Government expenditure on defence

Data extracted in March 2018. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: March 2019.

This article analyses data on general government expenditure on 'defence' (according to the Classification of the Functions of Government - COFOG). It is part of a set of statistical articles based on Government expenditure by function.

Eurostat collects data on general government expenditure by economic function according to the international Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) in the framework of the European System of National Accounts (ESA2010).

Figure 1: Total general government expenditure on defence, 2016 (% of GDP) - Source: Eurostat (gov_10a_exp), see country codes
Table 1: Total general government expenditure on defence, 2016 (% of GDP and % of total expenditure) - Source: Eurostat (gov_10a_exp), see country codes

Main statistical findings

Expenditure on 'defence'

In 2016, 'defence' expenditure amounted to 1.3 % of GDP for the EU-28. For the euro area, defence expenditure amounted to 1.2 % of GDP; with expenditure in both areas changing little in comparison with 2015. As a share of total expenditure, 'defence' expenditure amounted to 2.9 % in 2016 in the EU and 2.6 % in the euro area.

In 2016, the highest levels of total expenditure on defence in the EU and EFTA countries were observed in Estonia (2.4 % of GDP), followed by Greece (2.1 % of GDP), the United Kingdom (2.0 % of GDP) and France (1.8 % of GDP). In contrast, Ireland (0.3 % of GDP), Luxembourg (0.4 % of GDP), Malta and Austria ( both 0.6% of GDP) had comparatively low expenditure on defence. Iceland reported the lowest level of expenditure on defence, as it does not have a standing army (0.1 % of GDP and 0.1 % of total expenditure).

At the level of the EU-28, the major part of 'defence' expenditure is concentrated in the COFOG group 'military defence' (1.2 % of GDP in 2016). 'Civil defence', 'foreign military aid', 'R&D defence' and defence expenditure not elsewhere classified were reported to be less than 0.05 % of GDP at the level of the EU.

Research and development on defence made up a negligible part of government expenditure in all countries except the United Kingdom and France (both 0.1 % of GDP).

'Foreign military aid' amounted less than 0.0 % of GDP for the euro area, with notable amounts in Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland and Sweden (all at 0.1 % of GDP).

Expenditure on 'defence' by type of transaction

At the level of the EU-28, nearly half (46 %) of total expenditure on 'defence' in 2016 was devoted to 'compensation of employees', that is wages, salaries as well as employers' actual or imputed social contributions. 31 % was devoted to 'intermediate consumption' and 20 % to capital investments (such as new equipment).

Evolution of 'defence' expenditure over 2002-2016

At the level of the EU-28, slight decreases in the share of 'defence' expenditure compared to total expenditure were noted over 2002-2016 (2002: 1.5 % of GDP vs. 2016: 1.3 % of GDP), with the share in total expenditure dropping from 3.3 % in 2002 to 2.9 % in 2016.

Data sources and availability

Reporting of data to Eurostat

Annual government finance statistics (GFS) data are collected by Eurostat on the basis of the European System of Accounts (ESA2010) transmission programme. Member States are requested to transmit, among other tables, table 1100, 'Expenditure of general government by function' twelve months after the end of the reference period. Table 1100 provides information about expenditure of the general government sector divided into main COFOG functions and ESA2010 categories. The transmission of the COFOG I level breakdown (divisions) is compulsory for the years 1995 onwards, whereas information on the COFOG II level (COFOG groups) is provided on a compulsory basis for the reference years 2001 onwards. The main reference year used in this publication is 2016 as the latest year available for most countries.

Please note that in national accounts, military equipment expenditure is recorded on a delivery basis, implying that large changes in time of recording may be observed vis a vis public accounts, whatever their accrual basis.

Data was extracted on 8 March 2018.

Provisional data

Data for Spain (2016 only), France (2015-2016), the Netherlands (2016), Slovakia (COFOG level II only) are labelled provisional. Data for Portugal for 2014-2016 is labelled estimated.

Definition of general government and its subsectors

The data relate to the general government sector of the economy, as defined in ESA2010, paragraph 2.111: 'The general government sector (S.13) consists of institutional units which are non-market producers whose output is intended for individual and collective consumption, and are financed by compulsory payments made by units belonging to other sectors, and institutional units principally engaged in the redistribution of national income and wealth’.

Classification of functional expenditure of government

The Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) classifies government expenditure into ten main categories (divisions known as the 'COFOG I level' breakdown): general public services; defence; public order and safety; economic affairs; environmental protection; housing and community affairs; health; recreation, culture and religion; education; social protection. These divisions are further broken down into 'groups' (COFOG II level).

For 'defence', the groups are

  • 'military defence',
  • 'civil defence',
  • 'foreign military aid',
  • 'R&D defence',
  • 'defence n.e.c.'.

Further information is available in the Eurostat Manual on sources and methods for the compilation of COFOG Statistics.

COFOG level II data

The provision of COFOG level II data has become compulsory with the introduction of ESA2010. The development of COFOG level II data is not completed in many Member States and data needs to be looked at with this in consideration.

Satellite accounts and other measures

Administrative expenditure data is additionally collected in so-called satellite accounts. In general, the amount of expenditure recorded in satellite accounts is expected to exceed the expenditure recorded under the respective COFOG division. More details on the comparability of COFOG data with satellite accounts data can be found in the COFOG manual.

In particular, as regards defence expenditure, COFOG division 'defence' cannot be easily compared with NATO measures of defence expenditure. The main reasons are: COFOG is a classification by main purpose implying that some expenditure within COFOG 'public order and safety' might be counted under NATO methodology; the treatment of pensions in COFOG is within division 'social protection' and the COFOG treatment of employers' social contributions follows ESA2010 and the time of recording may be different.

Definition of general government total expenditure

Government total expenditure is defined in ESA2010, paragraph 8.100 by using as reference a list of ESA2010 categories.

Government total expenditure comprises the following categories:

  • P.2, 'intermediate consumption': the purchase of goods and services by government;
  • P.5, 'gross capital formation' consists of: (a) gross fixed capital formation (P.51g); (b) changes in inventories (P.52); (c) acquisitions less disposals of valuables (P.53); where
  • P.51g, 'gross fixed capital formation': consists of acquisitions, less disposals, of fixed assets during a given period plus certain additions to the value of non-produced assets realised by the productive activity of producer or institutional units. Fixed assets are tangible or intangible assets produced as outputs from processes of production that are themselves used repeatedly, or continuously, in processes of production for more than one year;
  • D.1, 'compensation of employees': the wages of government employees plus non-wage costs such as social contributions;
  • D.29, 'other taxes on production, payable',
  • D.3, 'subsidies, payable',
  • D.4, 'property income, payable', consists of : (a) 'interest, payable' (D.41) and (b) 'other property income, payable' (D.42+D.43+D.44+D.45), where
  • D.41, 'interest': excludes settlements under swaps and forward rate arrangements, as these are treated as financial transactions in the ESA 95;
  • D.5, 'current taxes on income, wealth, etc, payable';
  • D.62, social payments: cover social benefits and pensions paid in cash;
  • D.632, 'social transfers in kind - purchased market production';
  • D.7, 'other current transfers, payable';
  • D.8, 'adjustments for the change in pension entitlements'
  • D.9, 'capital transfers payable'
  • NP, 'acquisitions less disposals of non-financial non-produced assets': public investment spending. Non-financial non-produced assets consist of land and other tangible non-produced assets that may be used in the production of goods and services, and intangible non-produced assets.
  • Capital investments includes P.5 and NP.
  • Other current expenditure includes D.7, D.29, D.5 and D.8.

Gross Domestic Product

Throughout this publication, nominal GDP, i.e. GDP at current prices is used.

Time of recording & symbol

In the ESA2010 system, recording is in principle on an accrual basis, that is, when ‘economic value is created, transformed or extinguished, or when claims and obligations arise, are transformed or are cancelled.'

":" not available

"p" provisional

"pp" percentage points

More data and information

For more country-specific notes, e.g. on missing data, please refer to the metadata published on Eurobase. The authors can be contacted at ESTAT-GFS@ec.europa.eu

Context

In the framework of the European System of National Accounts (ESA2010), Eurostat collects data on general government expenditure by economic function according to the international Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) – see methodological note.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Main tables

Government statistics (t_gov)
Annual government finance statistics (t_gov_10a)

Database

Government statistics (gov)
Government finance statistics (EDP and ESA2010) (gov_gfs10)
Annual government finance statistics (gov_10a)
Government revenue, expenditure and main aggregates (gov_10a_main)
General government expenditure by function (COFOG) (gov_10a_exp)
Main national accounts tax aggregates (gov_10a_tax_ag)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata


Other information