European Economy. Occasional Papers
Economic Policy Committee EPC
The structural challenges facing the candidate countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey) - A comparative perspective(308 kB)
(European Economy. Occasional Papers. 11. November 2004.
Brussels. 52pp. Tab. Free.)
KC-AH-04-011-EN-C ISBN: 92-894-8368 ISSN: 1725-3209
The economic gap between the EU and the three candidate countries, Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey, is significant. Living standards, as measured by GDP per capita at PPP, are less than one third of the level prevailing in the former EU-15 – and about half of the average level in the new Member States. Catching up with the rest of Europe in terms of income levels and productivity will thus be a very long-term process.