Mobility and Transport

Clean transport, Urban transport

Alternative fuels for sustainable mobility in Europe

Alternative fuels for sustainable mobility in Europe

Today, transport still relies on oil for 94% of its energy needs. Europe imports around 87% of its crude oil and oil products from abroad, with a crude oil import bill estimated at around €187 billion in 20155, and additional costs to the environment.

Research and technological development have led to successful demonstrations of alternative fuel solutions for all transport modes. Market take-up, however, requires additional policy action.

The Clean Power for Transport package aims to facilitate the development of a single market for alternative fuels for transport in Europe:

  • A Communication laying out a comprehensive European alternative fuels strategy [COM(2013)17], for the long-term substitution of oil as energy source in all modes of transport;
  • A proposal for a Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels recharging and refuelling infrastructure [COM(2013)18];
  • An accompanying Impact Assessment [SWD(2013)5];
  • A Staff Working Document setting out the needs in terms of market conditions, regulations, codes and standards for a broad market uptake of LNG in the shipping sector [SWD(2013)4].

The final Directive, as adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 29 September 2014 following the inter-institutional negotiations:

  • Requires Member States to develop national policy frameworks for the market development of alternative fuels and their infrastructure;
  • Foresees the use of common technical specifications for recharging and refuelling stations;
  • Paves the way for setting up appropriate consumer information on alternative fuels, including a clear and sound price comparison methodology.

The required coverage and the timings by which this coverage must be put in place is as follows:

Coverage

Timings

Electricity in urban/suburban and other densely populated areas

Appropriate number of publically accessible points

by end 2020

CNG in urban/suburban and other densely populated areas

Appropriate number of points

by end 2020

CNG along the TEN-T core network

Appropriate number of points

by end 2025

Electricity at shore-side

Ports of the TEN-T core network and other ports

by end 2025

Hydrogen in the Member States who choose to develop it

Appropriate number of points

by end 2025

LNG at maritime ports

Ports of the TEN-T core network

by end 2025

LNG at inland ports

Ports of the TEN-T core network

by end 2030

LNG for heavy-duty vehicles

Appropriate number of points along the TEN-T core network

by end 2025

Directive 2014/94/EU requires Member States to notify to the European Commission National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. To implement Article 10.2 of Directive 2014/94/EU, the Commission carried out an assessment of the NPFs and their coherence at Union level, including an evaluation of the level of attainment of the national targets and objectives referred to in Article 3 (1) of the Directive. The relevant Staff Working Document SWD/2017/0365 and the accompanying PDF iconMember States fiches were adopted by the Commission as part of the Clean Mobility Package (Mobility package II).

These documents did not include the assessment of the NPFs of Greece, Malta, Romania and Slovenia, due to either late submission or the need for translations that would have delayed the adoption procedure. The updated PDF iconCommission Report on the Assessment of the Member States National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure pursuant to Article 10 (2) of Directive 2014/94/EU includes the assessment of the NPFs of the above-mentioned Member States and an update of the overall assessment to reflect these new NPFs.

PDF iconAccompanying Member States fiches to the Commission’s assessment of the Member States National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure

Policy and other related documents

Clean fuels for transport: Member States now obliged to ensure minimum coverage of refuelling points for EU-wide mobility

EU launches clean fuel strategy

Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Summary of the Impact Assessment

Staff Working Document: Actions towards a comprehensive EU framework on LNG for shipping