Gender pay gap in unadjusted form - NACE Rev. 2 activity (earn_grgpg2)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit F3: Labour market

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 07/03/2017
2.2. Metadata last posted 07/03/2017
2.3. Metadata last update 07/03/2017


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG) represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. The GPG is calculated on the basis of:

- the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, and with the scope as required by the SES regulation,

 - national estimates based on national sources for the years between the SES years, from reference year 2007 onwards, with the same coverage as the SES.

Data are broken down by economic activity (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community - NACE), economic control (public/private) of the enterprise as well as working time (full-time/part-time) and age (six age groups) of employees. Data are released in February/March on the basis of information provided by national statistical institutes.

3.2. Classification system

The economic activity classification NACE Rev. 2 is used from reference year 2008 onwards. For previous reference years, up to 2007, data were also compiled using the previous economic activities classification (NACE Rev. 1.1) and are disseminated in a separate table (earn_grgpg1).

The time series in this table includes back-casted data for reference year 2007. They are only for information purposes, as a transition between the two classifications. For some countries, back-casting was not possible due to lack of detailed information at NACE 4-digit level. Nonetheless, data are available for all countries for the NACE Rev. 2 aggregates B to N, B to S and B to S without O which are of good and close approximation to NACE Rev. 1.1 aggregates C to K, C to O and C to O without L, respectively.  For more information on NACE, please consult: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-RA-07-015

3.3. Coverage - sector

Economic sections, according to NACE Rev. 2, from B to S where O is optional; only enterprises with 10 employees or more.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The GPG is calculated on the basis of:

- the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, and with the scope as required by the SES regulation,

- national estimates based on national sources for the years between the SES years, from reference year 2007 onwards, with the same coverage as SES,

according to the following definition: GPG = [(average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees - average gross hourly earnings of female paid employees) / average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees] expressed in %. Average earnings used for the GPG are calculated as arithmetic means.

The scope/coverage is as follows:

- aggregated sections B to S excluding O (the total B to S is optional) according to NACE Rev. 2, and if possible, individual sections (at 1 digit-level) from B to S where O is optional,

- only enterprises with 10 employees or more,

- no restrictions for age and hours worked,

- part-timers shall be included,

- gross hourly earnings shall include paid overtime and exclude non-regular payments.

Employees are all persons who have a direct employment contract with the enterprise or local unit and receive remuneration, irrespective of the type of work performed, the number of hours worked (full or part-time) and the duration of the contract (fixed or indefinite).

As an unadjusted indicator, the GPG gives an overall picture of the diffrences between men and women in terms of pay and measures a concept which is broader than the concept of equal pay for equal work. A part of the earnings difference can be explained by individual characteristics of employed men and women and by sectoral and occupational gender segregations.

The gender pay gap for the EU is calculated as the weighted mean of the gender pay gaps in EU Member States, where the numbers of employees in Member States are weights. The EU gender pay gap is calculated only for the aggregated sections B to S without O.

More statistical concepts and definitions relating to the SES are available in the reference metadata on the SES.

3.5. Statistical unit

Employee.

3.6. Statistical population

Employees in enterprises with 10 employees or more.

3.7. Reference area

The data cover EU Member States, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. EU aggregates are available for EU-28, EU-27 and Euro area.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Data are available from 2007 onwards. However, data for EU-28 are available from 2011 onwards and data for EU-27 and Euro area are available from 2008 onwards.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Percentages.


5. Reference Period Top

The reference year is equal to the calendar year, except for the UK in the case of which it is equal to the financial year (from 1 April to 31 March of the following calendar year).


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Whereas the Structure of Earnings Survey has the legal basis, namely regulations 530/1999 and 1738/2005, the GPG data collection is based only on a gentlemen's agreement.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Data are disseminated in February/March.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News release inlcuding the gender pay gap on the ocasion of the International Women's Day.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained article on gender pay gap statistics

Statistics Explained article on gender statistics

Development of econometric methods to evaluate the Gender pay gap using Structure of Earnings Survey data

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

The current methodology for the gender pay gap, based on the structure of earnings survey, was adopted at the 18-19 September 2006 meeting of the Directors of Social Statistics. At the Labour Market Statistics Working Group on 15-16 June 2009, it was agreed on providing further breakdowns (NACE Rev. 2 sections, economic control (public/private) and age classes). An outline of the methodology is provided in point 3 above.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

GPG data are based on the methodology of the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey, and Member States compile/estimate GPG data according to the rules and guidelines established in the SES methodology.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Any deviations from the definitions are reported by the countries and included in annex below.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

The main user of the GPG indicators is the European Commission, Directorate General for Justice responsible for gender equality policy. In 2011, the European Commission launched the European Equal Pay Day which is an annual event to raise awareness of a wage gap between women and men. A date of this event varies every year depending on the average EU gender pay gap. The data on the gender pay gap are also used by the other EU institutions and agencies (e.g., the European Parliament and the European Institute for Gender Equality), national governments, non-governmental organisations dealing with gender equality and media.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available.

12.3. Completeness

The data cover all Member States as well as Iceland and Norway. Some of the gaps in data are due to late data delivery by countries. Others are due to non-availability of information at country level.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not applicable.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Data is collected within 12 months from the end of the reference year.

14.2. Punctuality

Not applicable (data delivery based on a gentlemen's agreement).


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The common definitions and concepts are agreed to be used by the countries. Any deviations from the definitions are reported by the countries and included in annex below.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time improved substantially since the GPG is calculated on the basis of the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The GPG is calculated on the basis of the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, and with the scope as required by the SES regulation.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Not available.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

According to the methodology,  annual data are revised every four years when the data from the Structure of Earnings Survey become available.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Not applicable.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The GPG is calculated on the basis of the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, and estimated on the basis of national sources for the years between the SES years.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

The data are transmitted to Eurostat by the national statistical institutes.

18.4. Data validation

Plausibility checks are applied on the data submitted.

18.5. Data compilation

When compiling the EU aggregates, the gender pay gap is calculated as the weighted mean of the gender pay gaps in EU Member States, where the numbers of employees in Member States are weights.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


19. Comment Top

Not available.


Related metadata Top
earn_ses2010_esms - Structure of earnings survey 2010


Annexes Top
Annex with country-specific information