value)

Sources: questionnaire jointly used by Eurostat, FAO, UN ECE and ITTO (Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire, JFSQ, EU version with extra worksheets); Eurostat's trade database COMEXT for unreported data on trade and the table on imports of tropical wood; Eurostat's PRODCOM data for production totals of selected products.

3.2. Classification system

A selection and aggregation of wood and paper products from the Harmonised System / Combined Nomenclature (CN) (available on RAMON Eurostat's Metadata Server) in its latest annual version.

Tropical wood imports cover the sum of all products of Chapter 44 and, separately, the sum of identified tropical items of Chapter 44.

FAO Classification of Forest Products

3.3. Coverage - sector

NACE Rev.2 sectors covered:

Manufacture of wood and wood products (16), Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products (17), Manufacture of furniture (31), Collection of paper for recycling (part of 38.32), Manufacturing not elsewhere specified (32.9).

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Removals of roundwood  comprise all quantities of wood felled and removed from the forest and other wooded land or other felling sites. They are measured in cubic metres over bark (including the bark) and under bark (without bark). Removals are also presented by ownership categories private forests, state forests and other publicly owned forests.

Trade includes the total trade of each country and trade with countries outside the EU (extra-EU trade). The sum of extra-EU trade shows how the EU performs as a single market. Trade in industrial roundwood and in sawnwood is presented by timber species.

Definitions and the source questionnaire are available on our open-access communication platform CIRCABC under the interest group "Forestry statistics and accounts". 

3.5. Statistical unit

Removals: national forest inventories, use-side surveys, or forest owners (private, state and other public owners). Wood products: enterprises or the local kind-of-activity units, industrial associations.

3.6. Statistical population

The statistical population is assortments of raw wood, primary wood and paper products, and secondary wood and paper products.

3.7. Reference area

The EU Member States and EFTA countries, the candidate countries, Canada, USA, the Russian Federation, China, India, Indonesia and Brazil. Data for France cover only mainland France without the overseas territories and dominions French Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion or Mayotte.

Data on tropical wood imports covers countries that have signed, agreed or are negotiating Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) with the EU, as part of the EU's policy to fight illegal logging and associated trade. This policy was defined in 2003 with the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) action plan. Licenses are to be issued by the countries that have agreed a bilateral VPA with the EU once the VPA agreements are concluded and legality assurance systems are implemented. The exporting countries must take measures to ensure that only legally harvested timber bears a license. The total imports from FLEGT countries show the potential amounts of verified legal timber that could one day enter the EU. For this table, the EU includes all French overseas territories and dominions (Fr. Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion, Mayotte).   

3.8. Coverage - Time

Wood products' time series begin in 1992 onwards; imports of tropical wood begin in 1999.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable

4. Unit of measure Top

Cubic metre under bark (1000 m³) for roundwood, sawnwood, veneers, wood-based panels, plywood, particleboard and fibreboard

Cubic metre over bark (1000 m³) for roundwood

Metric tonne (1000 t) for charcoal, pellets, pulp and paper

Metric tonne (t) and EUR for imports of tropical wood

National currency (EUR or other) in current basic prices

5. Reference Period Top

Calendar year. For the imports of tropical wood, the last two years are provided in months because it takes at least one year for the trade data to become complete.  

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

No legal basis - only gentlemen's agreement.

The world-wide collection is carried out by the Inter-Secretariat Working Group (IWG) on Forest Sector Statistics, consisting of Eurostat, the UN ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) and ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization).  Co-operation is organised through the annual meetings of the IWG.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Eurostat collects data for the EU and EFTA countries and exchanges data with its partner organisations in the Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Forest Sector Statistics (UN ECE, FAO and ITTO) in order to publish data for the candidate countries, Canada, USA, the Russian Federation, China, India, Indonesia and Brazil.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Data are suppressed for at least three countries per product when required, with the aim of publishing EU totals. This was done manually in the past. Unreported data are estimated by Eurostat but not published or made available to its partner organisations. They are used for the EU totals, as are selected PRODCOM estimates.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Data are updated at least once per year.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on it's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Online news releases

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Eurostat Statistical Book on Energy, transport and environment indicators

Eurostat Statistical Book on Agriculture, forestry and fisheries statistics

Annual report on rural development (European Commission Department for Agriculture)

UNECE Forest Products Annual Market Review

FAO Yearbook

FAO Forest Resources Assessment and Forest Europe's report on the State of Europe's Forests (every 5 years)

ITTO Biennial Review of the World Timber Situation

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurostat's database

FAO's slightly less detailed international database FAOSTAT

ITTO's Biennial Review Statistics 

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available

10.5. Dissemination format - other

For more information please see Eurostat's

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ) and its definitions are available on the communication platform under 'Forestry statistics and accounts'.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Wardle, Ph., Van Brusselen, B., Michie, B. and A. Schuck (2003): Forest Products Statistical Information Systems of EU and EFTA; European Forest Institute Research Reports No. 16, ISBN-13: 978 90 04 12919 1; ISBN-10: 90 04 12919 7; 166 pp.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Unit value checks and consistency of time series are done. Data are sent to UN ECE, where they are checked for outliers before being sent to FAO for publication in the FAOSTAT database. Any changes made by UN ECE or FAO are reported back to Eurostat.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Wardle, Ph., Van Brusselen, B., Michie, B. and A. Schuck (2003): Forest Products Statistical Information Systems of EU and EFTA; European Forest Institute Research Reports No. 16, ISBN-13: 978 90 04 12919 1; ISBN-10: 90 04 12919 7; 166 pp.

This contains a description of how each country compiles its data for the JFSQ.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Policy-makers including rural development, energy and climate action policy; researchers.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available

12.3. Completeness

Confidentiality is a problem due to mergers of enterprises and enterprises leaving the EU.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Data providers are encouraged to make informed estimates when they have no data. The concentration of the industry and its displacement to other areas of the world mean that confidentiality problems are increasing.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable

13.3. Non-sampling error

When we estimate production based on the balance of imports and exports ("apparent consumption"), we are producing a very conservative estimate, the quality of which also depends on the quality of intra-EU trade data. We therefore use PRODCOM estimates of EU totals for selected products.    

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

11 months after the end of the reference year.

14.2. Punctuality

Up to 4 months late for wood products, mainly due to trade data taking longer and longer to compile at the national level. 

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Under-estimation of fuelwood is the greatest hurdle for comparing data between countries. France and Finland revised their fuelwood data, but others have yet to do this.

Removals of industrial roundwood may also be under-estimated.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Time series look good at country level, but breaks at EU-level are due to the use of other sources, such as PRODCOM and COMEXT.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Cross-comparisons with forest accounts show that the collections must be made coherent by countries before submitting the data to Eurostat.

Recovered paper data from the JFSQ agree quite well with statistics on waste.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The data published are coherent.

16. Cost and Burden Top

6 man-months for Eurostat and 0.5 man-months for each data provider

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Corrections by the country correspondents are encouraged.

17.2. Data revision - practice

All changes in methodology are discussed in the meetings of the Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Forest Sector Statistics and in Eurostat's Working group on Forestry Statistics

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The basic data collection is carried out by country correspondents in the Member States and EFTA countries. Data are generally collected from the users of roundwood (the wood industry companies or companies that trade in roundwood). See a 2018 presentation for the full list of sources.

Eurostat's PRODCOM data for production totals of selected products comes from annual surveys of the manufacturing, quarrying and mining industries in EU Member States according to the annual PRODCOM list of products. Small Member States are not covered by PRODCOM.

18.2. Frequency of data collection


18.3. Data collection

Joint Eurostat/UNECE/FAO/ITTO Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ), EU version, as published on the communication platform under the interest group "Forestry statistics and accounts" 

18.4. Data validation

The members of the Eurostat/UNECE/FAO/ITTO Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Forest Sector Statistics have agreed on basic validation rules aimed at identifying and eliminating as many inconsistencies as possible. Checks of unit values and consistency of time series are in place. Any changes are discussed with the countries before publication.

EU and EFTA data are sent to UN ECE, where they are checked for outliers; UN COMTRADE data are used for comparison where needed, though some discrepancies are due to the different philosophies behind COMEXT and COMTRADE. The data then go to FAO for publication in the FAOSTAT and ITTO databases. Any changes made by UN ECE, FAO or ITTO are reported back to Eurostat.

18.5. Data compilation

EU aggregates are calculated by Eurostat by summing up the product data, including unpublished estimates, or by directly using PRODCOM or COMEXT aggregates.

18.6. Adjustment

The country correspondents are responsible for the data quality. Eurostat validates and corrects the data in consultation with them. For some products, conversion factors are used, e.g. for converting data in m2 to m3 or tonnes to m3.

19. Comment Top

Not applicable

Related metadata Top
ext_tec_esms - International trade in goods - trade by enterprise characteristics (TEC)
prom_esms - Statistics on the production of manufactured goods

Annexes Top
The Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Forest Sector Statistics