Healthy life years statistics
- Data extracted in April 2016. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: May 2017.
Whether extra years of life gained through increased longevity are spent in good or bad health is a crucial question. Since life expectancy at birth is not able to fully answer this question, indicators of health expectancies, such as healthy life years (also called disability-free life expectancy) have been developed. These focus on the quality of life spent in a healthy state, rather than the quantity of life — as measured by life expectancy. Healthy life years are an important measure of the relative health of populations in the European Union (EU).
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
In 2014, the number of healthy life years at birth was estimated at 61.4 years for men and 61.8 years for women in the EU-28; this represented approximately 79 % and 74 % of total life expectancy for men and women.
The gender gap was considerably smaller in terms of healthy life years than it was for overall life expectancy
Life expectancy for women in the EU-28 was, on average, 5.5 years longer than that for men in 2014. However, most of these additional years tend to be lived with activity limitations. Indeed, the gender gap was considerably smaller in terms of healthy life years than it was for overall life expectancy — at just 0.4 years difference in favour of women in 2014. Men therefore tend to spend a greater proportion of their somewhat shorter lives free from activity limitations. The expected number of healthy life years at birth was higher for women than for men in 18 of the EU Member States, with the difference close to 4.0 years in Bulgaria and the Baltic Member States.
Across the EU Member States, life expectancy at birth for men in 2014 ranged between 69.1 years in Latvia and 80.9 years in Cyprus; a difference of 11.8 years. A similar comparison for women shows that the lowest level of life expectancy in 2014 was recorded in Bulgaria (78.0 years) and the highest in Spain (86.2 years); a range of 8.2 years. The corresponding range for healthy life years at birth for men was between 51.5 years in Latvia and 73.6 years in Sweden (22.1 years difference), while that for women was from 54.6 years in Slovakia to 74.3 years in Malta (19.7 years).
As such, it is clear that there are considerably wider differences between EU Member States in terms of the quality of life (health wise) that their respective populations may expect to live, when compared with the overall differences in the length of their lives. In 2014, men born in Germany could expect to live 72 % of their lives free from any activity limitation, a share that rose to as high as 91 % in Malta and 92 % in Sweden. In 2014, a woman born in Portugal could expect to live two thirds (66 %) of her life free from any limitation, a share that rose to 88 % in Sweden and Malta.
An analysis comparing healthy life years between the sexes at the age of 65 in 2014 shows that there were 12 EU Member States where men could expect more healthy life years than women; this was most notably the case in Cyprus and Portugal where men aged 65 could expect to live at least one year longer free from disability than women. By contrast, women could expect to live at least one year longer free from disability than men in Estonia, Sweden and Denmark.
Data sources and availability
Eurostat calculates information relating to healthy life years for three ages — at birth, at age 50 and at age 65 — with the indicator being presented separately for men and women. It is calculated using mortality statistics and data on self-perceived activity limitations. Mortality data come from Eurostat’s demographic database, while self-perceived activity limitations data come from a European health module that is integrated within the data collection EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC).
Self-perceived long-standing limitations in usual activities due to health problems
EU-SILC is documented in more detail in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.
The general coverage of EU-SILC is all private households and their members (who are residents at the time of data collection); this therefore excludes people living in collective households.
The relevant EU-SILC question is: 'For at least the past six months, to what extent have you been limited because of a health problem in activities people usually do? Would you say you have been:
- severely limited?
- limited but not severely?
- not limited at all?'
Limitations of the data
The indicator presented in this article is derived from self-reported data so it is, to a certain extent, affected by respondents’ subjective perception as well as by their social and cultural background.
EU-SILC does not cover the institutionalised population, for example, people living in health and social care institutions who are more likely to face limitations than the population living in private households. It is therefore likely that, to some degree, this data source under-estimates the share of the population facing limitations. Furthermore, the implementation of EU-SILC was organised nationally, which may impact on the results presented, for example, due to differences in the formulation of questions.
The health status of a population is difficult to measure because it is hard to define among individuals, populations, cultures, or even across time periods. As a result, the demographic measure of life expectancy has often been used as a measure of a nation’s health status because it is based on a characteristic that is simple and easy to understand — namely, that of death. Indeed, life expectancy at birth remains one of the most frequently quoted indicators of health status and economic development and it has risen rapidly in the last century due to a range of factors, including: reductions in infant mortality, rising living standards, improved lifestyles, better education, as well as advances in healthcare and medicine.
While most people are aware that successive generations are living longer, less is known about the health of the EU’s ageing population. Indicators on healthy life years introduce the concept of the quality of life, by focusing on those years that may be enjoyed by individuals free from the limitations of illness or disability. Chronic disease, frailty, mental disorders and physical disability tend to become more prevalent in older age, and may result in a lower quality of life for those who suffer from such conditions, while the burden of these conditions may also impact on healthcare and pension provisions.
Healthy life years also monitor health as a productive or economic factor. An increase in healthy life years is one of the main goals for EU health policy, given that this would not only improve the situation of individuals (as good health and a long life are fundamental objectives of human activity) but would also lead to lower public healthcare expenditure and would likely increase the possibility that people continue to work later into life. If healthy life years increase more rapidly than life expectancy, then not only are people living longer, but they are also living a greater proportion of their lives free from health problems.
In November 2010, the European Commission adopted a European disability strategy for the period 2010–20. For people with disabilities, this aims at improving their social inclusion, their well-being and enabling them to fully exercise their rights. The strategy is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. More information is available in an article on functional and activity limitations.
The European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing is a pilot scheme that aims — by 2020 — to increase the average healthy lifespan of EU citizens by two years, through: improving health and quality of life; ensuring health and social care systems are sustainable and efficient; and creating growth and market opportunities for business. This partnership involves cooperation between the European Commission, EU Member States, regions, industry, health and social care professionals and organisations representing older people and patients. It aims to improve older peoples’ lives, helping them to contribute to society, and reduce pressure on health and care systems — ultimately contributing to sustainable growth.
In February 2012, the European Commission adopted a Communication titled ‘Taking forward the strategic implementation plan of the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing’ (COM(2012) 83 final) which is designed to accelerate the pace of innovation in relation to healthy and active ageing.
- Self-perceived health
- Functional and activity limitations
- Mortality and life expectancy
- Causes of death
General health statistics articles
Further Eurostat information
- Health status (t_hlth_state), see:
- Healthy life years and life expectancy at birth, by sex (tsdph100)
- Healthy life years and life expectancy at age 65, by sex (tsdph220)
- Health status (hlth_state), see:
- Healthy Life Years (hlth_hly)
Methodology / Metadata
- Healthy life years (from 2004 onwards) (ESMS metadata file — hlth_hlye_esms)
- Methodology for the calculation of Eurostat’s demographic indicators
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- European Commission — Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety — Public Health — European Core Health Indicators (ECHI)
- European Commission — Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety — Public Health — Healthy life years
- European health & life expectancy information system (JA:EHLEIS)