Identification criteria in the seventh Framework Programme
The text of the seventh Framework Programme foresees the following identification criteria for JTIs:
- Inability of existing instruments to achieve the objective,
- Scale of the impact on industrial competitiveness and growth,
- Added value of European-level intervention,
- Degree and clarity of definition of the objective and deliverables to be pursued,
- Strength of the financial and resource commitment from industry,
- Importance of the contribution to broader policy objectives including benefit to society,
- Capacity to attract additional national support and leverage current and future industry funding.
Six initiatives identified in the FP7 "Cooperation" Specific Programme
Based on the criteria above, the following six initiatives were identified in the "Cooperation" Specific Programme:
- "Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI)" - Health research theme
- "Aeronautics and Air Transport (Clean Sky)" - Transport research theme
- "Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Initiative (FCH)" - Energy research theme
- "Embedded Computing Systems (ARTEMIS)" - ICT research theme
- "Nanoelectronics Technologies 2020 (ENIAC)" - ICT research theme
"Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)" (1) - Space research theme
( 1 )However GMES is being implemented not as a JTIs but through an agreement with ESA and research grants, on the basis of a decision taken after the launch of the FP.
The Commission approach
In preparing the JTIs, the Commission:
- has not followed a "one size fits all" approach because of the varied nature of the technological challenges, the different type of stakeholder relations and the need for tailored financial engineering arrangements;
- has followed key guiding principles in order to ensure efficiency and durability, to support long-term stakeholder commitment and to promote openness, transparency and cooperation in each JTI.
The EC Treaty provides for the possibility to establish Joint Undertaking (Art 171, now TFEU 187). The Joint Undertaking (JU) is the legal entity constituting the framework for the JTI activities. Each JU is adapted to the specificities of each JTI.
The detailed Commission approach is more explicitly presented in the following Commission documents:
The Commission JU proposals
Before submitting its proposals to set up the Joint Undertakings to the Council, the Commission had gathered sufficient information to demonstrate that the following "Keys for Success" were met by the candidate JTIs:
- Additionality of funding
- Existence of market failure
- Role of Member States
In parallel, it had carried out an Analysis of the "Economic and Social Effects" for each Joint Technology Initiative.
Each Commission proposal for a Council Regulation included the statutes of the Joint Undertaking as well as an Impact Assessment based on the "Keys for Success" and the Analysis of the "Economic and Social Effects".
JTIs in practice
The dedicated structure chosen to implement the JTIs are the Joint Undertakings, independent legal entities that manage research projects in an integrated way, with industry joining forces with other stakeholders. JUs have a dedicated budget and staff and provide a framework for the public and private players to work and take decisions together. They organise calls for proposals, oversee selection procedures and put in place contractual arrangements for projects set up to implement the JTI research agenda. They thus allow funds from different sources to be jointly managed and they are responsible for the related communication and dissemination activities. Each JU includes a Governing Board, an Executive Director as well as other bodies, including advisory bodies, depending on its specific operational and governance needs.