Are there radically different scientific practices emerging based on digital technologies? What are they? How are they changing the relation of science and society?

Open Digital Science (ODS) and Open Science describe new and open practices in science, research and innovation that make extensive use of digital technologies. The use of digital technologies facilitates openness regarding data, methods, results, actors or publications with an emphasis on scalability of the approach in terms of data, access or computation.

The impact of Open Science practices is most evident in scientific publication (Open Access). A new generation of researchers uses digital tools in practically all steps of the scientific workflow, from research funding to critical discourse. This has led to concepts such as Citizen Science, Open Innovation, Open Methodology and Open Notebook Science, for which good practice examples are described. New ways of assessing scientific merit (altmetrics) and of funding (e.g. crowd sourcing) are also emerging. Six futuristic scenarios developed in this study depict potential impact of new open science practices. The study concludes with a set of indicators to measure open science implementation and to create an Open Science Observatory.

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