Active population (cens_01nact)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit F2: Population

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 03/05/2010
2.2. Metadata last posted 03/05/2010
2.3. Metadata last update 11/09/2015


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The tables presented in the topic of active population cover the total population for 31 countries (for more information on received tables and geographic coverage, see "2001 Census Round - Tables Received" in the Annex at the bottom of the page). The level of completeness of the tables depends largely on the availability of data at the respective national statistical institutes. There are four ways of collecting census data, namely:

- the traditional method of using census questionnaires (exhaustive census);

- the method of using registers and/or other administrative sources;
- a combination of registers and/or other administrative sources and
- surveys (complete enumerations or sample surveys).
Other methods (other mixed census or micro-census) can be used as well.
Details for the method employed by each country are provided in "2001 Census Method" in the Annex at the bottom of the page.
In the same table you can find the dates on which the census was carried out in each country.

3.2. Classification system

For the 2000 census round, the Statistical Programme Committee formally approved at its 27th Session in November 1997 the Guidelines and Table Programme for the Community Programme of Population and Housing Censuses in 2001. The decision was a "gentlemen's agreement" rather than a legal obligation.

For detailed information on the classification systems used by the countries see the Recommendations for the 2000 census of population and housing in the ECE region. 

Additionally, information on the classification system of each country for national and regional level can be found in 2001 Census - Active Population (National) and 2001 Census - Active population (Regional) respectively.

3.3. Coverage - sector

For national and regional specific information you may see the 2001 Census - Active Population (National) and 2001 Census - Active population (Regional) respectively.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The purpose of a set of "socio-economic groups" is to identify different groups of persons where the members of a particular group are, on the one hand, reasonably homogeneous and, on the other hand, fairly clearly distinguished from members of other groups in respect of their social, economic, demographic and/or cultural circumstances and behavior. A set of "socio-economic groups" can be derived from the detailed categories of the following classifications: industry branch (type of economic activity), status in employment, occupation and main source of livelihood.

Current activity status

Current activity status is the current relationship of a person to economic activity, based on a brief reference period such as one week or one day. The use of the "current activity" is considered most appropriate for countries where the economic activity of people is not influenced much by seasonal or other factors causing variations over the year, and it is recommended that countries in the Economic Commission for Europe region collect information in the census on activity status based on this concept (i.e., the "labour force" concept). A time-reference period of one week should preferably be used, which may be either a specified recent fixed calendar week, or the last complete calendar week or the last seven days prior to enumeration.

Time usually worked (National Level only)

"Time usually worked" should reflect the time worked during a typical week or day, and should be measured for a short reference period and in hours. It is the total time usually spent producing goods and services during the reference period adopted for "economic activity" in the census, within regular working hours and as overtime. "Time usually worked" should include activities which, while not leading directly to the production of goods or services, are still defined as being part of the tasks and duties of the job, such as time spent preparing, repairing or maintaining the workplace or work instruments. In practice it will also include inactive time spent in the course of performing these activities, such as time spent waiting or standing by, and other short breaks. Longer meal breaks and time usually not worked because of regular sickness, regular reductions in hours due to economic or technical reasons (i.e. partial unemployment), etc. should be excluded.

Time not worked which is neither common nor regular should not be excluded.

Occupation (National Level only)

"Occupation" refers to the type of work done in a job. "Type of work" is described by the main tasks and duties of the work.

For purposes of international comparisons, it is recommended that countries make it possible to prepare tabulations in accordance with the latest available revision of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). At the time the present set of census recommendations was approved, the latest revision available was the one that developed by the Fourteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 1987 and adopted by the Governing Body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1988.

Countries belonging to the European Economic Area should refer to ISCO-88 (COM)

Countries coding "occupation" according to a national standard classification can establish correspondence with ISCO either through double coding or through "mapping" from the detailed groups of the national classification to ISCO.

Industry (branch of economic activity)

"Industry" (branch of economic activity) refers to the kind of production or activity of the establishment or similar unit in which the job(s) of the economically active person (whether employed or unemployed) was located.

For purposes of international comparability, it is recommended that countries compile the industrial characteristics of active persons according to the latest revision of the International Standard Industrial 32 Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) available at the time of the census. At the time the present set of census recommendations was approved, the third edition of ISIC, adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-fifth session in 1989, was the latest revision available. Countries belonging to the European Economic Area should refer to NACE Rev.1.

Countries should code the collected industry information at the lowest possible level supported by the responses.

Countries coding "industry" according to a national standard classification can establish correspondence with ISIC either through double coding or through "mapping" from the detailed groups of the national classification to ISIC.

Status in employment

"Status in employment" refers to the type of explicit or implicit contract of employment with other persons or organisations which the person has in his/her job. The basic criteria used to define the groups of the classification are the type of economic risk, an element of which is the strength of the attachment between the person and the job, and the type of authority over establishments and other workers which the person has or will have in the job. Care should be taken to ensure that an "economically active" person is classified by "status in employment" on the basis of the same job(s) as the one(s) used for classifying the person by "occupation", "industry" and "sector".

Place of work (National Level only)

Place of work is the location in which a "currently employed" person performs his or her job, and where a "usually employed" person currently performs or last performed the job. While the information on place of work can be used to develop area profiles in terms of the employed labour force (as opposed to demographic profiles by place of residence), the primary objective is to link the place of work information to the place of residence. Therefore, the place of work should relate to the smallest civil division in which the economic activity is performed in order to establish commuter flows from the place of usual residence to the place of work.

Indicator of internal or international migration (Regional Level only)

Long-term international migration refers to a person who moves to a country other than that of his/her usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence.

Information on place of usual residence should be collected in enough detail to enable internal migration to be identified down to the NUTS3 level.

Country of Citizenship

Citizenship is defined as the particular legal bond between an individual and his/her State, acquired by birth or naturalization, whether by declaration, option, marriage or other means according to the national legislation. Information on citizenship should be collected for all persons and coded in as detailed a manner as is feasible, based on the three-digit alphabetical codes presented in International Standard, ISO 3166- 1:1997: Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries, (5th ed., Berlin 1997), published by the International Organization for Standardization

3.5. Statistical unit

The residents meeting the requirements of indicators

3.6. Statistical population

Total population of working age, in accordance with the country's regulation

3.7. Reference area

European Union Member States, European Free Trade Association Member States and Turkey. In total the data are collected in 31 countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Data availability varies from country to country, depending on the year the census was carried out in each country. Thus it varies from November 1995 (Malta) to May 2002 (Poland).

3.9. Base period

It is not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Data are expressed in absolute numbers (number of residents).


5. Reference Period Top

It is important to note that the census data were mostly collected from spring to autumn 2002. Data refer to the year in which the census took place in each country. The reference year varies from November 1995 (Malta) to May 2002 (Poland).

No census was conducted in Germany in 2000/2001, only a micro-census based on small sample was calculated having high error probability for small population groups


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

For the 2001 census round, the Statistical Programme Committee formally approved at its 27th Session in November 1997 the Guidelines and Table Programme for the Community Programme of Population and Housing Censuses in 2001. This decision was a "gentlemen's agreement" rather than a legal obligation.

The countries, however, agreed to create the appropriate legal framework on a national level, in order to ensure the provision of comparable statistical data on the basis of the principle of the protection of personal data.

The countries that have changed their system of collecting statistical data, moving gradually from the classic method (exhaustive census) to the use of administrative sources, base their operations on a legal framework that was created in the 1980s and early 1990s.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

none


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

done at Member State level


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No release calendar.

8.2. Release calendar access

none

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Not applicable for this collection. However, the United Nations Organization recommends that a general population census be conducted every decade.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Census.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

none

10.5. Dissemination format - other

CD ROM:  First edition CD-Rom in 2004
See also: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Information on the methodology can be found in the documents: "Guidelines and Table Programme for the Community Programme of Population and Housing Censuses in 2001" and "Recommendations for the 2000 census of population and housing in the ECE region".

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Relevant quality information by country can be found in the document "Recommendations for the 2000 census of population and housing in the ECE region".


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Done at Member State level. Many countries conduct a pilot census and/or other tests to improve the quality of the data during the pre-census period (see tab. 5 page 27 of the Documentation of the 2000 round of population and Housing Censuses in the EU, EFTA and candidate Countries ).

The duration of the pilot period ranged from one day in Greece, Ireland, Austria to 120 days in Spain; some countries use alternative collection methods, coding and data processing. About 80% of the countries that conducted a traditional or mixed census carried out at least one test, the coverage percentage of which ranged from 0,03 % (Bulgaria) to 1.5 %(Portugal). In Luxembourg, Romania, Slovak Republic, Cyprus and Turkey other pilot surveys or other tests are conducted.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Data were extracted from individual countries' reports, being prepared during the second half of 2002. Most of the reports follow a similar structure, but country-specific paragraphs (e.g. for Spain and Italy, on the comparison of census results with data from population registers) or formats (e.g. Switzerland) are also present. For countries not undertaking a census, alternative reporting formats have been chosen.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Need for regional population data, e.g. to evaluate regional cohesion

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

not evaluated

12.3. Completeness

The completeness of the data depends on whether the methodology and data sources used for the national censuses provide the requested information. Some characteristics might be missing completely in some countries. However, where the information was produced, it is rather complete.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

not evaluated

13.2. Sampling error

not evaluated

13.3. Non-sampling error

not evaluated


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

two years after the end of the reference year

14.2. Punctuality

For the 2001 census, the deadline for transmitting data to Eurostat was the end of June 2003. Although the Gentlemen's agreement proposed that all data should be transmitted to Eurostat by 30 June 2003, the last data were received in mid 2005, leading to a publication in September 2005, i.e. 44 months after the end of the reference year. 


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The comparability of the data cannot be guaranteed because Member States might have used different definitions and specifications for the census topics.

15.2. Comparability - over time

not evaluated

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

not evaluated

15.4. Coherence - internal

not evaluated


16. Cost and Burden Top

not evaluated


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Not applicable

17.2. Data revision - practice

Not applicable.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

There are four ways of collecting census data, namely:

- the traditional method of using census questionnaires (exhaustive census);

- the method of using registers and/or other administrative sources;

- a combination of registers and/or other administrative sources and

- surveys (complete enumerations or sample surveys).

Other methods (other mixed census or micro-census) can be used as well.

Details for the method employed by each country are provided in "2001 Census Method" in the Annex at the bottom of the page.

The largest part of the countries are working on alternative methodologies not solely linked with the use of registers but also with the use of a more sophisticated statistical methodology, where the sample survey is the basis to collect information on the socio-economic characteristics of the population

18.2. Frequency of data collection

The United Nations Organization recommends that a general population census be conducted every decade.

18.3. Data collection

The central phase of the census is the enumeration or data collection period, which is traditionally identified by "field work". As a result of the evolution of census methods and the introduction of registers, today the words 'data collection' may better represent this phase, where data referring to a reference date are collected through questionnaires and/or linkage and extraction from various sources.

As regards the questionnaire, less than 25% of all countries (such as Spain, Portugal, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Poland and Slovenia) declare to be already looking for the implementation of an electronic questionnaire.

The collected data are presented in 34 tables for the national level and in 15 tables for the regional level (see "2001 Census Tables (National)" and "2001 Census Tables (Regional)" respectively in the Annex at the bottom of the page) on core topics about the population.

18.4. Data validation

The data received from the NSIs are validated by Eurostat before being sent to the database. Eurostat validates the data by cross-checking the received tables, in co-operation with the countries when necessary.

18.5. Data compilation

Not applicable.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


19. Comment Top

For Slovenia some data have been protected for confidentiality reasons. Instead of confidential data, the letter 'z' is given. Totals include confidential data. Data confidentiality is determined by the Act Regulating the Census of Population, Households and Housings in the Republic of Slovenia in 2002 (OJ RS No. 66/00 and 26/01), the National Statistics Act (OJ RS No. 45/95, 09/01) and the Personal Data Protection Act (OJ RS No. 59/99).

For more information see 2001 Census - Active Population (National) and 2001 Census - Active population (Regional) in the annex at the bottom of the page.

Germany did not have a census at all around 2001 (the latest census was carried out in 1987). For this country, only the tables that could be produced on the basis of existing sources are provided. For reasons of comparability between tables, the Micro-census (an annual survey of 1% sample of the resident population) is used in the national level tables (1 - 28). Tables on dwellings are from an additional Micro-census module from spring 2002 (undertaken every 4th year). Deviations from the definitions and instructions of the Table Programme are presented in footnotes. Due to sampling errors, the figures from the Micro-census are not very reliable for small population groups (less than 5000) and are thus expressed in 1000s. No accurate validation was therefore possible for most of the tables. In the other tables the figures are based on current population statistics and employment registers.

For SE data are not available for table cens_01ndbuild

The following two flags are used in the database:

:c = not available due to confidentiality reasons
i = more information attached in explanatory texts


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top
2001 Census Active Population